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SIlic  39,  it  ii\ii  Xtbniru 

ZX'orth  (Carnliita  ^tatc  College 

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DESK.  /^ 

APR  1  B  1984 

OCT  1  01984 

APR  -  9  1986 

Digitized  by  tine  Internet  Arcliive 

in  2010  witli  funding  from 

NCSU  Libraries 


)iiiL:»^2.   « 









-V".  43,  St.  Martin's  Lane,  London. 





BRICK     AND      TILE      MAKING 








By   F.    WALKER 

.      smith  ohtx  %^o  ISttuireb  ani)  Stbtxxt^  iiiustratwns 







PART   I. 


By  EDWAED  DOBSON,   A.I.C.E.,   etc. 

\  Q>  "o  O 


ON    THE    MAXUfACTt'RE    OF 



By  EDWARD  DOBSON,   A.I.C.E.,   M.I.BA. 

AUTnOR    OP    "the    art    op    BtllLDrMG,"    "MASONRY    AND    STO;<K-CUTTI-\0," 




SHith  numerous  illustrations 





The  preparation  of  this  little  work  has  necessarily  es. 
tended  over  a  considerable  period  of  time,  and,  although 
our  limits  preclude  anything  like  an  attempt  at  a  com- 
plete view  of  the  principles  and  practice  of  Brick- 
making,  it  will  be  found  to  contain  much  practical 
information  which  has  never  yet  been  published,  and 
descriptions  of  processes  which  are  little  known  be- 
yond the  localities  where  they  are  practised.  The 
whole  of  the  illustrations  have  been  drawn  expressly 
for  the  work,  and  the  descriptions  of  tools  and  pro- 
cesses have  been  written  from  personal  observation, 
no  dependence  having  been  placed  on  verbal  descrip- 
tion, even  by  experienced  workmen.  Working  brick- 
makers  are  mostly  illiterate  men,  imable  to  describe 
correctly  their  own  operations,  and  still  less  to  explain 
their  meaning.  I  have  therefore  considered  it  necessary 
to  have  every  process  here  described  carefully  watched 
throughout,  either  by  myseK  or  by  some  one  on  whose 
accuracy  of  observation  I  coidd  place  dependence. 

In  the  course  of  last  autumn  I  drew  up  several  papers 
of  questions,  embracing  a  variety  of  points  on  which  it 
was  found  difl&cult  to  obtain  correct  information,  but 
which  were  distributed  amongst  those  of  my  friends 
who  were  likely  to  have  opportunities  of  ascertaining 
what  was  required. 


iv  THE  author's  PREFACE. 

Many  of  these  papers  in  course  of  time  were  returned, 
accompanied  by  valuable  details,  and  I  have  to  express 
my  thanks  and  obligations  to  many  gentlemen  per- 
sonally unknown  to  me  for  the  assistance  thus  afforded. 
i\jnongst  those  from  whom  I  have  received  valuabio 
assistance  during  the  progress  of  the  work,  I  may 
especially  mention  the  names  of  Mr.  Arthur  Aikin ; 
Mr.  John  Lees  Brown,  of  Lichfield ;  Mr.  William 
Booker,  of  Nottingham ;  Mr.  Richard  Prosser,  of  Bir- 
mingham ;  and  Mr.  Frederick  Ransome,  of  Ipswich. 

Mr.  Richard  Prosser  has  kindly  contributed  a  valuable 
accoimt  of  the  practice  of  Brickmaking  in  Stafford- 
shire, which  will  be  read  with  much  interest,  and  it  will 
be  worth  the  reader's  while  to  compare  the  processes 
described  in  this  chapter  with  those  made  use  of  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  iN'ottingham,  described  in  Chapter  III. 

The  details  given  in  Appendix  I.  respecting  the  manu- 
facture of  Suffolk  bricks  Mere  Idndly  furnished  by  Mr. 
Frederick  Ransomc,  to  vv'hom  I  am  also  indebted  for 
drawings  of  a  Suffolk  kiln,  which  were  intended  by 
him  as  a  contribution  to  the  work,  but  which,  un- 
fortunately, were  committed  to  the  post  for  transmis- 
sion, and  never  reached  their  destination. 

In  collecting  the  information  requisite  for  writing  the 
accounts  of  Brickmaking  and  Tilemaking  as  practised 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  London,  I  am  under  great  obli- 
gations to  Mr.  Adams  and  ^Ir.  Itandcll,  of  the  Maiden 
Lane  Tileries,  and  to  Mr.  Samuel  Pocock,  of  the  Cale- 
donian Fields,  Islington,  for  the  kindness  with  which 
they  afforded  me  facilities  for  inspecting  and  sketching 
their  works,  and  for  the  liberal  manner  in  ^hich  they 
furnished  me  with  details  of  prices  and  quantities. 

Although  much  time  and  pains  have  been  bestowed 
upon  the  work,  there  is  so  much  difficulty  in  writing  o 


strictly  accurate  account,  even  of  a  simple  operation,  that 
I  cannot  hope  that  it  is  perfectly  free  from  errors ;  but  I 
trust  that  they  are  only  of  a  trivial  nature,  and  I  shall 
be  greatly  obliged  to  any  reader  who  will  point  out  any 
omissions  or  mis-statements,  that  I  may  be  able  to 
correct  them  in  a  future  edition. 

There  has  long  been  a  want  of  rudimentary  treatises 
on  the  Materials  of  Construction,  published  in  a  cheap 
form,  and  written  in  a  simple  and  practical  style, 
divested  of  scientific  technicalities,  which  render  such 
books  nearly  useless  to  those  by  whom  they  are  most 
needed.  I  venture  to  express  a  hope  that  this  work  may 
be  of  service  in  supplying  this  deficiency  with  regard  to 
one  very  important  class  of  building  materials.  At  the 
same  time  it  must  be  observed  that  the  Science  of  Brick- 
making  is  as  yet  untrodden  ground,  comparatively  little 
being  known  of  the  manner  in  which  different  sub- 
stances mutually  act  upon  each  other  when  exposed  to 
furnace  heat,  or  of  the  relative  proportions  of  silica, 
alumina,  lime,  and  other  usual  ingredients  of  brick- 
earths,  which  are  best  calculated  to  produce  a  sound, 
well-shaped  brick,  of  a  pleasing  colour.  All  that  I  have 
attempted  here,  therefore,  is  to  give  a  clear  description 
of  the  actual  manufacture  of  bricks  and  tiles,  and  to 
explain  the  leading  difierences  which  exist  in  the  manner 
of  conducting  the  several  operations  of  Brickmaking  iu 
various  parts  of  this  country.  How  far  I  have  succeeded 
in  this  attempt  the  reader  alone  can  determine. 



This  work  was  revised  by  Professor  Tomlinson  in  1863, 
and  some  matter  become  useless  by  time  and  the  altera- 
tion of  the  Excise  laws  judiciously  expunged.  A  chapter 
was  at  the  same  time  appended  on  making  bricks  by 
machinery,  but  since  that  period  many  improvements 
and  new  inventions  have  necessitated  a  supplemental 
chapter,  in  which  the  editor  has  endeavoured  to  give 
an  outline  of  that  part  of  the  subject  reaching  to  the 
present  day.  lie  has  also  added  a  sketch  of  that  which 
was  properly  called  by  the  author  of  the  work  the  Science 
of  Brickmaking.  A  few  notes,  revising  the  text  gene- 
rally, will  be  found  in  the  Appendix,  and  to  which  the 
alphabetical  index  now  given  affords  easy  reference. 

Though  small  and  elementary,  this  work  may  pro- 
bably claim  to  be  the  most  complete  upon  its  siibjcct 
in  the  English  language. 


Auyu:t,  IStiJJ. 


ti.B.  —  Th'  Xicibcis  refer  to  the  Farar/rapJis  and  mt  to  (he  prtgcs,  except 
tchcre  otherwise  stated. 

INTRODUCTION  (Pages  1-12.) 

I.  Early  history  of  the  art  -would  not  add  to  our  practical  know- 
ledge, li.  Burnt  brick  used  in  the  building  of  the  Tower  of  Babel ;  in 
the  walls  of  Babylon ;  both  biuiat  and  sun-dried  bricks  used  in  ancient 
Egypt.  III.  Bricks  extensively  used  by  the  Romans  ;  the  art  of  brick- 
making  abandoned  at  the  decline  of  the  Roman  Empire ;  subsequently 
revived  in  the  middle  ages.  IV.  Early  and  extensive  use  of  bricks  in 
Holland  and  the  Netherlands.  V.  Brickmaking  introduced  into  England 
by  the  Romans ;  arrived  at  great  perfection  at  the  time  of  Henry  VIII. ; 
only  used  for  large  mansions  in  the  time  of  Queen  Elizabeth.  VI.  Brick 
generally  introduced  as  a  building  material  in  London  after  the  great  fire 
of  1666;  many  fine  specimens  of  brickwork  still  extant,  executed  at  the 
beginning  of  the  18th  century.  VII.  Enumeration  of  the  duties  suc- 
cessively imposed  upon  bricks  and  tiles ;  abolition  of  the  distinction 
between  common  and  dressed  bricks,  by  2nd  and  3rd  Vict.  c.  24.  VIII. 
The  new  act  a  great  boon  to  the  public.  IX.  Nimiber  of  bricks  uiade 
yearly  in  Great  Britain.  X.  Differences  in  the  processes  employed  in 
brickinaking  in  differents  parts  of  England.  XI.  Average  strength  of 
various  kinds  of  bricks.  XII.  Comparison  between  the  crushing  strength 
cf  hand-made  and  machine-made  bricks. 



I.  Bricks.  (Pago  12.) 

1.  Classification  of  the  various  operations  of  the  bnckmaker. 

Peepaeation  of  Brick-eaeth.  (Pages  12 — 2b.) 

2.  Enumeration  of  qualities  to  be  aimed  at  in  making  bricks.  3.  Suc- 
cess depends  principally  on  the  selection  and  preparation  of  brick-earth. 
4.  Br'ck-carths  may  be  divided  into  three  principal  classes;  viz.,  pure 
clays,  marls,  and  loams  ;  few  earths  fit  for  brickmaking  without  some 



mixtui-c.  5.  ^Vlumina  the  principal  ingredient  in  britk-carth ;  cracka 
in  drying,  after  being  moulded,  and  will  not  stand  firing ;  necessary  to 
add  sand  to  strong  claj's,  to  diminish  their  contraction ;  lime  and  sifted 
orecze  used  near  London  for  the  same  purpose.  6.  Composition  of  firo 
clay;  mode  of  making  the  Dinas  fire  brick.  7.  Fire  clay  generally 
mixed  with  burnt  clay,  broken  crucibles,  &c.  8.  Enumeration  of  prin- 
cipal localities  where  fire  bricks  are  made  ;  relative  cost  of  Windsor, 
Welch,  and  Stourbridge  fire  bricks.  9.  Bricks  made  of  refractory  clay, 
ia/iYf^  rather  than  burnt.  10.  Composition  of  fusible  earths.  11.  London 
bricks  not  made  of  clay,  but  of  loams  and  marls.  12.  Bricks  may  be 
divided  into  two  classes,  hahccl  and  hurnt ;  difficulties  in  treating  the 
fusible  earths.  13.  Catting  bricks  made  from  sandy  loams,  eitlicr  natural 
or  artificial.  14.  Colour  depends  not  on  the  natural  colour  of  the  clay, 
but  upon  its  chemical  composition.  15.  Bricks  might  be  made  of  various 
colours  by  the  employment  of  metallic  oxides.  16.  Floating  bricks. 
17.  Unsoiliug.  18.  Clay  digging  and  iceathering.  19.  Stones  must  be 
picked  out  by  hand  ;  injurious  effect  of  limestone  in  the  clay.  20.  Grind- 
ing. 21.  IFashing.  22.  Cutters  made  of  washed  earth  mixed  with  sand. 
23.  Sufficient  attention  not  generally  paid  to  the  preparation  of  brick- 

Temperi^-o.  (Pages  25—28.) 

24.  Object  of  tempering  ;  is  effected  in  various  ways  ;  treading,  grind- 
ing,  pugging,      2-5.   Briclcmaking  on  the  Nottingham  and  Grantham 

railway.     26.  Use  of  the  pug-mill. 

MouLDiNO.  (Pages  28—35.) 

27.  Slop  moulding  and  pallet  moulding.  28.  Description  of  sli)p 
moulding.  29.  Description  of  pallet  moulding.  30.  Description  of 
moulding  table.  31.  Brick  moulds,  their  varieties.  32.  Diiferenee  in 
rate  of  production  per  stool,  according  to  the  process  employed.  33.  Slop 
and  pallet  moulding  sometimes  combined.  34.  Moulding  by  machinery. 
35.  Disadvantages  of  dense  bricks.  36.  Method  invented  by  Mr.  Prosscr 
of  moulding  in  the  dry  state.  37.  Defects  of  pressed  bricks.  38.  Dif- 
ficulties in  making  moulded  bricks,  arising  from  warping  in  the  kiln. 
39.  Dimensions  of  bricks.  40.  Bricks  made  of  various  shapes  in  country 
yards,  but  not  generally  in  London.  41.  Bricks  with  hollow  beds. 
42.  Ventilating  bricks. 

Drying.  (Pages  35—38.) 

43.  Slop-moulded  bricks  dried  on  flats,  and  liacked  under  cover. 
44.  Bricks  hacked  in  the  open  air  where  brickmaking  is  conducted  on  a 
large  scale.  45.  Clamp  bricks  hacked  at  once,  and  not  dried  on  flats. 
46.  Recapitulation  of  differences  between  slop  moulding  and  pallet 
mouldirg.     47.  Different  clays  require  different  treatment. 

BunNiNO.  (Pages  38—42.) 

48.  Bricks  burnt  in  clamps  and  in  /ciliis.  49.  Peculiarities  of  clamp 
burning.  50.  Three  classes  of  kilns.  51.  Management  of  a  kiln. 
52.  Impossible  in  a  rudimentary  tix'atisc  to  describe  all  the  proecssei> 


II.  Tiles.  (Pages  42— 47.) 

53.  Differences  in  the  manufacture  of  bricks  and  tiles,  54.  Three 
classes  of  tiles,  viz.,  paving  (tics,  roofing  tiles,  and  draining  tiles.  55, 
Business  of  a  tilery  includes  the  making  of  pottery.  56.  Tiles  burnt  ia 
the  countiy  together  with  bricks ;  in  London  in  separate  kihis.  57.  Drain- 
ing-tiles  principally  moulded  by  machinery.  58.  Importance  of  making 
di-ain  tiles  a  /lome  manufaeture.     59.  Concluding  observations. 



I.   Bricks.  (Pages  47— 48.) 

Bricks  extensively  used  in  Ilolland. — Dutch  clinkers  made  at  Moor, 
near  Gouda.  —  Materials  for  making  them; — river  slime  and  sand; 
localities  from  whence  obtained. — For  Flemish  bricks  the  sand  is  brought 
from  the  river  Scheldt. — The  slime  and  sand  are  mixed  and  kneaded 
together  by  treading. — Dimensions  of  paving  bricks  and  Dutch  clinlvs. — 
House  bricks  and  tiles  made  at  Utrecht  from  brick-earth  formd  in  the 
neiKhbourhood. — Dimensions  of  house  bricks. 

II.    Brick-kilns.  (Pages  48 — 51.) 

Sometimes  made  to  burn  upwards  of  a  million  of  bricks. — Fii'c  holes 
left  in  the  side  walls. — Doorway  made  in  the  breadth  of  the  kiln. — Sheds 
erected  on  each  side  of  the  kiln  to  shelter  the  fii'es.— ^Mode  of  setting  the 
kiln. — Mode  of  filing. 

III.    Tiles.  (Page  52.) 

Varieties  of  tiles  made  in  Ilolland. — Clay  ground  in  a  pug-mill. — 
Kueaded  by  women  before  moulding. — Two  moulders,  viz.,  a  rough 
moulder  and  a  finisher. — Tiles  diied  tirst  in  sheds  and  afterwards  in  the 
sun. — Moulding  of  flat  paving  tiles. — Iron  moulds  used  in  Switzerland. 

IV,    TiLE-KiLNS.  (Pages  53—55.) 

Tiles  burnt  in  covered  kilns  with  arched  furnaces. — Setting. — Burn- 
ing.— Cooling. — Mode  of  giving  a  grey  colour. — Glazing. — Utrecht  the 
principal  seat  of  the  tile  manufactui-e. — Gouda  celebrated  for  pottery  and 




(Pages  55—59.) 

1.  Peculiarities  in  manufacture  of  bricks  near  Nottingham.  2.  Use 
of  brass  moulds  not  confined  to  Nottingham.  3.  Object  of  crmhiiig  the 
brick-earth  between  rollers.  4.  Advantages  and  disadvantages  of  the 
use  of  rollers.  5.  Description  of  brickmaking  at  Nottingham  applies, 
^vith  slight  variations,  to  the  practice  of  the  neighbouring  counties. 
6.  Brick-earth  from  the  marls  of  the  new  red  sandstone ;  abounds  with 
layers  of  skerry  and  veins  of  gypsum.  7.  Colour  of  Nottingham  bricks. 
8.  Common  bricks  made  without  picking  the  clay.  9.  Preparation  of 
clay  for  making  front  bricks.  10.  ilanufacture  of  rubbers.  11.  Clay 
at  Nottingham  not  generally  suited  for  making  roofing  tiles.  1 2.  Size 
of  old  and  modem  bricks. 

General  Arrangemext  or  .\  Brickwork. 

(Pages  59—80.) 

13.  Locality  of  existing  yards.  14.  Eental  and  cost  of  clay.  15.  Ar- 
rangement of  buildings.  16.  Description  of  clay-mill.  17.  Addition  of 
a  setond  set  of  rollers  a  great  improvement.  18.  Keference  to  engravings 
of  clay-mill ;  mode  of  boxing  up  the  machinery.  19.  Improvement  to 
conceal  machinery.  20.  Duty  performed.  21.  Length  of  time  a  clay- 
mill  will  remain  in  working  condition.  22.  Description  of  Wash-mill. 
23.  The  PMi7-»ii7/ not  used  at  Nottingham.  2\.  Moulding  sand.  25.  Mould- 
ing table,  description  of.  26.  Brick  mould,  description  of.  27.  Use  of 
copper  moulds  confined  to  small  articles.  28.  Mould  placed  on  the 
moulding  table  and  not  upon  a  stock-boaid.  29.  Plane,  description  of. 
30.  The  Flats,  how  prepared;  size  of.  31.  The  Hovel,  description  of; 
sometimes  provided  with  flues.  32.  Best  bricks  dried  wholly  under  cover 
in  fined  hovels.  33.  The  Clapper,  description  of;  use  of.  34.  Dressing 
bench  and  dresser.  35.  Machinery  for  pressing  bricks ;  points  to  be 
attained  in  making  machinery.  36.  Machine-pressed  bricks  cheaper  than 
those  dressed  by  hand.  37.  Kiln,  detailed  description  of.  38.  Difierent 
mode  of  constructing  the  walls.  39.  Comparison  of  the  two  moth -ids. 
40.  Reference  to  engravings.  41.  Stops  to  the  tops  of  the  kilns.  42.  Sizes 
of  kilns.     43.  Duration  of  kilns. 

Process  of  Brickmaking.  (Pages  80 — 87.) 

44.  Claij  dinging.  A5.  Tempering.  46.  Cost  of.  47.  J/omWi'w^,  descrip- 
tion of  process.  48.  Drying ;  laying  on  flats;  hacking.  49.  Time 
that  should  be  allowed  for  drying'.  50.  Cost  of  mouldimg  and  drying. 
51.  Tressed  bricks.  [2.  Folishcd  bricks.  63.  Size  of  brick-moulds. 
54.  Rate  of  production.  55.  Burning;  management  of  the  firing. 
56.  Cost  of  fuel.  57.  Effect  of  the  fire  upon  the  colour  of  the  bricks. 
58.  Cost  of  setting  and  drawing  the  kiln.  59.  Cost  of  labour  in  firing. 
60.  Enumeration  of  the  varieties  of  britksvare  manufactured  at  Not- 


Cost  of  MAxrFAcrvRE.  (Pages  S7— 94.) 

61.  Land  and  brick-earth  ;  difficulty  of  estimating  rental ;  cost  of  clay. 
62.  Buildings  and  machinery ;  difficijlty  of  ascertaining  best  relative 
sizes  of  \rorking  floors,  horels,  and  kilns.  63.  Approximate  estimate  of 
extent  of  buildings  and  plant  required  for  a  weekly  production  of  46,800. 
64.  Additional  biiildings  required  in  a  yard,  where  all  kinds  of  brickware 
are  made.  65.  Enumeration  of  iooJs  required.  66.  labour,  how  paid 
for.  67.  Summary  of  cost  of  production.  68.  Eelatire  value  of  dif- 
ferent qualities  of  bricks.     69.  Seferenre  to  Ulustiationa,  figs.  1  to  18. 


POTTERIES.     BY   R.    PROSSER,   C.E. 

Bricks.  (Pages  95—96.) 

1.  ^/-iV^-s  ;  enumeration  of  kinds  of  brick  manufactured.  2.  Drab  bricka 
chiefly  used  for  furnace  work.  3.  Tiles.  4.  Clay.  5.  Xames  of  strata 
in  the  pottery  district.  6.  Two  examples  given  of  the  process  of  brick 
and  tile  making. 

First  Example — Brick:xiaki>"g.     (Pages  97 — 101.) 

7.  Buildings  and  plant.  8.  Hates  of  production.  9.  Tempering.  10. 
Moulding.  11.  Drying.  12.  Loss  of  weight  whilst  drying.  13.  Burn- 
ing.    14.  Cost  of  manufacture.     15.  Rental. 

Desckiptiok  of  Illistratioxs.    (Pages  102 — 105.) 

16.  Clay-null.  17.  Moulding  table.  18.  Brick  mould.  19.  The  oven 
or  cupola. 

Second  Example — TiLE->LVK.rxG.  (Pages  105 — 111.) 

20.  Enumeration  of  articles  made  at  Basford.  21.  Weathering  and 
tempering.  22.  Moulding.  23.  Drying.  24.  The  Set.  25.  Quarries  and 
Dust  Bricks.  26.  Drain  tilei.  27.  Tile  machines.  28.  Tiring;  detailed 
description  of.     29.  Selling  prices  of  difi"erent  articles. 

Descriptiox  of  IllvstpvAtioxs.     (Pages  111 — 117.) 

30.  Moulding  bench.  31.  Mode  of  drying  tiles.  32.  Tile-block  and 
horse.  33.  Mode  of  setting  lower  part  of  oven.  34.  Mode  of  setting 
upper  part  of  oven.  35.  Desirability  of  improving  the  mode  of  conduct- 
ing the  manufacture  of  bricks.  36.  Expense  of  carriage.  37.  Analysis 
of  clays,  &c. 


Bbicsuakcco  on  the  Socth  Stajtokdsbibe  Railway. 

(Pages  117—119.) 

38.  Bricks  made  for  this  line  Ly  Mr.  George  Bro\m,  of  "Walsall  Wood. 
— Material  not  clay,  but  marl. — Description  of  strata. — Description  0/ 
processes  employed.-— Cost  of  bricks  at  the  kiln. 



(Page  119.) 

1.  Subject  divided  into  three  heads. 

I.  ^L\TERiALS  ANT)  Plaxt.       (Poges  119—133.) 

2.  Brick -earth  divided  into  three  qualities.  Z.  Strong  clay.  i.  Loom. 
b.  MaJin.  6.  Different  modes  of  preparation.  7.  Object  of  adding  chalk. 
8.  Soil.  9.  Sand.  10.  General  arrangement  of  a  BricJitcork.  11.  ChaLt 
and  Clay  MU!s.  12.  The  Fuo-mUl.  13.  The'CuckhoM.  14.  The  Mould- 
ing Stool.  \o.  The  Brick  Mould.  \^.  The  Stock-board.  \1.  The  Strike 
and  Pallets.     18.  Tlu  Hack  Barrow.     19.  The  Sack  Ground. 

II.  Process  of  ^Iaxvpactciie.    (Pages  138 — 158.) 

20.  Claij  digging.  21.  Quantity  of  clay  rcqiiired  per  1,000.  22. 
Maiming.  23.  Soiling.  24.  Tempering.  25.  Tugging.  26.  Moulding. 
27.  Hacking.  28.  Clamping,  requires  skill.  29.  General  principles  of. 
30.  Foundation.  31.  Upright.  32.  Xecks.  33.  Firing.  34.  Breeze. 
35.  Proportion  required  depends  on  the  nature  of  the  clay.  36.  Time 
allowed  for  burning.  3".  Upright  and  Outside.  38.  Variations  in  the 
mode  of  clamping.  39.  Table  of  the  qualities  and  prices  of  bricks  made 
for  the  London  market.  40.  Brickmaking  at  Chtshunt.  41.  Brick- 
making  practised  generally  all  round  London. 

III.  Cost  of  Maxtfacttbe.  (Page  150.) 

42.  Cost  divided  imdcr  three  heads. 

43.  Clay.     44.  atnJk.     45.  Sand.     46.  Brceu.     47.  SoU.     48.  Coalt 
and  icood.     49.   Water. 

Matebuls  a>d  Fuel.  (Pages  159—161.) 

.     45.  Sand.     46.  Brceu.  47.  Soil.    48.  Coalt 

3Iachi>iby  and  Tools.  (Page  161.) 
50.  Cost  of  plant. 

Labour.  (Page  162.) 
61.  Details  of  cost. 

CONTENTS.  xiii 


Northern  Eatlway.  (Pages  162 — 164.) 
Description  of  rollers,  drying  sheds,  and  kilns. 

Reference  to  Illustrations.  (Pages  164— 1G7.) 
52  to  59.  Description  of  figures  1  to  21. 



Introductory.  (Pages  167 — 169.) 

1.  The  present  chapter  confined  to  a  description  of  the  manufacture  of 
pantiles.     2.  List  of  principal  articles  made  at  the  London  Tileries. 

Buildings  and  Plant.  (Pages  170 — 183.) 

3.  Pug-mill.  4.  Sling.  5.  The  Moulding  Shed.  6.  The  Pantile  Table. 
7.  The  Block  and  Stock-hoard.  8.  The  Tile  Mould.  9.  The  Poll. 
10.  The  Washing-off  Table.  11.  The  Splager.  12.  The  Thwacking 
Frame.     13.  The  Tile  Kiln. 

Process  of  Manufacture.       (Pages  183 — 186.) 

14.  Clay  getting  and  weathering.  15.  Tempering.  16.  Slinging. 
17.  Moulding.     18.  Thwacking.     19.  Kilning. 

Cost  of  Manufacture.        (Pages  186 — 188.) 

;ost.     21.  Selling  prices.     22.  Differe 
le  manufacture  of  various  articles. 

23.  Description  of  Illustrations.     (Pages  188 — 189.) 

20.  Tabular  view  of  cost.     21.  Selling  prices.     22.  Differences  in  the 
processes  employed  in  the  manufacture  of  various  articles. 



(Pages  189—191.: 

1.  Eevival  of  the    manufacture  of  encaustic  tiles.     2.   Difficultk's 
ariaing  from  the  unequal  shrinkage  of  differently-coloured  clays. 

Process  of  Manufacture.       (Pages  191 — 195.) 

3.  Clay.     4.  Moulding.    5.  Inlaying.    6.  Drying,  firing,  and  glazing. 
7.  Manufactui-e  of  tcssercc.     8.  Tessclated  pavements. 



MACHEN'ERi'.  (Pages  195—209.) 

Object  to  deal  with  principles  rather  than  with  minute  details.  Various 
patents  for  making  tricks  by  machinery.  Description  of  Oates's  brick- 
making  machine.  Crushing  strength  of  bricks  made  by  this  machine. 
Machine  can  utilise  materials  unser^-iceable  to  the  haind  brickmaker. 
Cost  of  machine.  Description  of  drain-pipe  making  machine.  Hollow 
bricks  also  made  by  it.    Various  forms  of  hollow  bricks. 


BY  MACHINERY.  (Pages  210-244) 

By  Robert  Mallet,  A.M.,  F.E.S. 

Improvements  in  brickmaking  since  1863.  'Wliitehead's  improved  clay 
cnishing  and  grinding  roller-mill.  Whitehead's  pug-mill.  Whitehead's 
perforated  pug-mill.  Portable  clay-mill.  Composite  machines,  in  which 
crushing  rollers  and  horizontal  pug-nuUs  are  combined.  Brickmaking 
machines,  by  Whitehead,  M.  Jardin,  Clayton  &  Co.  Machine  for 
working  with  plastic  clay.  Brick-pressing  machines,  by  Longley, 
Whitehead,  and  Bradley  and  Craven.  Dry-clay  brickmaking  machines, 
by  Hersiy  and  Walsh,  Bradley  and  Craven,  and  Wilson  of  Campbell- 
field.  Tile-making  machines,  by  Page  &  Co.,  and  Whitehead.  Hoffiuann'a 


By  Charles  Tomlinson,  F.R.S. 

(Pages  245— 261. ^ 

On  the  plasticity  and  odour  of  clay.  On  diying  bricks.  On  the  use  ol 
ccal-dust  in  making  clamp  bricks.  Brickmaking  at  Great  Grimsby. 
Brickmaking  in  Suffolk.     On  the  making  and  burning  of  drain-tiles. 


By  Rofert  Mallet,  A.M.,  F.R.S. 

(Pages  262—272.) 

The  science  of  brickmaking.  CJoloured  bricks.  Infusorial  sUiceoui 
materials.  Plasticity  and  odour  of  clay.  Water  chemically  combined  o< 
mechanically  present. 




I.  It  would  1)6  impossible,  in  a  little  volume  like  the 
present,  to  enter  at  any  length  upon  the  early  history 
of  the  Art  of  Brickmaking,  nor  would  such  an  investi- 
gation, however  interesting  in  a  historical  point  of  view, 
add  much  to  our  practical  knowledge  of  the  subject. 
It  is,  however,  desii'able  that  we  should  give  a  few  par- 
ticulars relative  to  the  progress  of  the  manufacture  in 
this  country ;  and  we  propose  at  the  same  time  to  give 
a  brief  sketch  of  the  legal  restrictions  which  have  been 
imposed  from  time  to  time  upon  the  mode  of  conduct- 
ing the  operations  of  the  brickmaker. 

II.  The  use  of  brick  as  a  building  material,  both  burnt 
and  unburnt,  dates  from  a  very  early  period.  Burnt 
brick  is  recorded  in  the  Bible  to  have  been  used  in  the 
erection  of  the  tower  of  Babel ;  and  we  have  the  testi- 
mony of  Herodotus  for  the  fact,  which  is  confirmed  by 
the  investigations  of  travellers,  that  burnt  bricks,  made 
from  the  clay  thrown  out  of  the  trench  surrounding 



the  cityj  were  used  in  building  the  walls  of  tlie  city  of 
Babylon.  These  very  ancient  bricks  were  of  three 
kinds ;  one  of  which  was  very  similar  to  the  modern 
Avhitc  Sufiblk  bricks^  and  another  to  the  ordinary  red 
brick  of  the  present  day. 

Sun-dried  bricks  were  extensively  used  in  ancient 
times,  especially  in  Egypt,  where  their  manufacture 
was  considered  a  degrading  employment,  and,  as  such^ 
formed  the  principal  occupation  of  the  Israelites  during 
their  bondage  in  Egypt  after  the  death  of  Joseph.  Yery 
interesting  ancient  representations  of  the  processes 
employed  are  still  in  existence,  and  throw  much  light 
on  various  passages  of  Scripture.  Thus,  the  passage 
in  Psalm  Ixxxi.  C,  '^I  removed  his  shoulder  from  the 
burden;  his  hands  were  delivered  from  the  (ivater) 
pots,"  is  strikingly  illustrated  by  pictures  still  preserved 
to  us,  in  Avhich  labourers  are  carrying  the  tempered 
clay  on  their  shoulders  to  the  moulders,  whilst  others 
are  engaged  in  carrying  vessels  of  water  to  temper  the 
clay.  The  Egyptian  sun-dried  bricks  were  made  with 
clay  mixed  with  chopped  straw,  which  was  furnished  to 
the  Israelites  by  their  Egyptian  taskmasters  before  the 
application  of  Moses  to  Pharaoh  on  their  behalf,  after 
which  the  obligation  was  laid  on  them  to  provide  their 
own  straw,  which  appears  to  have  been  a  grievous  addi- 
tion to  their  labour.  It  would  appear  from  the  details 
given,  that  the  Israelites  worked  in  gangs,  under  the 
superintendence  of  an  overseer  of  their  own  nation, 
who  was  provided  with  all  necessary  tools  and  mate- 
rials, and  who  was  personally  responsible  for  the  labour 
of  the  gangs. 

Burnt  bricks  were,  howererj  also  used  in  Egypt  for 
river  walls  and  hydraulic  works,  but,  probably,  not  to 
any  very  great  extent. 


It  is  recorded  in  2  Samuel  xii.  31.  that  David  put 
tlie  cliildren  of  Ammon  under  saws^  and  harrow s^  and 
axes  of  iron,  and  made  them  pass  through  the  brick- 
kiln :  without  entering  on  the  question  whether  the 
Ammonites  were  made  to  labour  in  the  brickfields  as 
the  Israelites  had  themselves  previously  done  during 
the  time  of  their  bondage  in  Egypt,  or  whether  we  are 
to  understand  that  they  were  put  to  death  with  horrible 
tortures,  as  supposed  by  most  commentators,  there  is 
a  strong  presumption  that  the  implements  here  spoken 
of  in  connection  with  the  brick-kiln  were  employed  in 
the  preparation  of  the  clay ;  and  if  this  view  be  correct, 
the  passage  is  interesting  as  evidence  of  the  use  of 
machinery  in  making  bricks  at  a  very  early  period  of 

III.  The  Romans  used  bricks,  both  burnt  and  ua- 
burnt,  in  great  profusion ;  all  the  great  existing  ruins 
at  Rome  being  of  brick.  At  the  decline  of  the  Roman 
Empire,  the  art  of  brickraaking  fell  into  disuse,  but 
was  revived  in  Italy  after  the  lapse  of  a  few  centuries. 
The  mediaeval  ecclesiastical  and  palatial  architecture  of 
Italy  exhibits  many  fine  specimens  of  brickwork  and 
ornamental  work  in  terra-cotta;  cornices  and  other 
decorations  of  great  beauty  being  executed  in  the 
latter  material. 

IV.  In  Holland  and  the  Netherlands,  the  scarcity  of 
stone  led,  at  an  early  period,  to  the  extensive  use  of 
brick,  not  only  for  domestic  but  for  ecclesiastical  build- 
ings, and  these  countries  abound  in  fine  specimens  of 
brickwork,  often  in  two  colours,  combined  with  great 
taste,  and  producing  a  very  rich  effect,  as  in  the  cele- 
brated examples  at  Leeuwarden  in  Friesland.  ■  It  is 
worthy  of  remark,  that  in  the  fens  of  Lincolnshire  and 
Norfolk,  where  we  should  naturally  liave  expected  to 

B  2 


have  found  the  same  material  made  use  of,  the  churches, 
many  of  -which  are  exceedingly  fine  specimens  of  archi- 
tecture, are  built  of  small  stones,  said  to  have  been 
brought  from  a  great  distance  on  pack-horses. 

V.  Brickmaking  appears  to  have  been  introduced 
into  England  by  the  Romans,  who  used  large  thin 
bricks  or  wall  tiles  as  bond  to  their  rubble  construc- 
tions ;  and  such  wall  tiles  continued  to  be  used  in 
England  until  rubble  work  was  superseded  by  regular 
masonry,  about  the  time  of  the  Norman  Conquest. 
Brick  does  not  appear  to  have  come  into  general  use  as 
a  building  material  until  long  afterwards. 

In  the  reign  of  Henry  VIIL,  however,  the  art  of 
brickmaking  had  arrived  at  great  perfection,  and  the 
remains  of  many  buildings  erected  about  this  time 
exhibit  some  of  the  finest  known  specimens  of  oma- 
mental  brickwork. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  some  of  the  principal  brick 
buildings  erected  at  the  period  of  which  we  speak  : — 


Horetmonceaax  Castle,  Sussex     .  Early  in  the  reig^i  of  Ilcnry  VL 

Gate  of  the  Bjehouse  in  Hertfordshire  Ditto. 

Tanershall  Castle,  Lincolnshire  .        .  a.d.  1440. 

Lollards*  Tower,  Lambeth  Palace        .  ad.  1454. 

Oxborongh  Hall,  Norfolk   .         .         .  About  x.v.  1482. 

Gatc-wav,  Rf-c!on-,  Hadleigh,  Suffolk  .  Close  of  loth  centurr. 

Old  part  of  Hampton  Court         .         .  ad.  1514. 

HengraTe  Hall,  Suffolk       .        .         .  Finished  a. d.  1538. 

Manor  House,  at  East  Barsham,  Norfolk  During  the  reign  of  Henry  VIL 

Thorpland  Hall,  Norfolk     .         .         .  Ditto. 

Parsonage Hcase,Great  Snoring, Norfolk  During  the  reign  of  Henrj- VIH. 

Many  of  these  buildings  have  been  engraved  in  Pugiu's 
"  Examples  of  Gothic  Architecture,"  to  which  we  would 
refer  the  reader.  The  decorative  details  of  the  Manor 
House  at  East  Barsham,  and  of  the  Parsonage  House 
at  Great  Snoring,  are  particularly  worthy  of  notice ; 


the  panelled  friezes^  cornices,  and  other  ornamental 
work,  being  constructed  of  terra-cotta  moulded  to  the 
required  form.  The  use  of  terra-cotta  for  decorative 
panels  and  bas-reliefs  appears  to  have  been  common 
during  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  The  gateway  of 
York  Place,  Whitehall,  designed  by  Holbein,  was  de- 
corated with  four  circular  panels,  which  are  still  pre- 
served at  Hatfield  Peveril,  Hants. 

The  gateway  of  the  Rectory  in  Hadleigh  churchyard 
is  very  similar  in  character  to  that  at  Oxborough  Hall, 
engraved  in  Pugin's  work,  above  referred  to.  It  has 
been  lately  restored  very  carefully,  the  terra-cotta  work 
for  the  purpose  being  made  at  the  Layham  Kilns,  near 
Hadleigh,  in  moulds  of  somewhat  complicated  con- 

In  the  time  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  brick  seems  only  to 
have  been  used  in  large  mansions,  rCl  common  build- 
ings, timber  framework,  filled  in  with  lath  and  plaster, 
was  generally  used,  and  this  construction  was  much 
employed,  even  when  brickwork  Avas  in  common  use, 
the  brickwork,  up  to  a  late  period,  being  merely  intro- 
duced in  panels  between  the  wooden  framing. 

VI.  On  the  rebuilding  of  London  after  the  great  fire 
of  1666,  brick  was  the  material  universally  adopted  for 
the  new  erections,  and  the  19th  Car.  II.  c.  11,  regu- 
lated the  number  of  bricks  in  the  thickness  of  the  walls 
of  the  several  rates  of  dwelling-houses.  One  of  the 
resolutions  of  the  corporation  of  the  city  of  London, 
passed  about  this  time,  is  interesting ;  it  is  as  follows  : — 
"  And  that  they  (the  surveyors)  do  encourage  and  give 
directions  to  all  builders,  for  ornament  sake,  that  the 
ornaments  and  projections  of  the  front  buildings  be  of 
rubbed  bricks;  and  that  all  the  naked  parts  of  the  walls 
may  be  done  of  rough  bricks,  neatly  wrought,  or  all 


rubbed,  at  the  direction  of  the  builder,  or  that  the 
builders  may  otherwise  enrich  their  fronts  as  they 

Much  of  the  old  brickwork  still  remaining  in  London^ 
in  buildings  erected  at  the  end  of  the  17th  and  be- 
ginning of  the  18th  century,  is  very  admirably  executed. 
The  most  remarkable  feature  of  the  brickwork  of  this 
period  is  the  introduction  of  ornaments  carved  with  the 
chisel.  A  fine  example  of  this  kind  of  work  is  shown 
in  the  Frontispiece,*  which  is  a  sketch  of  'So.  43,  St. 
Martin's  Lane,  one  of  a  block  of  houses  built  by  a 
person  of  the  name  of  ^lay,  who  about  the  same  time 
erected  Clay's  Buildings,  to  which  the  date  of  1739  is 
affixed.  The  house  in  question  is  said  to  have  been 
intended  by  Mr.  jNIay  for  his  own  residence.  Its  deco- 
rations consist  of  two  fluted  Doric  pilasters,  supporting 
an  entablature,  the  avIioIc  executed  in  fine  red  brick- 
work ;  the  mouldings,  flutings,  and  ornaments  of  the 
metopes  having  been  carved  with  the  chisel  after  the 
erection  of  the  walls. f 

A'll.  It  w^as  not  till  the  close  of  the  last  century  that 
bricks  were  subjected  to  taxation.  The  21th  Geo.  III. 
c.  21',  imposed  a  duty  of  25.  Gd.  per  thousand  on  bricks 
of  all  kinds.  By  the  34th  Geo.  III.  c.  15,  the  duty  was 
raised  to  45.  per  thousand.  By  the  43rd  Geo.  III.  c.  G9, 
bricks  were  divided  into  common  and  dressed  bricks, 
and  separate  rates  of  duty  were  imposed  on  each  kind. 
These  duties  and  those  on  tiles  were  as  follows  : — 

*  The  author  is  indchtcd  to  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Edis  for  tliis  sketch  of 
one  of  the  most  interesting  sjicciincns  of  ornamental  brickwork  in  the 

T  This  fact  was  discovered  some  years  ago,  wheu  the  house  waa 
imdcrt^oing  a  thorough  repair,  and  the  scaffolding  afforded  facilities  for  a 
close  inspection  of  the  ornamentation.  Cast  terra-cotta  imitations  of 
carved  stone  for  architectural  decoration  were  sent  by  Mr,  Blanchard  to 
the  Exhibition  of  1851,  and  were  strongly  recommended  in  the  Jury 
licfort,  Class  XXYIII, 




£     V.  d. 

For  cveiy  tliousand  bricks  which  shall  be  made  in  Great  Bri- 
tain, not  exceeding  any  of  the  following  dimensions,  tliat 
is  to  say,  ten  inches  long,  three  inches  thick  and  five  inches 
wide 050 

For  every  thousand  of  bricks  which  shall  be  made  in  Great 
Britain  exceeding  any  of  the  foregoing  dimensions    .         .       0  10     0 

For  every  thousand  of  bricks  which  shall  be  made  in  Great 
Britain,  and  which  shall  be  smoothed  or  polished  on  one  or 
more  side  or  sides,  the  same  not  exceeding  the  superficial 
dimensions  of  ten  inches  long  by  five  inches  wide      .         .       0  12     0 

For  every  hundred  of  such  last-mentioned  bricks,  exceeding  7  The  duiies  on 
the  aforesaid  superficial  dimensions  ...       J  pa\iug-tilcs. 

For  every  thousand  of  plain  tiles  which  shall  be  made  in 

Great  Britain 0     4  10 

For  every  thousand  of  pan  or  ridge  tiles  which  shall  be  made 

in  Great  Britain 0  12  10 

For  every  hundred  of  paving  tiles  which  shall  be  made  in 

Great  Britain  not  exceeding  ten  inches  square  .         .         .025 

For  every  hundred  of  paving  tiles  whicli  shall  be  made  in 

Great  Britain  exceeding  ten  inclics  square  .         .         .       0     4  10 

For  every  thousand  tiles  which  shall  be  made  in  Great  Bri- 
tain, other  than  such  as  are  hereinbefore  enumerated  or 
described,  by  whatever  name  or  names  such  tiles  are  or  may 

be  called  or  known 0410 

N.B. — The  said  duties  on  bricks  and  tiles  to  be  paid  by  the  maker 
or  makers  thereof  respectively. 

Bv  the  3rd  William  IV.  c.  11  (1833),  the  duties  on 
tiles*  were  wholly  repealed,  and  two  years  afterwards 
the  duty  on  bricks  was  again  raised,  making  the  duty 
on  common  bricks  55.  lOd.  per  thousand. 

The  brick  duties  formed  the  subject  of  the  18tli 
Report  of  the  Commissioners  of  Excise  Enquiry,  1836; 
and  in  1839  these  duties  were  repealed  by  the  2nd  and 
3rd  Vict.  c.  24,  and  a  uniform  duty  of  5^.  10^/.  per  thou- 

*  By  a  curious  oversight,  this  Act,  whicli  was  intended  to  put  roofiny 
tiles  on  the  same  footing  as  slates,  also  repealed  the  duties  on  paving  tiles, 
whilst  briclis  used  for  paving  remained  sul)jcct  to  duty  as  before.  Tliue 
a  lump  of  clay  put  into  a  mould  of  10  in.  X  5  in.  X  3  paid  duty,  but  the 
same  qiiantiiy  of  clay  put  into  a  mould  10  in.  square  was  duty  free,  because 
it  came  under  the  denomination  of  a  tile.  The  manufacturer,  and  nr ' 
the  public,  reaped  the  advantage  thus  given 


sand  imposed  on  all  bricks  of  -ohich  the  cubic  content 
did  not  exceed  150  cubic  inches^  without  any  distinc- 
tion as  to  shape  or  quality. 

Till.  The  ncTT  Act  Avas  a  great  boon  to  the  public 
as  well  as  to  the  trade,  as,  in  consequence  of  the  removal 
of  the  restrictions  on  shape,  bricks  might  be  made  to 
any  required  pattern  ;  and  moulded  bricks  for  cornices, 
plinths,  string-courses,  &c.,  could  be  manufactured  at 
a  moderate  price.  Under  the  old  regulations,  also,  the 
brickmaker  was  precluded  from  correcting  any  defect 
which  might  arise  from  warping  or  twisting  in  the 
process  of  drying,  without  making  himself  liable  to  pay 
the  higher  rate  of  duty.  In  1850  the  duty  ou  bricks 
was  entirely  repealed. 

IX.  The  number  of  bricks  annually  made  iu  Great 
Britain  is  very  great ;  just  before  the  duty  was  repealed, 
a  charge  was  made  on  about  1,800,000,000  bricks 
annually.  In  1854  the  number  manufactured  was 
estimated  to  be  over  2,000,000,000,  of  which  about 
130,000,000  were  made  in  the  brickfields  in  and 
around  Manchester,  and  about  a  similar  number  by 
the  London  brickmakers.  The  weight  of  this  annual 
produce  is  upwards  of  5,400,000  tons,  representing 
a  capital  employed  probably  exceeding  £'2,000,000. 
Comparatively  few  bricks  are  made  in  Scotland,  on 
account  of  the  abundance  of  stone  in  that  country. 
Those  who  are  not  practically  connected  with  engineer- 
ing works  may  find  some  difficulty  in  forming  a  clear 
conception  of  the  immense  number  of  bricks  annually 
made  for  railway  purposes  ;  and  which  may  be  roughly 
estimated  at  from  GOO  to  800  millions  annually.  In 
1821,  before  the  introduction  of  the  railway  system, 
the  number  of  bricks  charged  M'ith  duty  in  England 
and  Scotland  amounted  to  913,231,000.  *   In  1831  the 


number  was  1,153^048,581.     In  1840  the  number  rose 
to  1,725,628,333. 

A  common  turnpike  road  bridge  over  a  railway 
requires  for  its  construction,  in  round  numbers,  300,000 
bricks ;  and  the  lining  of  a  railway  tunnel  of  ordinary 
dimensions  consumes  about  8,000  for  every  yard  in 
length,  or  in  round  numbers  about  14,000,000  per 

X.  The  processes  employed  in  the  manufacture  of 
bricks  differ  very  greatly  in  various  parts  of  the  country. 
In  some  districts  the  clay  is  ground  between  rollers, 
and  the  pugmili  is  never  used.  In  others,  both  rollers 
and  pugmills  are  employed.  In  the  neighboui'hood  of 
London  the  clay  is  commonly  passed  through  a  wash- 
mill.  Equal  differences  exist  in  the  processes  of  mould- 
ing and  drying.  Lastly,  the  form  of  the  kiln  varies 
greatly.  In  many  places  the  common  Dutch  kiln  is 
the  one  employed.  In  Essex  and  Suffolk  the  kilns  have 
arched  furnaces  beneath  their  floors;  in  Staffordshire 
bricks  are  fired  in  circular  domed  ovens  called  cupolas ; 
whilst  near  London  kilns  are  not  used,  and  bricks  are 
burnt  in  clamps,  the  fuel  required  for  their  vitrifica- 
tion being  mixed  up  with  the  clay  in  the  process  of 

XI.  Bricks  vary  very  much  in  their  strength,  a  point 
to  which,  although  of  considerable  importance,  very  little 
attention  is  paid.  There  is  a  striking  difference  in  this 
respect  between  modern  and  ancient  bricks ;  a  differ- 
ence very  much  in  favour  of  those  made  centuries  ago; 
and,  perhaps,  the  weakest  bricks  made  are  supplied  by 
London  makers.  In  some  experiments  by  'Mv.  Hawkes 
(a  detailed  account  of  which  is  given  in  the  Builder 
for  1861)  it  was  found  that  of  thirty-five  kinds  of  bricks 
which  were  tested,  the  average  strength  of  the  strongest 

B  3 


was  2j8o5  lbs. ;  of  those  of  medium  tenacity,  2,125  lbs. ; 
and  of  those  of  least  strength,  1557  lbs.  These  bricks 
were  of  the  ordinary  form^  and  varied  in  thickness  from 
325  to  1'7  inches.  It  was  also  found  that  the  thinner 
kinds  of  bricks  were  proportionally  stronger  than 
those  which  were  thicker ;  the  greatest,  mean,  and  least 
strengths  of  the  former  being  respectively  4,088  lbs., 
2,054.  lbs.,  and  2,070  lbs. 

In  comparing  weight  with  strength,  it  was  found 
tliat  the  average  weight  of  twenty-five  bricks  from  dif- 
ferent districts,  was  7*85  lbs.,  and  that  the  heaviest 
bricks  were  usually  the  strongest.  The  results  of  the 
following  experiments  are  calculated  according  to  a 
uniform  standard : — Tipton  blue  bricks,  weighing  10  lbs., 
gave  5,555  lbs.,  3,975  lbs.,  and  2,801  lbs.,  as  the 
greatest,  mean,  and  least  degree  of  strength.  Boston 
bricks,  weighing  988  lbs.,  gave  4,133  lbs.,  3,198  lbs., 
and  2,616  lbs.,  as  the  value  of  the  same  items.  Roman 
hypocaust  tiles  from  the  ancient  city  of  Uriconium, 
near  'V^'roxetcr,  gave  4,670  lbs.,  3,567  lbs.,  and 
2,630  lbs.  The  Leeds  bricks,  weighing  9- 17  lbs., 
gave  4,133  lbs.,  3,198  lbs.,  and  2,616  lbs.  Dutch 
clinkers,  with  a  weight  of  only  6'56  lbs.,  gave  the  respec- 
tive strength  of  4,006  lbs.,  3,345  lbs.,  and  2,542  lbs. 
This  is  an  exception  to  the  general  result  of  the  heaviest 
bricks  being  the  strongest.  Lastly,  the  lightest  London 
bricks,  weighing  6*19  lbs.,  gave  1,496  lbs.,  998  lbs.,  and 
366  lbs.  The  experiments  also  gave  evidence  of  the 
fact  that  bricks  were  unable  to  sustain  for  any  length 
of  time  a  weight  considerably  less  than  that  which  was 
originally  required  to  break  them  ;  for  example,  a  Bal- 
timore brick,  which  required  850  lbs.  to  break  it,  car- 
ried a  weight  of  735  lbs.  for  ten  hours  only,  and  then 
broke.     It   must   be   borne  in  mind  that  the  second 


result  is  represented  in  terms  of  the  whole  brick,  for 
the  sake  of  rendering  the  comparison  more  easy, 
although,  of  course,  the  experiment  could  only  be  made 
on  the  half  brick. 

XII.  Now  that  machine-made  bricks  are  getting 
into  general  use,  notwithstanding  that  some  opposition 
has  been  made  to  their  introduction,  the  following 
table  may  be  interesting.  It  is  a  report  of  the  results 
of  some  experiments  on  hand-made  and  machine-made 
bricks,  with  Messrs.  Burton  and  Co.^s  hydraulic  press. 
All  the  bricks  were  bedded  upon  a  thickness  of  felt, 
and  laid  upon  an  iron-faced  plate. 

Pressure  to  crack.    Pressure  to  crush, 

tons.  tons. 

Good  London  grey  Stocks    .     .     .     1200  .     .     .  U-00 

Best  paviours  to  be  got        ...     1400  .     .     .  23-00 

Bed  bricks,  not  fully  bunit  .     .     .     13-75  ...  25  05 

Ditto,  ordinary  quality    ....     1300  .     .     .  26-25 

Three  white  bricks  made  by  Cl&y-  )  ,»  „.  .,  n- 

ton  and  Co.  s  machineiy        .      j 

Ditto,  second  best,  with  four  bricks     1625  .     .     .  41-00 

In  the  following  pages  we  have  described  at  con- 
siderable length  the  practice  of  brickmaking  as  carried 
on  in  Nottinghamshire,  Staffordshire,  Suffolk,  and  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  London  j  and  although  the  prac- 
tice of  almost  every  county  presents  some  local  pecu- 
liarity, the  reader  who  has  carefully  gone  through  these 
accounts  will  be  enabled  to  understand  the  object  of 
any  processes  not  here  described,  and  to  form  a  toler- 
ably correct  judgment  as  to  whether  the  process  of 
manufacture  in  any  district  is  conducted  in  a  judicious 
manner;  or  whether  the  brickmaker  has  merely  fol- 
lowed the  practices  handed  down  bv  lis  predecessors 
without  any  consideration  as  to  the  possibility  of  im- 
proving upon  them.  Before,  however,  enteriuj^  npon 
the  practical  details  of  the  subject,  it  is  necessarj  '.hat 


the  reader  should  have  some  knowledge  of  the  general 
principles  of  brickmaking,  and  of  the  nature  of  the 
processes  employed;  and  these  we  shall  proceed  to 
consider  in  the  following  chapter. 




1.   BRICKS. 

1.  Tl.j-  whole  of  the  operations  of  the  brickmaker 
may  be  classed  under  five  heads^  viz. : — 

\       preparation  of  brick  earth. 
■;!      Tempering. 

•^     ^Moulding. 

^    Drying. 
V-   Burning. 

We  propose  in  this  chapter  to  describe  these  opera- 
tions one  by  one,  pointing  out  the  object  to  be  effected 
by  each,  and  comparing  at  the  same  time  the  different 
processes  employed  in  various  parts  of  this  country  for 
the  same  end. 


2.  The  qualities  to  be  aimed  at  in  making  bricks  for 
building  purposes  may  be  thus  enumerated :— Sound- 

'^  jiesSj_thatis,  freedom  from  cracks  and  flaws  ;  Laidaes*, 
r    to  enable  them  to  withstand  pressure  and  cross  strain  ; 
^     regularity  of  shape,  that  the  mortar  by  which  they  are 
miited  may  be  of  uniform  thickness  to  insure  unifor- 
mity of  settlement ;    uniform itj:_of  size,  that  all  the 
bricks  in   a  course  may  be  of  the  same  beiglit ;  uni- 




_iiw^mily  of  tuloui'j  which  is  of  importance  only  in 
ornamental  work ;  facility  of  cutting,  to  enable  the 
bricklayer  to  cut  themTo  any  given  shape,  as  required 
in  executing  all  kinds  of  gauged  -work;  lastly,  for 
furnace-work,  and  all  situations  exposed  to  intense 
heat,  infusibility. 

3.  Success  in  attaining  the  desired  end  depends 
chiefly  on  a  proper  selection  of  brick  earths;  their 
judicious  preparation  before  commencing  the  actual 
process  of  brickmaking,  as  well  as  on  the  drying  and 

jDurning  of  the  bricks.  /  The  other  operations  are 
matters  of  minor  importance.  Brickmaking  may  be 
viewed  in  two  lights — as  a  science,  and  as  an  art.  The 
former  has  been  little  studied,  and  is  imperfectly  under- 
stood ;  whilst  the  latter  has  been  brought  to  great 

4.  The  argillaceous  earths  suitable  for  brickmaking 
may  be  divided  into  three  principal  classes,  viz. : — 

Pure  clays,  composed  chiefly  of  alumina^^ndsilieii, 
but  containing  a  small  proportion  of  other  substances — 
as  iron,  lime,  &c.*  (See  Appendix  II.,  page  263.) 

*  The  following  analyses  of  various  kinds  of  clay  are  given  in  the 
second  volume  of  the  English  translation  of  "  Knapp's  Technological 


bridge fire 



Blue  clay. 


Oxide     "1 

of  iron  j 
Potash    \ 

8c  soda 
Water    . 




)  12-67 

















7-74    j 










Marls,  ■whicli  may  be  described  as  earths  coutaiiiing 
u  considerable  proportion  of  lime. 

Loams,  -u-hich  may  be  described  as  light  sandy  clays. 

l/j       It  very  seldom  happens  that  earths  are  found  which 

H  are  suited  for  the  purpose  of  brickmaking  without  some 

y  admixture.       The  pure  clays  require  the  addition  of 

sandj  loam,  or  some  milder  earth ;  whilst  the  loams  are 

often  so  loose  that  they  could  not  be  made  into  bricks 

without  the  addition  of  lime  to  flux  and  bind  the  earth. 

Even  when  the  clay  requires  no  mixture^  the  difference 

in  the  working  of  two  adjacent  strata  in  the  same  field 

is  often  so  great  that  it  is  advisable  to  mix  two  or  three 

sorts  together  to  produce  uniformity  in  the  size  and 

colour  of  the  bricks. 

5.  It  appears,  then,  that  a  chemical  compound  of 
silica  and  alumina  is  the  principal  ingredient  in  all 
brick  earth.*  This  silicate  of  alumina,  or  pure  clay 
alone,  or  those  clays  which  contain  but  little  sand,  may, 
when  beaten  up  with  water  into  a  stiff  paste,  be  moulded 
with  great  ease  into  any  shape  ;  but  will  shrink  and 
crack  in  drying,  however  carefully  and  slowly  the  ope- 
ration be  conducted ;  and  will  not  stand  firing,  as  a  red 
heat  causes  the  mass  to  rend  and  warp,  although  it 
becomes  very  hard  by  the  action  of  the  fire. 

The  addition  of  any  substance  which  will  neither 
combine  with  water,  nor  is  subject  to  contraction,  greatly 
remedies  these  defects,  whilst  the  plastic  quality  of  the 
clay  is  not  materially  affected.  For  this  reason  the 
strong  clays  are  mixed  with  milder  earth  or  with  sand. 
The  loams  and  marls  used  for  brickmaking  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  London  are  mixed  with  lime  and 
sifted  breeze  for  the  same  purpose,  and  also  to  effect  the 
fluxing  of  the  earth,  as  will  be  presently  described. 
•  Some  remarks  on  the  plajiitity  of  clay  w  ill  be  found  iu  the  Afijendi* 

AUT    OF    MAKING    BllICKS    AND    TILES.  15 

G.  Fire  clays  or  refractory  clays  are  compounds  of 
Bilica^  alumina^  and  water,  or  liydrated  silicates  of  alu- 
mina represented  by  tlie  formula  AlgO 3,  2Si03  +  2H0. 
Sucli  clays  owe  their  refractory  qualities  to  their  com- 
parative freedom  from  lime,  magnesia,  metallic  oxides, 
and  similar  substances  which  act  as  fluxes.  Pew 
clays,  however,  exist  in  nature  according  to  this  pure 
type.  The  composition  and  quality  of  clays  in  con- 
tiguous beds  in  the  same  pit,  and  even  of  clay  from  the 
same  contiguous  horizontal  bed,  may  vary.  ''If  we 
compare  difterent  clays  together  in  respect  to  elementary 
composition,  we  find  the  relation  between  the  silica  and 
alumina  to  be  extremely  variable,  and  accordingly,  the 
formulae  which  have  been  proposed  to  express  their 
rational  constitution  are  very  discordant.  This  is  in 
great  measure  to  be  explained  by  the  fact,  that  in  many 
clays  a  large  proportion  of  silica  exists  uncombined 
either  as  sand,  or  in  a  much  finer  state  of  division. 
The  grittiness  of  a  clay  is  due  to  the  presence  of  sand.'^* 
Fire-bricks  are  used  in  those  parts  of  furnaces  where 
the  heat  would  soon  destroy  ordinary  bricks.  They  are 
made  of  various  shapes  and  sizes  as  required,  and  are 
often  produced,  as  in  the  iron  works  of  South  Wales, 
on  the  spot.  The  clay  is  ground  between  rolls,  or  under 
edge  stones,  and  kneaded  by  treading.  The  bricks  are 
made  by  hand  in  moulds ;  they  are  carefully  dried  in 
stoves,  and  burnt  at  a  high  temperature  in  closed  kilns. 
Burnt  clay  in  powder  is  sometimes  mixed  with  the  raw 
clay.  Stourbridge  clay  is  celebrated  for  the  manufacture 
of  fine  bricks,  but  clay  from  the  coal-measures  is  also 
largely  used.  All  these  bricks  have  a  pale  brownish 
colour,  but  they  are  sometimes  mottled  with  dark  spots, 

*  "  irctallurgy,"  by  John  rcicy,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  Lecturer  on  Mctnllurgjr 
at  the  Goverumcnt  School  of  Mines.    London,  1861. 


whicli  Dr.  Percy  refers  to  the  presence  of  particles  of 
iron  pyrites.  The  Dinas  fire-brick  consists  almost 
entirely  of  silica,  the  material  being  obtained  from  the 
rock  of  that  name  in  the  Vale  of  Neath.  It  lies  on  the 
limestone,  and  occasionally  intermixes  with  it,  and 
contains  probably  about  5  per  cent,  of  calcareous  matter. 
The  bricks  have  extraordinary  fire-proof  qualities.  The 
material  had  long  been  used  as  a  sand,  and  many 
attempts  ^ere  made  to  form  it  into  bricks,  without 
success,  until  a  method  was  contrived  by  the  late  Mr. 
W.  TT.  Young,  when  in  1822  a  company  was  formed 
for  the  manufacture  of  these  bricks.  The  mode  of 
making  the  Dinas  brick  was  long  kept  secret,  but  a 
number  of  original  details  concerning  it  are  given  in 
Dr.  Percy's  work.  The  material  which  is  called  clay  is 
found  at  several  places  in  the  Vale  of  Xeath  in  the  state 
of  rock,  and  disintegrated  like  sand.  The  colour  when 
dry  is  pale  grey.  The  rock  is  crushed  to  coarse  powder 
between  iron  rolls ;  it  softens  by  exposure  to  the  air, 
but  some  of  it  is  too  hard  to  be  used.  '*  The  powder  of 
the  rock  is  mixed  with  about  1  per  cent,  of  lime  and 
sufficient  water  to  make  it  cohere  slightly  by  pressure. 
This  mixture  is  pressed  into  iron  moulds,  of  which  two 
are  fixed  under  one  press,  side  by  side.  The  mould, 
which  is  open  at  the  top  and  bottom,  like  ordinary 
brick-moulds,  is  closed  below  by  a  moveable  iron  plate, 
and  above  by  another  plate  of  iron,  -which  fits  in  like  a 
piston,  and  is  connected  with  a  lever.  The  machine 
being  adjusted,  the  coarse  mixture  is  put  into  the 
moulds  by  a  workman,  whose  hands  are  protected  by 
stout  gloves,  as  the  sharp  edges  of  the  fragments  would 
otherwise  \round  them :  the  piston  is  then  pressed 
down,  after  which  the  moveable  bed  of  iron  on  which  the 
brick  is  formed  is  lowered  and  taken  away  with  the 

AKT    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  17 

brick  upon  it,  as  it  is  not  sufficiently  solid  to  admit  of 
being  carried  in  the  usual  manner.  The  bricks  are 
dried  on  these  plates  upon  floors  warmed  by  flues 
passing  underneath ;  and  ivhen  dry  they  are  piled  in  a 
circular  closed  kiln  covered  with  a  dome,  similar  to 
kilns  in  which  common  fire  bricks  are  burned.  About 
seven  days  of  hard  firing  are  required  for  these  bricks, 
and  about  the  same  time  for  the  cooling  of  the  kiln. 
One  kiln  contains  3.2,000  bricks,  and  consumes  40 
tons  of  coal,  half  free-burning  and  half  binding.  The 
price  (1859)  is  605.  the  thousand/'*  The  fracture 
of  one  of  these  bricks  shows  irregular  particles  of  quartz, 
and  the  lime  which  is  added  acts  as  a  flux,  causing  them 
to  agglutinate.  These  bricks  expand  by  heat,  while 
bricks  made  of  fire  clay  contract.  Hence  they  are 
useful  for  the  roofs  of  reverberatory  furnaces,  and  for 
parts  where  solid  and  compact  lining  is  required.  These 
siliceous  bricks  must  not  be  exposed-^  to  the  actibn  of 
slags  rich  in  metallic  oxides. 

7.  Fire  clay,  being  an  expensive  article,  is  frequently 
mixed  with  burnt  clay,  often  as  much  as  two  parts  by 
weight  to  one  of  Stourbridge  clay.  Broken  crucibles, 
old  fire  bricks,  and  old  glass-pots  ground  to  powder  are 
also  mixed  with  fire  clay. 

8.  Fire  clay  is  found  throughout  the  coal  measures, 
but  that  of  Stourbridge  is  considered  to  be  the  best,  as 
it  will  bear  the  most  intense  heat  that  can  be  produced 
without  becoming  fused.  Next  in  esteem  to  those  of 
Stourbridge  are  the  "Welsh  fire  bricks,  but  they  will  not 
bear  such  intense  heat.  Excellent  fire  bricks  arc  made 
at  Newcastle  and  Glasgow.  Fire  bricks  are  made  near 
Windsor,  at   the  village  of  Hedgerly,  from   a   sandy 

•  In  this  year  bricks  were  much  cheaper  than  they  have  been  since. 


loam  known  by  the  name  of  Windsor  loam,  and  much 
used  in  London  for  fire-work,  and  also  by  chemists  for 
luting  their  furnaces,  and  for  similar  purposes. 

The  relative  merits  of  Windsor,  Welsh,  Stourbridge, 
and  other  fire  bricks,  are  best  shown  by  their  commer- 
cial value.  The  following  items,  extracted  from  the 
'^  Builders'  and  Contractors'  Price  Book  for  1868," 
edited  by  G.  E.  Burnell,  exhibit  their  relative  cost : — 

Per  1000. 

£  s.  d. 
Windsor  fire  bricks  .        .        .        .54.0 

Wcljh  ditto .5     4     0 

Stourbridge  ditto 7     0     0 

Kewcastle  ditto 5     5     0 

Alloa  ditto 5     8     0 

Dorset  ditto 4  16     0 

9.  Bricks  made  of  refractory  clay,  containing  no  lime 
or  alkaline  matter,  are  baked  rather  than  burnt ;  and 
their  soundness  and  hardness  depend  upon  the  fineness 
to  which  the  clay  has  been  ground,  and  the  degree  of 
firing  to  which  it  has  been  exposed. 

10.  It  is  very  seldom  that  the  common  clays  arc 
found  to  be  free  from  lime  and  other  fluxes  ;  and  wlien 
these  are  present  in  certain  proportions,  the  silica  of 
the  clay  becomes  fused  at  a  moderate  heat,  and  cements 
the  mass  together.  Some  earths  are  very  fusible,  and, 
when  used  for  brickmaking,  great  care  is  requisite  in 
firing  the  bricks  to  prevent  them  from  running  together 
in  the  kiln. 

11.  The  earths  used  for  brickmaking  near  London 
arc  not  clays,  but  loams  and  marls.  To  render  these 
earths  fit  for  brickmaking,  they  are  mixed  with  chalk 
ground  to  a  pulp  in  a  wash -mill.  This  eficcts  a  double 
purpose,  for  the  lime  not  only  imparts  soundness  to  the 
bricks,  acting  mechanically  to  prevent  the  clay  from 
shrinking  and  cracking,  but  also  assists  in  fusing  the 

ART    OF    MAKING    BllICKS    AND    TILES,  19 

siliceous  particles ;  and  Avlien  present  in  sufficient  quan- 
titjj  corrects  the  evil  effects  of  an  overdose  of  sand^  as 
it  takes  up  the  excess  of  silica  that  would  otherwise 
remain  in  an  uncombined  state. 

12.  It  -will  be  seen  from  these  remarks  that  we  may 
divide  bricks  generally  into  two  classes — baked  bricks 

^a^L£_ii:Qm_  the  refractQiy  clays^  and  burnt  or  vitrified 
bricks  made  from  the  fusible  earths. 

The  fusible  earths  are  the  most  difficult  of  treatment^ 
as  there  is  considerable  practical  difficulty  in  obtaining 
a  sufficient  degree  of  hardness  without  risking  the 
fusion  of  the  bricks ;  and  it  will  be  found  that  ordinary 
kiln-burnt  bricks,  made  from  the  common  clays_,  are  for 
the  most  part  of  inferior  quality,  being  hard  only  on  the 
outside,  whilst  the  middle  is  imperfectly  burnt,  and 
remains  tender.  The  superior  quality  of  the  London 
malm  bricks,  which  are  made  from  a  very  fusible  com- 
pound, is  chiefly  due  to  the  use  of  sifted  breeze, -!=  which 
is  thoroughly  incorporated  with  the  brick  earth  in  the 
pugmill,  so  that  each  brick  becomes  a  kind  of  fire  ball, 
and  contains  in  itself  the  fuel  required  for  its  vitrifica- 
tion. In  building  the  clamps  the  bricks  are  stacked 
close  together,  and  not  as  in  ordinary  kiln-burning,  in 
which  openings  are  left  between  the  bricks  to  allow  of 
the  distribution  of  the  heat  from  the  live  holes.  The 
effect  of  these  arrangements  is  to  produce  a  steady  uni- 
form heat,  which  vitrifies  the  bricks  without  melting 
them.  Those  bricks  which  are  in  contact  with  the  live 
holes  or  flues  melt  into  a  greenish  black  slag. 

13.  Cutters,  that  is,  bricks  which  will  bear  cutting 
and  rubbing  to  any  required  shape,  are  made  from 
sandy  loams,  cither  natural   or  artificial.      In  many 

•  Breeze  is  a  casual  mixture  of  cinders,  small  coal,  and  ashes,  such  as 
Is  collected  by  the  dustmen. 


districts  cutters  are  not  made,  there  being  no  suitable 
material  for  the  purpose.  Bricks  made  from  pure  clays 
containing  but  little  silica  are  hard  and  tough,  and  will 
not  bear  cutting. 

14.  We  now  come  to  the  consideration  of  colour, 
which  depends  on  the  varying  proportions  of  the 
hydrated  oxide  of  iron  in  the  clay,  which  change 
according  to  the  amount  of  heat  to  which  the  bricks 
are  subjected,  and  not  on  their  natural  colour  before 
burning.  This  should  be  borne  in  mind,  because  brick- 
makers  often  speak  of  clays  as  red  clay,  white  clay,  &c., 
according  to  the  colour  of  the  bricks  made  from  them, 
without  any  reference  to  their  colour  in  the  unburnt 

If  iron  be  present  in  clay  without  lime  or  similar 
substances,  the  colour  produced  at  a  moderate  red  heat 
will  be  red,  the  intensity  of  colour  depending  on  the 
proportion  of  iron.  The  bind  or  shale  of  the  coal  mea- 
sures burus  to  a  bright  clear  red.  If  the  clay  be 
slightly  fusible,  an  intense  heat  vitrifies  the  outside  of 
the  mass  and  changes  its  colour,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
Staffordshire  bricks,  which,  when  burnt  in  the  ordinary 
way,  are  of  a  red  colour,  which,  however,  is  changed  to 
a  greenish  blue  by  longer  firing  at  a  greater  heat.  The 
addition  of  lime  changes  the  red  produced  by  the  oxide 
of  iron  to  a  cream  brown,  whilst  magnesia  brings  it  to 
a  yellow.  Few  clays  produce  a  clear  red,  the  majority 
burning  of  different  shades  of  colour,  varying  from 
reddish  brown  to  a  dirty  red,  according  to  the  propor- 
tion of  lime  and  similar  substances  which  they  contain. 
Some  clays,  as  the  plastic  clays  of  Suffolk,  Devon- 
shire,* and  Dorsetshire,  burn  of  a  clear  white,  as  may 

*  The  plastic  clay  of  Devonshire  and  Dorsetshire  forms  the  basis  of 
the  English  stone  waic.    It  is  composed  of  about  seventy-six  parts  of 

ART   OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  31 

be  seen  in  the  SuflFolk  white  bricks,  which  are  much 
esteemed  for  their  soundness  and  colour.  The  London 
malms  have  a  rich  brimstone  tint,  which  is  greatly 
assisted  by  the  nature  of  the  sand  used  in  the  process 
of  moulding. 

15.  By  employing  metallic  oxides  and  the  ochreous 
metallic  earths,  ornamental  bricks  are  made  of  a 
variety  of  colours ,  This,  however,  is  a  branch  of  brick- 
making  which  has  as  yet  received  very  little  attention, 
although,  with  the  rising  taste  for  polychromatic  deco- 
ration, it  is  well  worthy  of  consideration.  (See  note, 
page  270.) 

Yellow  clampt  burnt  bricks  are  made  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  metropolis,  and  in  other*  situations  where 
similar  material  and  fuel  are  readily  obtained.  White 
bricks  are  made  from  the  plastic  clays  of  Devonshire 
and  Dorsetshire,  and  also  Cambridgeshire,  Norfolk, 
Suffolk,  and  Essex,  as  well  as  in  other  counties.  Red 
bricks  are  made  in  almost  every  part  of  England ;  but 
the  fine  red  or  cutting  brick  is  not  generally  made. 
Blue  bricks  are  made  in  Staffordshire,  and  are  much 
used  in  that  part  of  England. 

Sound  and  well-burnt  bricks  are  generally  of  a  clear 
and  uniform  colour,  and  when  struck  together  will  ring 
with  a  metallic  sound.  Deficiency  in  either  of  these 
points  indicates  inferiority. 

16.  Bricks  suflficiently  light  to  float  in  the  water  were 
known  to  the  ancients.  This  invention,  however,  was 
completely  lost  until  rediscovered  at  the  close  of  the 

silica  and  twenty-four  of  alumina,  with  some  other  ingredients  in  very 
small  proportions.  This  clay  is  very  refractory  in  high  heats,  a  property 
which,  joined  to  its  whiteness  when  burned,  renders  it  peculiarly  valuable 
for  pottery,  &c. 

*  Yellow  clampt  burnt  bricks  are  made  at  Margate,  in  Kent,  from  the 
patches  of  plastic  clay  lying  in  the  hollows  of  the  chalk.  The  older  part 
of  Margate  is  built  of  red  bricks  said  to  have  been  brought  from  Canter- 


last  century  by  !M.  Fabbroni,  who  published  an  account 
of  his  experiments.  M.  Fabbroni  succeeded  in  making 
floating  bricks  of  an  infusible  earth  called  fossil  meal^ 
which  is  abundant  in  some  parts  of  Italy.  Bricks  made 
of  this  earth  are  only  one-sixth  of  the  weight  of  common 
clay  bricks,  on  which  account  they  would  be  of  great 
service  in  vaulting  church  roofs,  and  for  similar  pur- 
poses. Ehrenberg,  the  eminent  German  microscopist, 
showed  that  this  earth  consists  almost  entirely  of  the 
frustules  or  siliceous  skeletons  of  vnrious  kinds  of 
minute  water  plants.     (See  note,  page  271.) 

Having  thus  briefly  sketched  the  leading  principles 
which  should  be  our  guide  in  the  selection  of  brick 
earth,  we  will  now  proceed  to  describe  the  several  pro- 
cesses by  which  it  is  brought  into  a  fit  state  for  use. 

17.  Unsoilwg. — Xlie  first  operation  is  to  remove  the 
mould  and  top  soil,  which  is  wheeled  away,  and  should 
be  reserved  for  resoiling  the  exhausted  workings  when 
they  are  again  brought  into  cultivation.  In  London 
the  vegetable  mould  is  called  the  encallow,  and  the 
operation  of  removing  it,  cncallowing . 

18.  Clay -dig  fjing  and  Wcatliering. — The  brick  earth 
is  dug  in  the  autumn,  and  wheeled  to  a  level  place  pre- 
pared to  receive  it,  when  it  is  heaped  up  to  the  depth 
of^  several  feet,  and  left  jthrough  the  winter  months  to 
be  mellowed  by  the  frosts,  which  break  up  and  ci'umble 
thejumps.  ^SFtHe  commencement  of  the  brickmaking 
seasonTwTiich  generally  begins  in  April,  the  clay  is 
turned  over  with  shovels,  and  tempered  either  by  spade 
labour  or  in  the  pugmill ;  sufficient  water  being  added 
to  give  plasticity  to  the  mass. 

19.  J)uring  these  oi^crations  any  stones  which  may 
be  found  must  be  carefully  picked  out  by  hand,  which 
is  a  tedious  and  expensive  operation,  but  one  which 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  23 

cannot  be  neglected  with  impunity^  asjjie-^reeeace  of  a 
pebble  in  a  brick  gejiprnllY  rnnsps^  \%  t,o  pynnl^  ip  ^^y^'^g:j 
anJ  makes  it  shaky  and  unsound  when  burnt.  If  the 
earths  to  be  used  are  much  mixed  with  gravely  the  only 
remedy  is  to  wash  them  in  a  trough  filled  with  water, 
and  provided  with  a  grating  sufficiently  close  to  prevent 
even  small  stones  from  passing  through,  and  by  means 
of  which  the  liquid  pulp  runs  off  into  pits  prepared  to 
receive  it,  where  it  remains  until,  by  evaporation,  it 
becomes  sufficiently  firm  to  be  used.  This  process  is 
used  in  making  cutting  bricks,  which  require  to  be  of 
perfectly  uniform  texture  throughout  their  whole  sub- 
stance J  but  it  is  tedious  and  expensive. 

In  working  the  marls  of  the  midland  districts,  much 
trouble  is  experienced  from  the  veins  of  skerry  or  im- 
pure limestone  with  which  these  earths  abound.  If  a 
small  piece  of  limestone,  no  bigger  than  a  pea,  is  allowed 
to  remain  in  the  clay,  it  will  destroy  any  brick  into 
which  it  finds  its  way.  The  carbonic  acid  is  driven  off 
by  the  heat  of  the  kiln,  and  forces  a  vent  through  the 
side  of  tlie  brick,  leaving  a  cavity  through  which  water 
finds  its  way,  and  the  first  sharp  frost  to  which  such 
a  brick  may  be  exposed  generally  suffices  to  destroy 
the  face. 

20.  Gi'inding. — To  remedy  this  serious  evil,  cast-iron 
rollers  are  now  generally  used  throughout  the  midland 
districts  for  grinding  the  clay  and  crushing  the  pieces 
of  limestone  found  in  it,  and  their  introduction  has 
been  attended  with  very  beneficial  results.  The  clays 
of  the  coal  measures  contain  much  ironstone,  which 
requires  to  be  crushed  in  the  same  manner. 

In  many  yards  the  grinding  of  the  clay  is  made  to 
form  part  of  the  process  of  tempering,  the  routine  being 
as  follows  : — clay-getting,  weathering,  turning  over  and 



■wheeling  to  mill,  grinding,  tempering,  and  moulding. 
In  Staflbrdshire  the  clay  is  not  only  ground,  but  is  also 
pugged  in  the  process  of  tempering,  as  described  in 
chap,  iv,  art.  38 ;  the  routine  is  then  as  follows : — 
clay-getting,  grinding,  weathering,  turning  over,  pug- 
[^  ging,  moulding. 

At  a  well-mounted  brickwork  in  Nottingham,  belong- 
ing to  Moses  Wood,  Esq.,  the  clay  used  in  making  the 
best  facing  bricks  is  treated  as  follows  : — it  is  first 
turned  over  and  weathered  by  exposure  to  frost ;  it  is 
then  again  turned  over,  and  the  stones  picked  out  by 
hand,  after  which  it  is  ground  between  rollers  set  very 
close  together,  and  then  left  in  cellars  to  ripen  for  a 
year  or  more,  before  it  is  finally  tempered  for  the  use 
of  the  moulder.  The  bricks  made  from  clay  thus 
prepared  are  of  first-rate  quality,  but  the  expense  of 
the  process  is  too  great  to  allow  of  much  profit  to  the 

21.  Washing. — The  preparation  of  brick-earth  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  London  is  efi'ected  by  processes  quite 
different  from  those  just  described.  For  marl  or  malm 
bricks,  the  earth  is  ground  to  a  pulp  in  a  wash-mill,  and 
mixed  with  chalk  previously  grouud  to  the  consistence 
of  cream ;  this  pulp,  or,  as  it  is  technically  called, 
malm,  is  run  off  through  a  fine  grating  into  pits  pre- 
pared to  receive  it,  and  there  left,  until  by  evaporation 
and  settlement,  it  becomes  of  sufiicient  consistency  to 
allow  a  man  to  walk  upon  it.  It  is  then  soiled,  i.e. 
covered  with  siftings  from  domestic  ashes,  and  left 
through  the  winter  to  mellow.  At  the  commencement 
of  the  brickmaking  season  the  whole  is  turned  over, 
and  the  ashes  thoroughly  incorporated  with  the  earth 
in  the  pugmill.  In  making  common  bricks,  the  whole 
of  the  earth  is  not  washed,  but  the  unwashed  clay  is 

AKT    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  Si) 

heaped  up  on  a  prepared  floor,  and  a  proportion  of 
liquid  malm  poured  over  it,  after  wliicli  it  is  soiled  iu 
the  same  way  as  for  making  malms. 

These  processes  are  well  calculated  to  produce  sound, 
hard,  and  well-shaped  bricks.  The  washing  of  the  clay 
efiectually  frees  it  from  stones  and  hard  lumps,  whilst 
the  mixing  of  the  chalk  and  clay  in  a  fluid  state  ensures 
the  perfect  homogeneousness  of  the  mass,  and  enables 
the  lime  to  combine  with  the  silica  of  the  clay,  which 
would  not  be  the  case  unless  it  were  in  a  state  of 
minute  division. 

22.  There  are  very  few  earths  suitable  in  their  natural 
state  for  making  cutters.  They  are  therefore  usually 
made  of  washed  earth  mixed  up  with  a  proportion  of 
sand.  Without  the  addition  of  sand  the  brick  would 
not  bear  rubbing,  and  it  would  be  very  difficult  to  bring 
it  to  a  smooth  face. 

23.  It  maybe  here  observed  that  sufficient  attention 
is  not  generally  paid  to  the  preparation  of  brick-earth, 
as  it  too  frequently  happens  that  the  clay  is  dug  in  the 
spring  instead  of  the  autumn,  in  which  case  the  benefit 
to  be  derived  from  the  winter  frosts  is  quite  lost.  The 
use  of  rollers,  to  a  certain  extent,  counterbalances  this; 
but  bricks  made  of  clay  that  has  been  thoroughly 
weathered  are  sounder  and  less  liable  to  warp  in  the 


^  24.  The  object  of  tempering  is  to  bring  the  ptepared 
C  brick  earth  into  a  homogeneous  paste,  for  the  use  of 
^  the  moulder. 

The  old-fashioned  way  of  tempering  was  to  turn  the 
clay  over  repeatedly  with  shovels,  and  to  tread  it  over 
by  horses  or  men,  until  it  acquired  the  requisite  plasti- 
city.    This  method  is  still  practised  in  many  country 


yards ;  but  where  the  demand  for  bricks  is  extensive, 

mnplinipry   iig    ^jminlly  prnploypfl,  the    clay    being    eithci 

^^roMn^JbfitHeenjplIers  or  jugged  in  a  pugmill.  This 
latter  process  is  also  called  grinding,  and,  therefore,  in 
making  inquiries  respecting  the  practice  of  particular 
localities,  the  reader  should  be  careful  that  he  is  not 
misled  by  the  same  name  being  applied  to  processes 
which  arc  essentially  diflFerent. 

When  rollers  are  used  in  the  preliminary  processes, 
the  labour  of  tempering  is  much  reduced.  Their  use  is, 
however,  most  generally  confined  to  the  process  of 
tempering,  which  is  then  effected  as  follows  : — The  clay, 
which  has  been  left  in  heaps  through  the  winter  to 
mellow,  is  turned  over  with  wooden  shovels  (water 
being  added  as  required),  and  wheeled  to  the  mill, 
where  it  is  crushed  between  the  rollers,  and  falls  on  a 
floor  Ijclow  them,  where  it  is  again  turned  over,  and  is 
then  ready  for  use. 

When  the  clay  is  sufficiently  mild  and  free  from  lime 
and  ironstone  as  not  to  require  crusJdng,  tempering  by 
spade  labour  and  treading  is  generally  adopted;  but 
in  the  districts  where  rollers  are  used,  the  brick-earths 
are  generally  so  indurated  that  a  great  proportion  could 
not  be  rendered  fit  for  use  by  the  ordinary  processes. 
The  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  the  use  of  rollers 
are  considered  at  some  length  in  chap.  iii.  art.  4. 

25.  In  making  bricks  for  railway  works,  which  has 
been  done  lately  to  an  almost  incredible  extent,  con- 
tractors are  generally  little  anxious  as  to  the  shape  or 
appearance  of  the  article  turned  out  of  the  kiln,  pro- 
vided it  be  sufficiently  sound  to  pass  the  scrutiny  of  the 
inspector  or  resident  engineer.  As  the  whole  process 
of  railway  brickmaking  often  occupies  but  a  few  weeks 
from  the  first  turning  over  of  the  clay  to  the  laying  of 

ART    OF    MAKING    B^vV^LKS    ANm    TILES.  27 

the  bricks  in  the  >york,  the  use  of  rollers  in  such  cases 
is  very  desirable,  as  a  partial  substitute  for  weathering. 
On  the  line  of  the  Nottingham  and  Grantham  Railway 
several  millions  of  bricks  have  been  made  as  follows  : — 
The  clay  is  first  turned  over  with  the  spade,  and  watered 
and  trodden  by  men  or  boys,  who,  at  the  same  time, 
pick  out  the  stones.  It  is  then  wheeled  to  the  mill 
and  ground ;  after  which  it  is  turned  over  a  second 
time,  and  then  passed  at  once  to  the  moulding  table. 

26.  Although  in  many  country  places,  where  the 
demand  for  bricks  is  very  small,  tempering  is  still  per- 
formed by  treading  and  spade  labour,  the  pugmill  is 
very  extensively  used  near  London,  and  in  most  places 
where  the  brick-earth  is  of  mild  quality,  so  as  not  to 
require  crushing,  and  the  demand  for  bricks  sufficiently 
constant  to  make  it  worth  while  to  erect  machinery. 
The  pugmill  used  near  London  is  a  wooden  tub,  in  shape 
an  inverted  frustrum  of  a  cone,  with  an  upright  revolving 
shaft  passing  through  its  centre,  to  which  are  keyed  a 
number  of  knives,  which,  by  their  motion,  cut  and 
knead  the  clay,  and  force  it  gradually  tlu'ough  the  mill, 
whence  it  issues  in  a  thoroughly  tempered  state,  fit  for 
the  use  of  the  moulder.  Some  contend  that  the  pug- 
mill is  no  improvement  on  the  old  system  of  tempering 
by  manual  labour;  but,  without  entering  into  this  ques- 
tion, there  can  be  no  doubt  that  it  does  its  work  very 
thoroughly,  and  its  use  prevents  the  chance  of  the  tem- 
pering being  imperfectly  performed  through  the  negli- 
gence of  the  temperers.  In  the  London  brickfields  the 
process  of  tempering  is  conducted  as  follows : — The 
malm,  or  maimed  brick-earth,  as  the  case  may  be,  ia 
turned  over  with  the  spade,  and  the  soil*  (ashes)  dug 

*  Soil,  i.e.  ashes,  must  not  be  confountlcd  with  soil,  vegetable  mould, 
which  is  ia  some  places  mixed  with  strong  clay,  to  render  it  milder. 

c  2 

28  ^uDi,y^'^;Ts  of  the 

into  itj  water  being  added  as  may  be  necessary.  It  is 
then  barrowed  to  the  pugmill,  and  being  thrown  in  at 
the  top,  passes  through  the  mill,  and  keeps  continually 
issuing  at  a  hole  in  the  bottom.  As  the  clay  issues 
from  the  ejectment  hole,  it  is  cut  into  parallelopipedons 
by  a  labourer,  and,  if  not  wanted  for  immediate  use,  is 
piled  up  and  covered  with  sacks  to  prevent  it  from 
becoming  too  dry. 

In  Staffordshire  steam  power  is  used  for  driving  both 
rollers  and  pugmill,  and  the  case  of  the  latter  is  usually 
a  hollow  cast-iron  cylinder. 


27.  A  brick-mould  is  a  kind  of  box  without  top  or 
bottom,  and  the  process  of  moulding  consists  in  dashing 
the  tempered  clay  into  the  mould  with  sufficient  force 
to  make  the  clot  completely  fill  it,  after  which  the 
superfluous  clay  is  stricken  with  a  strike,  and  the  newly- 
made  brick  is  either  turned  out  on  a  drying  floor  to 
harden,  or  on  a  board  or  pallet,  on  which  it  is  wheeled 
to  the  hack-ground.  The  first  mode  of  working  is 
known  as  slop  moulding,  because  the  mould  is  dipped 
in  water,  from  time  to  time,  to  prevent  the  clay  from 
adhering  to  it.  The  second  method  may  be  distinguished 
as  jt;«//e^  moulding;  and  in  this  process  the  mould  is 
not  wetted,  but  sanded.  These  distinctions,  however, 
do  not  universally  hold  good,  because  in  some  places 
slop-moulded  bricks  are  turned  out  on  pallets. 

28.  These  differences  may,  at  first  sight,  appear 
trivial,  but  they  affect  the  whole  economy  of  a  brick- 
work. In  slop  moulding  the  raw  bricks  are  shifted  by 
hand  from  the  moulding  table  to  the  drying  floor,  from 
the  drying  floor  to  the  hovel  or  drying  shed,  and  from 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  29 

the  hovel  to  the  kiln.  It  is  therefore  requisite  that 
the  works  should  be  laid  out  so  as  to  make  the  distance 
to  which  the  bricks  have  to  be  carried  the  shortest  pos- 
sible. Accordingly,*  the  kiln  is  placed  in  a  central 
situation  in  a  rectangular  space,  bounded  on  two  or 
more  sides  by  the  hovel,  and  the  working  floors  are 
formed  round  the  outside  of  the  latter. 

In  the  process  of  slop  moulding  the  newly-made  brick 
is  carried,  mould  and  all,  by  the  moulder^s  boy  to  the 
flat,  or  drying  floor,  on  which  it  is  carefully  deposited ; 
and  whilst  this  is  being  done,  the  moulder  makes  a 
second  brick  in  a  second  mould,  the  boy  returning  with 
the  first  mould  by  the  time  the  second  brick  is  being 
finished.  As  soon,  therefore,  as  the  floor  becomes 
filled  for  a  certain  distance  fi'om  the  moulding  table,  the 
latter  must  be  removed  to  a  vacant  spot,  or  the  distance 
to  which  the  bricks  must  be  carried  would  be  too  great 
to  allow  of  the  boy's  returning  in  time  with  the  empty 

29.  In  pallet  moulding  but  one  mould  is  used.  Each 
brick,  as  it  is  moulded,  is  turned  out  on  a  pallet,  and 
placed  by  a  boy  on  a  hack-barrow,  which,  when  loaded, 
is  wheeled  away  to  the  hack-ground,  where  the  bricks 
are  built  up  to  dry  in  low  walls  called  hacks.  One 
moulder  will  keep  two  wheelers  constantly  employed, 
two  barrows  being  always  in  work,  whilst  a  third  is 
being  loaded  at  the  moulding  stool.  When  placed  on 
the  barrow,  it  is  of  little  consequence  (comparatively) 
whether  the  bricks  have  to  be  wheeled  5  yards  or  50 ; 
and  the  distance  from  the  moulding  stool  to  the  end  of 
the  hacks  is  sometimes  considerable. 

30.  The  moulding  table  is  simply  a  rough  table,  made 

*  There  are,  of  course,  some  exceptions;  but,  where  practicable,  the 
drying  floors  and  hovel  are  placed  close  to  the  kilus. 

30  RrDiMEXTs  or  the 

in  various  ways  in  different  parts  of  the  country,  but 
the  essential  differences  are,  that  for  slop  moulding  the 
rable  is  furnished  uith  a  water  trough,  in  which  the 
moulds  are  dipped  after  each  time  of  using;  whilst  in 
pallet  moulding,  for  which  the  mould  is  usually  sanded 
and  not  wetted,  the  water  trough  is  omitted,  and  a  page 
(see  account  of  Brickmaking  as  practised  in  London)  is 
added,  on  which  the  bricks  are  placed  preparatory  to 
their  being  shifted  to  the  hack-barrow. 

,31.  Brick  moulds  are  made  in  a  variety  of  ways. 
Some  are  made  of  brass  cast  in  four  pieces  and  riveted 
together ;  some  are  of  sheet  iron,  cased  with  wood  on 
the  two  longest  sides ;  and  others  again  are  made 
entirely  of  wood,  and  the  edges  only  plated  with  iron. 
Drawings  and  detailed  descriptions  of  each  of  these 
constructions  are  given  in  the  subsequent  chapters.  lu 
using  wooden  moulds  the  slop-moulding  process  is 
almost  necessary,  as  the  brick  would  not  leave  the  sides 
of  the  mould  unless  it  were  very  wet.  Iron  moulds  are 
sanded,  but  not  wetted.  Brass,  or,  as  they  are  techni- 
cally called,  copper  moulds,  require  neither  sanding  nor 
wetting,  do  not  rust,  and  are  a  great  improvement  on 
the  common  wooden  mould  formerly  in  general  use. 
They,  however,  are  expensive,  and  will  not  last  long,  as 
the  edges  become  worn  down  so  fast  that  the  bricks 
made  from  the  same  mould  at  the  beginning  and  end 
of  a  season  are  of  a  different  thickness,  and  cannot  be 
used  together.  This  is  a  great  defect,  and  a  metal 
mould  which  will  not  rust  nor  wear  is  still  a  great  desi- 
deratum. It  is  essential  that  the  sides  of  the  mould 
should  be  sufficiently  stiff  not  to  spring  when  the  clay 
is  dashed  into  it,  and  it  is  equally  requisite  that  it 
should  not  be  made  too  heavy,  or  the  taking-off  boy 
would  not  be  able  to  carry  it  to  the  floor.     A  common 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  31 

copper  mould  weiglis  about  4  lbs.,  and,  with  the  wet 
brick  in  it,  about  12  lbs.,  and  this  weight  should  not 
be  exceeded. 

32.  There  is  a  great  difference  in  the  quantity  of 
bricks  turned  out  in  a  given  time  by  the  pallet  moulding 
and  by  the  slop  moulding  processes.  In  slop  moulding 
10,000  per  week  is  a  high  average,  whilst  a  London 
moulder  wiU  turn  out  36,000  and  upwards  in  the  same 
period.  This  arises  in  a  great  measure  from  the  cir- 
cumstance that  in  pallet  moulding  the  moulder  is 
assisted  by  a  clot  moulder,  who  prepares  the  clot  for 
dashing  into  the  mould ;  whilst  in  slop  moulding  the 
whole  operation  is  conducted  by  the  moulder  alone. 

33.  In  some  places  the  operation  of  moulding  par- 
takes both  of  slop  moulding  and  pallet  moulding,  the 
bricks  being  turned  out  on  pallets  and  harrowed  to  the 
hack-ground,  whilst  the  moulds  are  wetted  as  in  the 
ordinary  process  of  slop  moulding. 

34.  The  substitution  of  machinery  for  manual  labour 
in  the  process  of  moulding  has  long  been  a  favourite 
subject  for   the   exercise   of    mechanical  talent ;    but 

/    although  a  great  number  of  inventions  have  been  pa- 

■y  tented,  there  are  very  few  of  them  that  can  be  said  to 

'    be  thoroughly  successful.     The  actual  cost  of  moulding 

-7  bears  so  small  a  proportion  to  the  total  cost  of  brick- 

'    making,  that  in  small  brickworks  the  employment  of 

machinery  would  effect  no  ultimate  saving,  and,  there- 

.  fore,  it  is  not  to  be  expected  that  machinery  will  ever 

(  be  generally  introduced  for  brick  moulding.     But  in 

works  situated  near  large  towns,  or  in  the  execution  of 

large  engineering  works,  the  case  is  very  different,  and 

a  contractor  who  requires,  say,  10,000,000  of  bricks,  to 

be  made  in  a  limited  time,  for  the  construction  of  a 

tunnel  or  a  viaduct,  can  employ  machinery  with  great 


advantage.     A  chapter  on  brickmaking  macliines  will 
be  found  in  another  part  of  this  volume. 

35.  It  has  been  much  discussed  by  practical  men, 
f  whether  bricks  moulded  under  great  pressure  are  better 
'    than  those  moulded  in  the  ordinary  way.     They  are  of 

L  denser  texture,  harder,  smoother,  heavier,  and  stronger 
than  common  bricks.    On  the  other  hand,  it  is  difficult 
to  dry  them,  because  the  surfaces  become  over-dried 
'.  and  scale  off  before  the  evaporation  from  the  centre  is 
(  completed.    Their  smoothness  lessens  their  adhesion  to 
)  mortar ;  and  their  weight  increases  the  cost  of  carriage, 
'    and  renders  it  impossible  for  a  bricklayer  to  lay  as 
many  in  a  given  time  as  those  of  the  ordinary  weight. 
On  the  whole,  therefore,  increased  density  may  be  con- 
sidered as  a  disadvantage,  although,  for  some  purposes, 
dense  bricks  are  very  valuable. 

36.  !Mr.  Prosser,  of  Birmingham,  has  introduced  a 
method  of  making  bricks,  tiles,  and  other  articles  by 
machinery,  in  which  no  drying  is  requisite,  the  clay 
being  used  in  the  state  of  a  nearly  dry  powder.  The 
clay  from  which  floor-tiles  and  tesserae  are  made  is  first 
dried  upon  a  slip-kiln,*  as  if  for  making  pottery,  then 
ground  to  a  fine  powder,  and  in  that  state  subjected  to 
heavy  pressure t  in  strong  metal  moulds  :  by  this  means 
the  clay  is  reduced  to  one-third  of  its  original  thickness, 
and  retains  sufficient  moisture  to  give  it  cohesion.  The 
articles  thus  made  can  be  handled  at  once,  and  carried 
direct  to  the  kiln.  In  some  experiments  tried  for  ascer- 
taining the  resistance  of  bricks  and  tiles  thus  made  to 

•  The  sUp-hln  is  a  stone  trough  bottomed  with  fire  tiles,  under  which 
runs  a  furnace  flue.  It  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  potteiy  for  evapo- 
rating the  excess  of  water  in  the  slip,  or  liquid  mixture  of  clay  and  ground 
flints,  which  is  thus  brought  into  the  state  of  paste. 

t  It  is  a  common  but  an  erroneous  notion,  that  articles  made  bv  Mr. 
Prosser 's  process  are  denser  than  similar  articles  made  in  the  common 
wav :  the  reverse  is  the  fact. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  38 

a  crushing  force,  a  9-inch  brick  sustained  a  pressure  of 
90  tons  without  injury. 

37.  Mr,  Prosser's  method  offers  great  advantages  for 
the  making  of  ornamental  bricks  for  cornices,  bas- 
reliefs,  floor-tiles,  tesselated  pavements,  &c.  Screw 
presses  are  used  to  a  considerable  extent  for  pressing 
bricks  when  partially  dry,  to  improve  their  shape  and 
to  give  them  a  smooth  face ;  but  we  have  in  many  in- 
stances found  pressed  bricks  to  scale  on  exposure  to 
frost,  and  much  prefer  dressing  the  raw  brick  with  a 
beater,  as  described  in  chap.  iii.  art.  34. 

38.  The  great  practical  difficulty  in  making  moulded 
bricks  for  ornamental  work  is  the  warping  and  twisting 
to  which  all  clay  ware  is  subject  more  or  less  in  the 
process  of  burning.  This  difficulty  is  especially  felt  in 
making  large  articles,  as  wall  copings,  &c.  In  moulding 
goods  of  this  kind  it  is  usual  to  make  perforations 
through  the  mass,  to  admit  air  to  the  inside,  without 
which  precaution  it  would  be  impossible  to  dry  them 
thoroughly ;  for,  although  the  outside  would  become 
hard,  the  inside  would  remain  moist,  and,  on  being 
subjected  to  the  heat  of  the  kiln,  the  steam  would  crack 
and  burst  the  whole. 

The  Brighton  Viaduct,  on  the  Lewes  and  Hastings 
Railway,  has  a  massive  white  brick  *  dentil  cornice,  the 
bricks  for  which  were  made  in  Suffolk  after  several 
unsuccessful  attempts  to  make  bricks  of  still  larger  size. 
The  thickness  of  the  bricks  first  proposed  presenting  an 
insurmountable  obstacle  to  their  being  properly  dried, 
their  dimensions  were  reduced,  and  large  perforations 
were  made  in  each  brick  to  reduce  its  weight,  and  to 
enable  it  to  be  more  thoroughly  and  uniformly  dried ; 

*  Brick  was  preferred  to  stone  on  account  of  the  expense  of  the  lattei 

c  3 

31  RUDIMENTS    OF    mP. 

and  by  adopting  this  plan  the  design  was  successfully 
carried  into  execution. 

39.  The  usual  form  of  a  brick  is  a  parallelopipedon, 
about  9  in.  long,  4i  in.  broad,  and  3  in.  thick,  the  exact 
size  varying  with  the  contraction  of  the  clay.  The 
thickness  need  not  bear  any  definite  proportion  to  the 
length  and  breadth,  but  these  last  dimensions  require 
nice  adjustment,  as  the  length  should  exceed  twice  the 
breadth  by  the  thickness  of  a  mortar  joint. 

40.  Bricks  are  made  of  a  variety  of  shapes  for  par- 
ticular purposes,  as  enumerated  in  art.  60,  chap.  iii.  The 
manufacture  of  these  articles  is  principally  carried  on  in 
the  country,  the  brickfields  in  the  vicinity  of  the  metro- 
polis supplying  nothing  but  the  common  building  brick. 

41.  A  point  of  some  little  importance  may  be  here 
^>dverted,  to,  viz.,  is  any  advantage  gained  by  forming  a 
hollow  in  the  bed  of  the  brick  to  form  a  key  for  the 
mortar  ?  There  are  various  opinions  on  this  point ;  but 
we  think  it  may  be  laid  down  as  a  principle,  that  if  it  is 
useful  on  one  side  it  will  be  still  better  on  both,  so  as  to 
form  a  double  key  for  the  mortar.  In  London,  the 
brick  mould  is  placed  on  a  stock  board,  which  is  made 
to  fit  the  bottom  of  the  mould ;  and  the  relative  positions 
of  the  two  being  kept  the  same,  no  diihculty  exists  in 
forming  a  hollow  on  the  bottom  of  the  brick,  this  being 
effected  by  a  kick  fastened  on  the  stock  board.  But 
this  could  not  be  done  on  the  i/pper  side,  Mhich  is 
stricken  level.  In  slop  moulding,  the  mould  is  simply 
laid  on  the  moulding  stool,  or  on  a  moulding  board 
much  larger  than  the  mould,  and  both  sides  of  the  brick 
are  flush  witli  the  edges  of  the  mould,  no  hollow  being 
left,  unless  the  moulder  think  fit  to  make  one  by  scoring 
the  brick  with  his  fingers,  which  is  sometimes  done. 
When  machii\ery  is  used  in  moulding,  it  is  equally  easy 



to  stamp  the  top  aud  the  bottom  of  the  brick ;  and  we 
have  seeiij  at  the  Butterly  Ironworks,  in  Derbyshire, 
excellent  machine-made  bricks  of  this  kind  made  in 
the  neighbourhood. 

42.  Amongst  the  many  inventions  connected  with 
brickmaking  which  have  been  from  time  to  time  brought 
before  the  public,  ventilating  bricks  deserve  attention, 
from  the  facilities  they  afford  for  warming  and  venti- 
lating buildings. 

The  annexed  figures  show  the  form  of  the  bricks  and 
the  way  in  which  they  are  used. 

Fig-  1-  Fig.  2. 

Fig.  1  is  a  representation  of  a  9-in.  wall,  built  witn 
the  ventilating  bricks,  with  one  common  brick  used  at 
the  angle  of  each  com'se. 

Fig.  2  is  a  representation  of  a  14-in.  wall;  the  half 
ventilating  brick,  being  used  alternately  in  the  courses, 
forms  a  perfect  and  effectual  boud. 

Fig.  3  is  an  isometrical  drawing  showing  the  venti- 
lating spaces. 


43.  The  operation  of  drying  the  green  bricks  requires 
great  care  aud  attention,  as  much  depends  upon  the 

36  RUUlMEXrS    OF    TUB 

P  manner  in  -which  thcv  are  got  into  the  kiln.  The  great 
I  point  to  be  aimed  at  is  to  protect  them  against  sun, 
1  wind,  rain,  and  frost,  and  to  allow  each  brick  to  dry 
J  uniformly  from  the  face  to  the  heart. 

Slop-moulded  bricks  are  usually  dried  on  flats  or 
drying  floors,  where  they  remain  from  one  day  to  five  or 
six,  according  to  the  state  of  the  weather.  "When  spread 
out  on  the  floor  they  are  sprinkled  with  sand,  which 
absorbs  superfluous  moisture,  and  renders  them  less 
liable  to  be  cracked  by  the  sun's  rays.  After  remaining 
on  the  floors  until  suflSciently  hard  to  handle  without 
injury,  they  are  built  up  into  hacks  under  cover,  where 
they  remain  from  one  to  three  weeks,  until  ready  for  the 
kiln.  In  wet  weather  they  are  spread  out  on  the  floor 
of  the  drying  shed,  and  great  care  must  then  be  taken 
to  avoid  drafts,  which  would  cause  the  bricks  to  dry 
faster  on  one  side  than  the  other.  To  prevent  this, 
boards  set  edgeways  are  placed  all  round  the  shed  to 
check  the  currents  of  air. 

The  quantity  of  ground  required  for  drying  bricks  in 
this  manner  is  comparatively  small,  as  they  remain  on 
the  floors  but  a  short  time,  and  occupy  little  space  when 
hacked  in  the  hovels.  The  produce  of  a  single  moulding 
stool  by  the  slop-moulding  process  seldom  exceeds 
10,000  per  week,  and  the  area  occupied  by  each  stool  is, 
therefore,  small  in  proportion.  Half  an  acre  for  each 
kihi  may  be  considered  ample  allowance  for  the  working 
floor  and  hovel. 

44.  In  places  where  brickmaking  is  conducted  on  a 
large  scale,  drying  sheds  are  dispensed  with,  and  the 
hacks  are  usually  built  in  the  open  air,  and  protected 
from  wet,  frost,  and  excessive  heat,  by  straw,  reeds, 
matting,  canvas  screens,  or  tarpaulins ;  all  of  which  we 
have  seen  used  in  difierent  places. 


ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  37 

45.  Bricks  intended  to  be  clamp  burnt  are  not  dried 
on  flats,  but  are  hacked  at  once  on  leaving  the  moulding 
stoolj  and  remain  in  the  hacks  much  longer  than  bricks 
intended  to  be  kilned.  This  is  rendered  necessary  by 
the  diff'erence  between  clamping  and  kilning.  In  the 
latter  mode  of  burning,  the  heat  can  be  regulated  to 
great  nicety,  and  if  the  green  bricks,  Avhen  first  placed 
in  the  kiln,  be  not  thoroughly  dried,  a  gentle  heat  is 
applied  until  this  is  effected.  In  clamping,  however, 
the  full  heat  is  attained  almost  immediately,  and, 
therefore,  the  bricks  must  be  thoroughly  dried,  or  they 
would  fly  to  pieces.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  London 
a  good  moulder,  Avith  his  assistants,  will  turn  out  from 
30,000  to  40,000  bricks  per  week,  and  the  clamps 
contain  from  60,000  to  120,000  bricks  and  upwards. 

From  these  combined  causes,  the  area  occupied  by 
each  stool  is  greater  than  in  making  slop-moulded 
bricks.  In  Mr.  Bennett^s  brick-ground  at  Cowley,  ten 
stools  occupy  twenty  acres. 

46.  At  the  risk  of  wearying  the  patience  of  the 
reader,  we  recapitulate  the  leading  points  on  which 
depends  the  difference  of  area  required  for  each  mould- 
ing stool  in  making  :  — 

Slop-moulded  brick?,  Lacked  under     London  pallet-moulded  sand  stocks, 
cover,  and  burnt  in  kilns.  burnt  in  clamps. 

Dried  one  day  on  flats    ...  1st     Hacked  at  once. 

^,      ,       »    /  J    •     u    1      ifv  f  Bricks  loosely  stacked  in  hacks. 

Closely  stacked   m  hacks    17  g  ^^^^^^^  ^j  j^  ^^^^  2  l^,;,^^ 

courses  high,  placed  close  2nd  ^^  ^.^^  -  fj_  ^  be- 
together  under  cover  .     .     .)  [     tween  the  hacks. 

Remain  in  shed  10  to  16  days  3rd     Remain  in  hacks  3  to  6  weeks. 

Rate  of  production  per  stool,  1  ...    f  A  gang  will  turn  out  30,000  to 

about  10,000  weekly  .     .     .J  \      40,000  per  week. 

Kiln  holds  about  30,000  bricks,  I  [  Clamp     contains     60,000     to 

and  may  be  fired  once  in  10  I  5th -^      120,000   bricks,   and   bums 

days J  [      from  2  to  6  weeks. 

47.  It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  observe  that  different 


clays  require  different  treatment,  according  to  their 
composition,  some  bricks  bearing  exposure  to  sun  and 
rain  without  injury,  whilst  others  require  to  be  carefully 
covered  up  to  keep  them  from  cracking  under  similar 
circumstances.  [See  Appendix.] 
/*  Superior  qualities  of  bricks  are  generally  dressed  vriih 
a  beater  when  half  dry,  to  correct  any  twisting  or 
\  warping  which  may  have  taken  place  during  the  first 
stage  of  drying. 


48.  Bricks  are  burnt  in  clamps  and  in  kilns.  The 
latter  is  the  common  method,  the  former  being  only 
employed  in  burning  bricks  made  with  ashes  or  coal- 
dust.  It  should  be  observed,  however,  that  the  name  of 
clamp  is  applied  also  to  a  pile  of  bricks  arranged  for 
burning  in  the  ordinary  way,  and  covered  with  a 
temporary  casing  of  burnt  brick  to  retain  the  heat ;  but 
this  must  not  be  confounded  with  close-clamping  as 
practised  in  the  neighbourhood  of  London. 

49.  The  peculiarity  of  clamp  burning  is  that  each 
brick  contains  in  itself  the  fuel  necessary  for  its  vitrifi- 
cation ;  the  breeze  or  cinders  serving  only  to  ignite  the 
lower  tiers  of  bricks,  from  which  the  heat  gradually 
spreads  over  the  whole  of  the  clamp.  No  spaces  are 
left  between  the  bricks,  which  are  closely  stacked,  that 
the  heat  to  which  they  are  exposed  may  be  as  uniform 
as  possible.  It  is  unnecessary  here  to  go  into  the 
details  of  clamping,  as  they  are  very  fully  given  in 
the  account  of  London  Brickmaking.  [See  also  Ap- 

50.  A  kiln  is  a  chamber  in  which  the  green  briclca 
are  loosely  stacked,  with  spaces  between  them  for  the 
passage  of  the  heat  j  and  baked  by  fires  placed  either 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  39 

m  arched  furnaces  under  the  floor  of  the  kiln^  or  in  fire 
holes  formed  in  the  side  walls. 

There  are  many  ways  of  constructing  kilns^  and 
scarcely  any  two  are  exactly  alike ;  but  they  may  be 
divided  into  three  classes  : — 

1st.  The  common  rectangular  kiln  with  fire-holes  in 
the  side  walls.  This  is  formed  by  building  four  walls 
enclosing  a  rectangular  space,  with  a  narrow  doorway 
at  each  end,  and  narrow-arched  openings  in  the  side 
walls  exactly  opposite  to  each  other.  The  bricks  are 
introduced  through  the  doorways,  and  loosely  stacked 
with  considerable  art,  the  courses  being  crossed  in  a 
curious  manner,  so  as  to  leave  continuous  openings 
from  top  to  bottom  of  the  pile  to  distribute  the  heat. 
In  the  lower  part  of  the  kiln  narrow  flues  are  left,  about 
8  in.  wide  and  about  2  ft.  or  3  ft.  high,  connecting  the 
fire-holes  in  the  side  walls.  The  kilns  having  been 
filled,  the  doorways  are  bricked  up  and  plastered  with 
clay  to  prevent  the  ingress  of  cold  air ;  the  top  of  the 
kiln  is  covered  with  old  bricks,  earth,  or  boards,  to 
retain  the  heat,  and  the  firing  is  carried  on  by  burning 
coal  in  the  fire-holes.  A  low  shed  is  generally  erected 
on  each  side  of  the  kiln  to  protect  the  fuel  and  fireman 
from  the  weather,  and  to  prevent  the  wind  from  urging 
the  fires.  The  details  of  the  management  of  a  kiln  are 
given  in  another  place,  and  need  not  be  here  repeated. 
This  kind  of  kiln  is  he  simplest  that  can  well  be 
adopted,  and  is  in  use  in  Holland  at  the  present  day. 
It  is  the  kiln  in  common  use  through  the  Midland 

2nd.  The  rectangular  kiln  with  arched  furnaces. 
This  consists  also  of  a  rectangular  chamber ;  but  difiers 
from  the  first  in  having  two  arched  furnaces  running 
under  the  floor  the  whole  length  of  the  kiln,  the  furnace 


doors  being  at  one  end.  The  floor  of  the  kihi  is  formed 
like  lattice-work,  with  numerous  openings  from  the 
furnaces  below,  through  which  the  heat  ascends.  The 
top  of  the  kiln  is  covered  by  a  moveable  wooden  roof, 
to  retain  the  heat,  and  to  protect  the  burning  bricks 
from  wind  and  rain.  These  kilns  are  used  in  the  east 
of  England. 

3rd.  The  circular  kiln  or  cupola.  This  is  domed  over 
at  the  top,  whence  its  name  is  derived.  The  fire-holes 
are  merely  openings  left  in  the  thickness  of  the  wall, 
and  are  protected  from  the  wind  by  a  wall  built  round 
tlic  kiln  at  a  sufficient  distance  to  allow  the  fireman 
room  to  tend  the  fires.  These  cupolas  are  used  in  Staf- 
fordshire and  the  neighbourhood,  and  the  heat  employed 
in  them  is  very  great.  Drawings  of  a  cupola  are  given 
in  chap,  iv.,  with  an  account  of  the  manner  in  which 
the  firing  is  conducted,  and  therefore  it  is  unnecessary 
to  enter  here  upon  any  of  these  details. 

51.  The  usual  method  of  placing  bricks  in  the  kiln  is 
to  cross  them,  leaving  spaces  for  the  passage  of  the  heat, 
but  there  are  objections  to  this,  as  many  bricks  show 
a  difl'erent  colour,  where  they  have  been  most  exposed 
to  the  heat.  Thus  in  many  parts  of  the  country,  the 
bricks  exhibit  a  diagonal  stripe  of  a  lighter  tint  than 
the  body  of  the  brick,  which  shows  the  portion  that 
has  been  most  exposed.  In  burning  bricks  that  require 
to  be  of  even  colour,  this  is  guarded  against  by  placing 
them  exactly  on  each  other. 

On  first  lighting  a  kiln  the  heat  is  got  up  gently,  that 
the  moisture  in  the  bricks  maybe  gradually  evaporated. 

AVhen  the  bricks  are  thoroughly  dried,  which  is 
known  by  the  steam  ceasing  to  rise,  the  fires  are  made 
fiercer,  and  the  top  of  the  kiln  is  covered  up  with 
boards,  turf,  old  bricks,  or  soil,  to  retain  the  heat.     As 


the  heat  increases^  the  mouths  of  the  kiln  are  stopped 
to  check  the  drafts  and  when  the  burning  is  completed, 
they  are  plastered  over  to  exclude  the  air,  and  the  fires 
are  allowed  to  go  out.  After  this  the  kiln  is,  or  should 
be,  allowed  to  cool  very  gradually,  as  the  soundness  of 
the  bricks  is  much  injm'ed  by  opening  the  kiln  too 

Pit  coal  is  the  fuel  commonly  used^  and  the  quantity 
required  is  about  half  a  ton  per  1,000  bricks ;  but  much 
depends  on  the  qiiality  of  the  coal,  the  construction  of 
the  kiln,  and  the  skill  with  which  the  bricks  are  stacked. 

Wood  is  sometimes  used  as  fuel  in  the  preliminary 
stage  of  firing,  but  not  to  a  gi'eat  extent.  In  a  letter 
received  on  the  management  of  the  Sufiblk  kilns,  the 
writer  says,  "  The  usual  mode  of  firing  bricks  in  Sufi'olk 
is  in  a  kiln.  The  one  near  me,  belonging  to  a  friend  of 
mine,  is  constructed  to  hold  40,000 ;  it  is  about  20  ft. 
long  and  15  ft.  broad,  and  is  built  upon  two  arched 
furnaces  that  run  through  with  openings  to  admit  the 
heat  up.  The  bricks  are  placed  in  the  usual  way  for 
burning,  by  crossing  so  as  to  admit  the  heat  equally 
through,  when  the  whole  mass  becomes  red  hot :  the 
first  three  or  four  days,  wood  is  burnt  in  what  is  called 
the  process  of  annealing ;  with  this  they  do  not  keep  up 
a  fierce  fire.  After  this  from  12  to  14  tons  of  coal  are 
consumed  in  finishing  the  burning.  Private  individuals 
sometimes  make  and  clamp  20,000  or  30,000  without  a 
kiln ;  then  there  is  great  waste,  and  the  bricks  are  not 
so  well  burnt. 

52.  In  the  preceding  pages  we  have  briefly  sketched 
the  operations  of  brickmaking,  and  the  principles  on 
which  they  depend.  In  the  following  chapters  the 
reader  will  find  these  operations  described  in  detail,  as 
practised  in  different  parts  of  the  country;    it  need 


hardly  be  said  that  the  illustrations  might  be  greatly 
extended,  as  there  are  scarcely  two  counties  in  England 
in  which  the  processes  are  exactly  similar,  but  this 
would  lead  us  far  beyond  the  limits  of  a  Rudimentary 
Treatise,  and  enough  is  given  to  show  the  student  the 
interest  of  the  subject,  and  to  enable  him  to  think  and 
examine  for  himself.  If  he  be  induced  to  do  this  from 
the  perusal  of  these  pages,  the  aim  of  this  little  volume 
will  have  been  completely  fulfilled. 

n.    TILES. 

53.  The  manufacture  of  tiles  is  very  similar  to  that 
of  bricks,  the  principal  differences  arising  from  the  thin- 
ness of  the  ware,  which  requires  the  clay  to  be  purer 
and  stronger,  and  renders  it  necessary  to  conduct  the 
whole  of  the  processes  more  carefully  than  in  making 

54.  Tiles  are  of  three  classes,  viz.,  paving  tiles,  roof- 
ing tiles,  and  drain  tiles. 

Paving  tiles  may  be  considered  simply  as  thin  bricks, 
and  require  no  especial  notice. 

Roofing  tiles  are  of  tsvo  kinds  :  pantiles,  which  are  of 
a  curved  shape,  and  plaintiles,  which  are  flat,  the  latter 
being  often  made  of  ornamental  shapes  so  as  to  form 
elegant  patterns  when  laid  on  a  roof. 

Pantiles  are  moulded  flat,  and  afterwards  bent  into 
their  required  form  on  a  mould.  Plain  tiles  were 
formerly  made  with  holes  in  them  for  the  reception  of 
the  tile-pins,  by  which  they  were  hung  on  the  laths ; 
but  the  common  method  is  now  to  turn  down  a  couple 
of  nibs  at  the  head  of  the  tile,  which  answer  the  same 

Besides    pantiles    and    plaintiles,    hip,    ridge,    and 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  43 

valley  tiles,  come  under  the  denomination  of  roofing 
tiles ;  these  are  moulded  flat,  and  afterwards  bent  on  a 
mould,  as  in  making  pantiles. 

Draining  tiles  belong  to  the  coarsest  class  of  earthen- 
ware. They  are  of  various  shapes,  and  are  made  in 
various  ways.  Some  are  moulded  flat,  and  afterwards 
bent  round  a  wooden  core  to  the  proper  shape.  Others 
are  made  at  once  of  a  curved  form,  by  forcing  the  clay 
through  a  mould  by  mechanical  means.  Tile-making 
machines  are  now  almost  universally  superseding  manual 
labour  in  this  manufacture,  and  many  machines  of 
various  degrees  of  merit  have  been  patented  during  the 
last  few  years. 

55.  Besides  the  above  articles,  the  business  of  a  tilery 
includes  the  manufacture  of  tiles  for  malting  floors, 
chimney-pots,  tubular  drains,  and  other  articles  of 
pottery  requiring  the  lathe  for  their  formation.  We  do 
not,  however,  propose  now  to  enter  upon  the  potter's 
art,  which,  indeed,  would  require  an  entire  volume,  but 
shall  confine  ourselves  to  the  description  of  the  manu- 
facture of  roofing  tiles  as  made  in  Staflbrdshire,  and  at 
the  London  tileries,  adding  a  few  words  on  the  making 
of  tesserae  and  ornamental  tiles  as  practised  by  Messrs. 
Minton,  of  Stoke-upon-Trent. 

56.  In  the  country  it  is  common  to  burn  bricks*  and 
tiles  together,  and  as,  in  most  places,  the  demand  for 
bricks  is  not  great,  except  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of 
large  towns,  -where  the  demand  is  more  constant,  the 
manufacturer  generally  only  makes  so  many  bricks  as 
are  required  to  fill  up  the  kiln. 

Where  tliere  is  a  great  and  constant  demand  for 
bricks  and  tiles,  their  manufacture  is  carried  on  sepa- 

*  In  some  places  bricks  and  lime  are  burnt  together. 


rately,  and  tiles  are  burnt  in  a  large  conical  building, 
called  a  dome,  which  encloses  a  kiln  -with  arched  fur- 
naces. There  are  many  of  these  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  London,  and,  as  we  have  described  them  very  fully  in 
the  chapter  on  London  Tileries,  we  need  say  nothing 
further  here  on  this  subject. 

57.  The  manufactui-e  of  draining  tiles  is  one  which 
daily  assumes  greater  importance  on  account  of  the 
attention  bestowed  on  agriculture,  and  the  growing 
appreciation  of  the  importance  of  thorough  drainage. 
Any  discussion  on  the  best  forms  of  draining  tiles,  ot 
the  most  advantageous  methods  of  using  them,  would, 
however,  be  out  of  place  in  this  volume.  Neither  need 
we  say  much  on  the  practical  details  of  the  manufacture, 
as  it  is  exceedingly  simple,  and  as  regards  the  prepara- 
tion of  the  clay,  and  the  processes  of  drying  and  burning, 
is  precisely  similar  to  the  other  branches  of  tile-making. 
With  regard  to  the  process  of  moulding,  there  is  little 
doubt  but  that  hand  moulding  will  soon  be  entirely 
superseded  by  machinery ;  and  the  discussion  of  the 
merits  of  the  numerous  excellent  tile-making  machines 
now  offered  to  the  public,  although  of  great  interest  to 
those  engaged  in  the  manufacture,  would  be  unsuitcd  to 
the  pages  of  a  rudimentary  work,  even  were  it  practi- 
cable to  give  the  engravings  which  would  be  necessary 
to  enable  the  reader  to  understand  their  comparative 
advantages  or  defects.*  A  few  words  on  the  principal 
features  of  the  manufacture  of  drain  tiles  are,  however, 
required  to  enable  the  reader  to  appreciate  its  peculiar 

58.  Bricks,  paving  tiles,  and  roofing  tiles,  are  little 
required,  and  seldom  manufactured,  except  in  the  neigh- 

•  A  few  details  will  be  found  in  the  chapter  on  Brickmaking  by 


bourhood  of  towns  or  of  large  villages^  where  the  demand 
is  likely  to  be  sufficiently  constant  to  warrant  the 
erection  of  kilns,  drying  sheds,  and  other  appurtenances 
of  a  well-mounted  brickwork.  If  a  cottage  is  to  be 
rebuilt,  a  barn  tiled,  or  it  may  be  once  in  twenty  or 
thirty  years  a  new  farmsteading  erected  in  a  rural  dis- 
trict, it  is  generally  cheaper  to  incur  the  expense  of 
carting  a  few  thousand  bricks  or  tiles  than  to  erect  the 
plant  necessary  for  making  these  articles  on  the  spot. 

But  with  drain  tiles  the  case  is  reversed.  They  are 
most  wanted  precisely  in  situations  where  a  brick-yard 
would  be  an  unprofitable  speculation,  viz.,  in  the  open 
country,  and  often  in  places  where  the  cost  of  carriage 
from  the  nearest  brick-yard  would  virtually  amount  to 
a  prohibition  in  their  use,  if  they  cannot  be  made  on 
the  spot,  and  that  at  a  cheap  rate.  What  is  wanted, 
therefore,  is  a  good  and  cheap  method  of  making  drain 
tiles  without  much  plant,  and  without  erecting  an  expen- 
sive kiln,  as  the  works  will  not  be  required  after  sufficient 
tiles  have  been  made  to  supply  the  immediate  neighbour- 
hood, and  therefore  it  would  not  be  worth  while  to  incur 
the  expense  of  permanent  erections.  The  making  drain 
tiles  a  home  manufacture  is,  therefore,  a  subject  which 
has  much  engaged  the  attention  of  agriculturists  during 
the  last  few  years,  and  it  gives  us  great  pleasure  to 
be  enabled  to  give  engravings  of  a  very  simple  and 
effective  tile-kiln  erected  by  Mr.  Law  Hodges,  in  his 
brick-yard,  and  described  in  the  Journal  of  the  Royal 
Agricultural  Society,  vol.  v.,  part  2,  from  which  publi- 
cation we  have  extracted  so  much  as  relates  to  the, 
description  of  this  kiln,  and  the  cost  of  making  drain 
tiles  in  the  manner  recommended  by  him.  [See  Ap- 

59.  We  have   ali'cady  extended  this   sketch  of  the 


general  principles  and  practice  of  brick  and  tile  making 
beyond  its  proper  limits^  and  must  therefore  pass  on  to 
the  practical  illustrations  of  our  subject. 

The  chapter  ''  On  the  Manufacture  of  Bricks  and 
Tiles  in  Holland"  is  reprinted  from  the  third  volume  of 
Weale's  "  Quarterly  Papers  on  Engineering/'  and  will 
be  read  with  interest  on  account  of  the  great  similarity 
of  the  English  and  Dutch  processes. 

The  account  of  brickmaking,  as  practised  at  Not- 
tingham and  the  Midland  counties,  was  written  from 
personal  examination  of  brickworks  in  the  vicinity  of 
Nottingham,  and  in  the  counties  of  Derby,  Leicester, 
and  Lincoln,  and  has  been  carefully  revised  by  a  gen- 
tleman long  connected  with  one  of  the  principal  brick- 
works near  Nottingham. 

The  paper  "  Ou  Brickmaking,  as  practised  in  the 
Staffordshire  Potteries/'^  was  contributed  to  this  volume 
by  ;Mr.  R.  Prosser,  of  Birmingham,  whose  name  is  a 
sufficient  guarantee  for  the  value  of  the  information 
therein  contained.  The  details  for  this  paper  were  col- 
lected by  Mr.  Prossei-'s  assistant,  Mr.  John  Turley,  of 
Stoke ;  and  the  valuable  analyses  of  brick-earths  were 
made  for  Mr.  Prosser  by  ^Mr.  F.  C.  Wrightson,  of 
Birmingham,  at  a  considerable  expense. 

The  description  of  brickmaking  in  the  vicinity  of 
London  has  been  drawn  up  with  great  care,  and  is  the 
first  illustrated  accoimt  that  has  yet  appeared  of  the 
manufacture  of  clamp  bricks.  The  drawings  accom- 
panying this  paper,  and  that  on  the  London  Tileries, 
arc  from  the  pencil  of  ^Mr.  B.  P.  Stockman. 

Professional  engagements  preventing  a  personal  exa- 
mination of  the  processes  employed  in  brick  and  tile- 
making  in  the  vicinity  of  the  metropolis,  !Mr.  Stockman 
kindly  undertook   this   task,    and   to   his  persevering 


energy  and  talent  we  are  indebted  for  a  great  mass  of 
practical  details  embodied  in  these  two  chapters. 

Lastly,  in  the  Appendix  are  inserted  various  par- 
ticulars relative  to  brickmaking  which  could  not  have 
been  introduced  in  any  other  part  of  the  volume  with- 
out interrupting  the  continuity  of  the  text. 

It  should  be  noted  that  the  various  prices  and  esti- 
mates given  in  the  following  pages,  refer  to  the  time  at 
which  the  descriptions  were  given.  They  are^  of  course; 
subject  to  later  modifications. 


HOLLAND.    By  Hyde  Clakke,  C.E. 

The  Dutch  make  a  most  extensive  use  of  bricks,  of 
which  they  have  several  kinds.  Not  only  are  bricks 
used  for  ordinary  building  purposes,  and  for  furnaces, 
but  also  in  great  quantities  for  foot  pavements,  towing- 
paths,  streets,  and  high  roads.  It  may  be  observed, 
that  they  have  of  late  been  used  very  effectively  in  this 
country  for  the  pavement  of  railway  stations.  The 
paving  bricks,  or  Dutch  clinkers,  are  the  hardest  sort, 
and  are  principally  manufactured  at  Moor,  a  smal  vil- 
lage about  two  miles  from  Gouda,  in  South  Holland. 
The  brick-fields  are  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Yssel, 
from  which  the  chief  material  is  derived,  being  no  other 
than  the  slime  deposited  by  the  river  on  its  shores,  and 
at  the  bottom.  The  slime  of  the  Haarlem  Meer  is  also 
extensively  used  for  this  purpose,  as  most  travellers 
know.     This  is  collected  in  boats,  by  men,  with  long 


poles  having  a  cutting  circle  of  iron  at  the  end,  and  a 
bag-net,  with  which  they  lug  up  the  slime.  The  sand 
is  also  obtained  by  boatmen  from  the  banks  of  the  river 
Maes.  It  is  of  a  fine  texture,  and  grayish  colour.  The 
hard  bricks  are  made  with  a  mixture  of  this  slime  and 
sand,  but  in  what  proportions  I  am  not  informed. 
River  sand  is  recognised  as  one  of  the  best  materials 
for  bricks,  and  is  used  by  the  London  brickmakers,  who 
obtain  it  from  the  bottom  of  the  Thames,  near  "Wool- 
wich, where  it  is  raised  into  boats  used  for  the  purpose. 
For  what  are  called  in  France,  Flemish  bricks,  and 
which  are  manufactured  in  France,  Flanders,  and  on 
the  corresponding  Belgian  frontier,  river  sand  is  pre- 
ferred, and  is  obliged  to  be  obtained  from  the  Scheldt. 
At  Ghent,  and  lower  down,  a  considerable  traffic  is 
carried  on  in  the  supply  of  this  material.  The  quantity 
used  there  is  about  one  cubic  foot  of  sand  per  cubic 

The  slime  and  sand,  being  mixed,  are  well  kneaded 
together  with  the  feet,  and  particular  attention  is  paid 
to  this  part  of  the  process.  The  mixture  is  then  depo- 
sited in  heaps.  The  mode  of  moulding  and  drying  is 
similar  to  that  used  elsewhere.  Paving  bricks  are 
generally  about  6  in.  long,  4  in.  broad,  and  If  in.  thick. 
Dutch  clinks  made  in  England  are  6  in.  long,  3  in. 
broad,  and  1  in.  thick. 

The  house  bricks  and  the  tiles  are  made  for  the  most 
part  at  Utrecht,  in  the  province  of  the  same  name,  from 
brick  earth  found  in  the  neighbourhood.  House  bricks 
are  about  9^  in.  long,  4^  in.  wide,  and  nearly  2  in.  thick. 


The  kilns  are  built  of  different  sizes,  but  generally 
on  the  same  plan.     Sometimes  they  will  take  as  many 


as  1,200,000  bricks.  A  kiln  for  burning  400,000  bricks 
at  once  is  represented  in  the  "  Memoirs  of  the  Academy 
of  Sciences  of  France/^  It  is  a  square  of  about  33  ft.  or 
35  ft.  long  by  28  ft.  or  30  ft.  wide,  closed  in  with  four 
walls  of  brick,  6  ft.  thick  at  the  base,  and  which  slope 
upwards  outside  to  their  extreme  height,  which  is  about 
18  ft.  Some  slope  also  slightly  inwards,  but  in  a  dif- 
ferent direction.  DiflFerent  plans  are  nevertheless 
adopted  with  regard  to  the  form  of  the  external  Avails, 
the  great  object  being,  however,  to  concentrate  the  heat 
as  much  as  possible.  In  the  walls,  holes  are  left  for 
six  flue-holes,  and  sometimes  for  eight  or  ten  or  twelve. 
In  one  of  the  walls,  in  the  breadth  of  the  kiln,  an 
arched  doorway  is  made,  about  6  ft.  wide  and  12  ft. 
high,  by  which  the  bricks  are  brought  into  the  kiln. 
The  arrangements  as  to  the  doorway  are  also  subject  to 
variation.  The  interior  of  the  kiln  is  paved  with  the 
bricks,  so  as  to  present  a  level  base.  The  walls  are  laid 
with  mortar  of  the  same  earth  from  which  the  bricks 
arc  made,  and  with  which  they  are  also  plastered  in- 
side ;  yet,  notwithstanding  the  strength  with  Avliich  they 
are  built,  the  great  power  of  the  kiln  fire  sometimes 
cracks  them.  The  kilns,  I  would  observe,  are  not  usually 
covered  in,  but  some  of  those  for  baking  building-bricks 
have  roofs  made  of  planks,  and  without  tiles,  to  shelter 
them  from  the  wind  and  rain.  Others  are  provided 
with  rush  mats,  which  are  changed  according  to  the 
side  on  which  the  wind  bloAvs.  The  matting  also  serves 
for  protecting  the  bricks  against  the  rain,  Avhilst  the 
kiln  is  being  built  up.  A  shed,  or  hangar,  is  put  up  on 
each  side  of  the  kiln,  in  order  to  contain  the  peat  turf, 
or  to  shelter  the  fire-tender,  and  to  preserve  the  fires 
against  the  cfi'ccts  of  wind.  Such  being  the  practice 
with  regard  to  roofing,  when  the  bricks  are  put  into  the 



kiloj  a  layer,  or  sometimes  two  layers,  of  burnt  bricks 
is  placed  on  the  floor,  laid  lengthwise,  about  three- 
quarters  of  an  inch  from  each  other,  and  so  as  to  slope 
a  little  from  the  parallel  of  the  walls,  that  they  may 
the  better  support  the  upper  rows,  which  arc  always 
laid  parallel  to  the  walls.  This  layer  is  covered  with 
old  rush  mats,  on  which  are  arranged  the  dried  bricks, 
which  are  laid  without  intervals  between  them.  It  is 
said  that  the  mats  serve  to  prevent  the  humidity  of  the 
soil  from  penetrating  to  the  bricks  while  the  kiln  is 
beiug  filled,  which  generally  takes  from  about  three 
weeks  to  a  month.  This  row  of  burnt  bricks  is  so 
placed  as  to  leave  channels  or  flues  of  communication 
with  corresponding  openings  in  the  kiln  walls.  Six 
layers  of  dried  bricks  having  been  put  down,  the  next 
three  rows  are  made  to  jut  over,  so  as  to  shut  up  the 
channels  or  flues.  The  layers  are  thus  carried  up  to 
about  forty-five  in  number,  the  last  two  being  of  burnt 
bricks,  though  in  some  kilns  four  layers  of  burnt  bricks 
are  used  for  closing  in.  The  crevices  are  secured  with 
brick  earth  or  clay,  on  which  sand  is  put ;  the  door  of 
the  kiln  is  then  closed  with  one  or  two  thicknesses  of 
burnt  brick,  then  an  interval  of  about  10  in.  or  12  in. 
filled  in  with  sand,  and  this  secured  with  walling,  and 
by  a  wooden  strut.  The  object  of  the  sand  is  to  prevent 
any  of  the  heat  from  escaping  through  the  crevices. 

It  is  to  be  remarked  that,  in  laying  the  bricks  in  the 
kiln,  as  they  are  laid  down,  a  cloth  is  put  over  them 
and  under  the  feet  of  the  workmen,  so  as  to  prevent  any 
of  the  sand  which  might  fall  oft',  from  getting  down 
and  blocking  up  the  interval  or  interstice  which  natu- 
rally remains  between  each  brick,  and  so  interrupting 
the  passage  of  the  flame,  and  causing  an  unequal  heat 
or  combustion  in  the  kiln. 

The  kiln  being  filled,  a  sufficient  quantity  of  peat  turf 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  51 

is  introduced  into  the  flues,  of  wliicli  one  end  is  closed 
up  with  burnt  bricks,  and  the  turf  is  set  fire  to.  The 
turf  used  is  from  Friesland,  which  is  reckoned  better 
than  Holland  turf,  being  lighter,  less  compact,  and  less 
earthy,  composed  of  thicker  roots  and  plants,  burning 
quicker  and  with  plenty  of  flame,  and  leaving  no  ash. 
The  general  time  in  Holland  during  which  the  supply 
of  turf  by  the  flues  is  kept  up,  is  for  about  four-and- 
twenty  hours,  taking  care  at  first  to  obtain  a  gradual 
heat,  and  supplying  fresh  turf  about  every  two  hours. 
The  fireman,  by  practice,  throws  the  turfs  in  through 
the  small  fire  openings,  and  as  far  in  as  he  judges 
necessary.  TMien  one  side  has  thus  been  heated,  the 
flue  openings  are  closed,  and  the  other  ends  opened  for 
four-and-twenty  hours,  and  supplied  with  fuel;  and  this 
alternate  process  is  kept  up  for  about  three  or  four 
weeks,  the  time  necessary  to  burn  large  bricks.  In 
some  kilns,  however,  the  fire  is  kept  up  for  five  or  six 
weeks,  depending  upon  their  size  and  the  state  of  the 
weather.  A  fortnight  or  three  weeks  is,  however, 
sometimes  enough  for  the  clinkers. 

The  burning  having  been  concluded,  about  three 
weeks  arc  allowed  for  cooling.  It  generally  happens 
that  the  mass  of  brick  sinks  in  in  some  places,  arising 
partly  from  the  diminution  of  volume  produced  by 
burning,  and  partly  from  the  melting  of  some  of  the 
bricks  which  have  been  exposed  to  too  great  heat. 

The  quolity  of  the  bricks  depends  upon  the  degree 
of  bm-ning  to  which  they  have  been  subjected.  Those 
from  about  a  third  from  the  middle  of  the  top  of  the 
kiln,  or  near  the  centre,  are  black,  very  sonorous,  com- 
pact and  well  shaped,  breaking  with  a  vitrified  fracture. 
These  are  generally  employed  for  cellars,  rescrvc;rs, 
and  cisterns,  and  are  most  esteemed. 

D  2 

52  RUDIMLMS    OF    THE 


The  tiles  manufactured  in  Holland  are  flat,  hollow,  S 
shaped,  or  \nth  a  square  opening  in  the  middle  to  let 
in  a  pane  of  glass,  being  much  used  for  lighting  lofts 
and  garrets  all  over  the  Low  Countries.  They  are 
cither  red,  grey,  or  blue,  or  glazed  on  one  side  only. 
The  flat  paving  tiles  are  about  8^  in.  square  by  1  iu. 
thick;  they  are  used  principally  for  cisterns  and  for 
bakers'  ovens.  The  clay  for  tiles,  it  is  to  be  noted,  is 
in  all  cases  more  carefully  prepared  than  that  for  bricks, 
being  groimd  up  wet  in  a  pugmill  or  tub,  with  a  shaft 
carrying  half  a  dozen  blades.  By  this  means,  roots, 
grass,  kc,  are  got  rid  of.  The  clay  comes  out  of  the 
pugmill  of  the  consistence  of  potters'  clay,  and  is  kept 
under  a  shed,  where  it  is  kneaded  by  women,  with  their 
hands,  to  the  rough  form  of  a  tile,  on  a  table  dusted 
with  sand.  These  pieces  are  carried  off  to  the  moulders, 
who  are  two  in  number,  a  rough  moulder  and  a  finisher. 
The  tiles  are  then  dried  under  sheds,  and  afterwards  in 
the  Sim.  "With  regard  to  the  flat  paving  tiles,  they  are 
at  first  rough-moulded  about  an  inch  larger  than  the 
subsequent  size,  and  a  little  thicker,  and  then  laid  out 
to  dry  under  a  shed,  until  such  time  as  the  thumb  can 
hardly  make  an  impression  on  them.  They  are  then 
taken  to  a  finishing-mouklcr,  who,  on  a  table  quite  level 
and  slightly  dusted  with  sand,  lays  one  of  the  tiles,  and 
strikes  it  twice  or  thrice  with  a  rammer  of  wood  larger 
than  the  tile,  so  as  to  compress  it.  He  then  takes  a 
mould  of  wood,  strengthened  with  iron  and  with  iron 
cutting  edges,  and  puts  it  on  the  tile  which  he  cuts  to 
the  size.  The  mould  is  of  course  wetted  each  time  it  is 
used.  The  tiles  are  then  regularly  dried.  In  Switzer- 
and  and  Alsace  an  iron  mould  is  used. 



The  tile-kiln  is  generally  within  a  building,  and  about 
16  ft.  long  (in  ordinary  dimension),  10  ft.  wide,  and 
10  ft.  high.  The  walls  are  from  4|  ft.  to  5  ft.  thick, 
secured  outside  with  great  beams,  and  so  secured  to- 
gether as  to  form  a  square  frame.  Some  of  the  largest 
of  them  are  pierced  with  four  flue-holes,  as  in  brick- 
kilns ;  but  the  flues  are  formed  by  a  series  of  brick 
arches,  about  2|  ft.  wide  by  16  in.  high.  The  opening 
of  the  flue-hole  is  about  10  in.  by  8  or  9  in.  high.  On 
their  upper  surface,  these  series  of  arches  form  a  kind 
of  grating,  on  which  the  tiles  are  laid.  The  kiln  is 
covered  in  at  top  with  a  brick  arch,  pierced  with  holes 
of  difl'erent  sizes.  The  kilns  are  charged  from  an  open- 
ing which  is  constructed  in  one  of  the  side  walls,  which 
opening  is,  of  course,  during  the  burning,  blocked  up 
and  well  secured.  The  fuel  used  is  turf,  as  in  the  brick- 
kilns, and  the  fire  is  kept  up  for  forty  hours  together, 
which  is  considered  enough  for  the  burning.  Three 
days  are  then  allowed  for  cooling,  and  they  are  after- 
wards taken  out  of  the  kiln .  Those  tiles  which  arc  to 
be  made  of  a  greyish  colour  are  thus  treated.  It  having 
been  ascertained  that  the  tiles  are  burnt  enough,  and 
while  still  red  hot,  a  quantity  of  small  fagots  of  green 
alder  with  the  leaves  on  is  introduced  into  each  flue. 
The  flue-holes  arc  then  well  secured,  and  the  holes  in 
the  roof  each  stopped  with  a  paving  tile,  and  the  whole 
surface  is  covered  with  4  in.  or  5  in.  of  sand,  on  which 
a  quantity  of  water  is  thi'OAvn,  to  prevent  the  smoke 
from  escaping  anywhere.  It  is  this  smoke  which 
gives  the  grey  colour  to  the  tiles,  both  internally  and 
externally.  The  kiln  is  then  left  closed  for  a  week,  when 
the  sand  is  taken  off  the  top,  the  door  and  roof-holes 


are  opened^  as  also  the  flue-holes^  aud  the  charcoal 
produced  by  the  fagots  taken  out.  Forty-eight  hours 
after^  the  kiln  is  cool  enough  to  allow  of  the  tiles  being 
taken  out,  and  the  kiln  charged  again.  AVhenever  any 
of  the  tiles  are  to  be  glazed,  they  are  varnished  after 
they  are  baked ;  the  glaze  being  put  on,  the  tiles  are 
put  in  a  potter's  oven  till  the  composition  begins  to 
run.  The  glaze  is  generally  made  from  what  are  called 
lead  ashes,  being  lead  melted  and  stirred  with  a  ladle 
till  it  is  reduced  to  ashes  or  dross,  which  is  then  sifted, 
and  the  refuse  ground  on  a  stone  and  resifted.  This 
is  mixed  with  pounded  calcined  flints.  A  glaze  of 
manganese  is  also  sometimes  employed,  which  gives  a 
smoke-brown  colour.  Iron  filings  produce  black  ; 
copper  slag,  gi'een  ;  smalt,  blue.  The  tile  being  wetted, 
the  composition  is  laid  on  from  a  sieve. 

The  manufacture  of  tiles,  as  already  observed,  is 
principally  carried  on  near  Utrecht,  in  the  province  of 
Holland,  which,  like  most  of  the  great  cities  of  Hol- 
land, has  facilities  for  the  transportation  of  its  produce 
by  water  communication  all  over  the  country. 

Gouda  is  a  great  seat  of  the  pottery  and  tobacco-pipe 
manufactures,  of  which  formerly  Holland  had  a  virtual 
monopoly,  with  regard  to  foreign  trade,  exporting  largely 
Delft  ware,  Dutch  porcelain,  tobacco-pipes,  bricks, 
Flanders'  bricks,  painted  tiles,  and  paving  tiles.  The 
manufacture  of  painted  tiles,  for  the  decoration  of  the 
old  fireplaces,  was  very  extensive;  and  an  infinite  variety 
of  designs,  principally  on  Scripture  subjects,  employed 
many  humble  artists.  This,  however,  is  almost  of  the 
past.  The  manufacture  of  tobacco-pipes  was  another 
great  business,  suitable  to  the  consumption  of  tobacco 
by  the  Netherlandcrs.  Gouda  alone  had,  at  one 
time,  as  many   as  300   establishments  for  the    pro- 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  55 

duction  of  this  article  of  trade.  The  manufacture  of 
tobacco-pipes  is  still  a  large  manufacture  in  England, 
much  more  considerable  than  is  generally  supposed ; 
while  manufactures  of  bricks  and  porcelain  constitute  a 
staple  means  of  employment  for  many  thousands  of 
our  population 

A  great  part  of  these  descriptions,  it  -will  be  seen, 
strictly  apply  to  our  own  practice,  and  are  trite  enough 
and  trivial  enough  ;  but  in  matters  of  this  kind,  there 
is  nothing  lost  by  being  too  minute,  and  it  is  always 
safe.  In  the  present  case,  it  is  worth  knowing  these 
things,  for  the  sake  of  knowing  that  there  is  no 



1.  The  mode  of  making  bricks  at  Nottingham  and 
the  neighbourhood  presents  several  peculiarities,  of  which 
the  principal  are  : — 

1st.  The  use  of  rollers  for  crushing  the  brick-earth. 

2nd.  The  use  of  copper  moulds. 

3rd.  The  hacking  of  the  bricks  under  cover. 

2.  The  use  of  copper  moulds  is  not  confined  to  the 
immediate  neighbourhood  of  Nottingham,  but  has  been 
for  some  years  gradually  extending  to  other  districts, 
and  will  probably,  sooner  or  later,  become  general 
throughout  the  country  for  the  manufacture  of  superior 
qualities  of  bricks. 

3.  It  may  be  proper  here  to  say  a  few  words  on  the 
object  of  grinding  the  clay,  so  generally  practised 
throughout  Staffordshire,  Derbyshire,  Nottinghamshire, 
and  Lincolnshire,  and  probably  in  many  other  places. 


1)1  mauy  brickworks  the  earth  used  is  not  pure  clay, 
but  a  very  hard  marl,  which  cannot  be  brought  into  a 
state  of  plasticity  by  the  ordinary  processes  of  weather- 
ing and  tempering  without  bestowing  upon  it  more 
time  and  labour  than  would  be  repaid  by  the  value  of 
the  manufactured  article.  The  expedient  of  grinding 
is,  therefore,  resorted  to,  which  reduces  the  earth  to  any 
state  of  fineness  required,  according  to  the  number  of 
sets  of  rollers  used,  and  the  gauge  to  which  they  are 
worked,  all  hard  lumps  and  pieces  of  limestone,*  which 
would  otheinvise  have  to  be  picked  out  by  hand,  being 
crushed  to  powder,  so  as  to  be  comparatively  harmless. 
4.  The  advantages  and  disadvantages  of  the  use  of 
rollers  may  be  thus  briefly  stated, — 

1st.  A  great  deal  of  valuable  material  is  used  which 
could  not  be  made  available  for  brickmaking  by 
the  ordinary  processes. 
2nd.  The  process  of  grinding,  if  properly  con- 
ducted, greatly  assists  the  operations  of  the 
temperer  by  bringing  the  earth  into  a  fine  state, 
quite  free  from  hard  lumps. 
On  the  other  hand  : 

The  facilities  afforded  by  the  use  of  rollers  for  working 
up  everythiny  that  is  not  too  hard  to  be  crushed  by 
them,  induce  many  brickmakers  to  make  bricks  without 
proper  regard  to  the  nature  of  the  material.  A  common 
practice  is  to  work  the  rollers  to  a  wide  gauge,  so  that 
comparatively  large  pieces  of  limestone  are  suff'ered  to 
pass  through  without  being  crushed  by  them.  Where 
this  has  been  the  case,  it  need  hardly  be  said  that  the 
bricks   are   worthless.     They  may  appear  soimd,  and 

*  It  may  be  necessary  to  explain,  that  all  pebbles  and  hard  stones  must 
be  picked  out  by  hand  before  grinding ;  where  the  brick  earth  used  is 
much  mixed  with  gravel,  the  only  resource  is  the  use  of  the  waeh-milL 


may  have  a  tolerable  face,  but  rain  and  frost  soon  destroy 
them,  and,  in  situations  where  they  are  exposed  to  the 
weather,  they  will  become  completely  perished  in  a  very 
few  years. 

5.  The  following  description  of  the  mode  of  making 
bricks  at  Nottingham  will  apply  pretty  faithfully  to  the 
practice  of  the  brick-yards  for  many  miles  round.  It 
will,  of  course,  be  understood  that  in  no  two  yards  is 
the  manufacture  carried  on  in  exactly  the  same  way ; 
there  being  diflFerences  in  the  designs  of  the  kilns,  the 
arrangement  of  the  buildings,  and  other  points  of 
detail,  which  may  be  regulated  by  local  circumstances, 
or  which,  from  the  absence  of  any  guiding  principle, 
may  be  left  to  chance  ;  the  general  features,  however, 
are  the  same  in  all  cases. 

6.  Brick-earth. — The  brickmakers  of  Nottingham 
and  its  immediate  vicinity  derive  their  supplies  of  brick- 
earth  from  the  strata  of  red  marl  overlying  the  red 
sandstone  on  which  the  town  is  built,  and  which  in  its 
turn  rests  on  the  coal-measures,  which  make  their 
appearance  at  a  short  distance  to  the  west  of  the  town. 

The  banks  of  the  river  Trent  present  many  good 
sections  of  these  strata,  as  at  the  junction  of  the  rivers 
Trent  and  Soar ;  where  they  are  pierced  by  the  Red 
Hill  tunnel,  on  the  line  of  the  Midland  Railway ;  and 
at  Radcliff-on-Trent,  where  they  form  picturesque  cliffs 
of  a  red  colour  covered  with  hanging  wood  j  and  they 
are  exposed  to  view  in  many  places  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  Nottingham,  as  in  the  cutting  for  the  old 
road  over  Ruddington  Hill,  in  the  Colwick  cutting  of 
the  Nottingham  and  Lincoln  Railway,  and  Goose  Wong 
Road,  leading  to  Mapperly  Plains. 

The  marl  abounds  with  loose  and  thin  layers  of  skerry, 
or  impure  limestone,  and  in  many  places  contains  veins 

D  3 


of  gypsum,  or,  a-5  it  is  called,  plaster  stone,  which  are 
extensively  worked  near  Newark,  aud  other  places,  for 
the  raauufactm*e  of  plaster  of  Paris. 

The  water  from  the  wells  dug  iu  these  strata  is 
strongly  impregnated  with  lime. 

7.  The  colour  of  the  bricks  made  at  Nottingham  and 
in  the  neighbourhood  is  very  various.  For  making  red 
bricks  the  clay  is  selected  with  care,  and  particular  beds 
only  are  used.  For  common  bricks  the  earth  is  taken 
as  it  comes,  and  the  colour  is  veiy  irregular  and  unsatis- 
factory, varying  from  a  duU  red  to  a  dirty  straw  colour. 
Some  of  the  marl  burns  of  a  creamy  white  tint,  and 
has  been  lately  used  with  much  success  in  making 
ornamental  copings  aud  other  white  ware. 

8.  In  the  manufacture  of  common  bricks  no  care  is 
taken  in  the  selection  of  the  clay,  and  it  is  worked  up 
as  it  comes  to  hand  indiscriminately,  the  great  object 

'f  the  manufacturer  being  to  clear  his  yard ;  the  same 
price  being  paid  for  all  clay  used,  whatever  its  quality. 

Stones  and  pebbles  are  picked  out  by  hand,  but  the 
pieces  of  limestone  are  generally  left  to  be  crushed  by 
the  rollers,  and  much  bad  materitd  is  worked  up  iu  this 
v.ay  which  could  not  be  made  use  of  if  the  tempering 
were  effected  by  treading  and  spade  labour  only. 

There  are,  however,  many  beds  which  are  sufficiently 
free  from  limestone  not  to  require  grinding,  and  when 
these  arc  worked  the  rollers  are  not  used. 

9.  For  front  bricks,  and  the  superior  qualities,  the 
clay  is  selected  with  more  or  less  care,  receives  more 
preparation  previous  to  grinding,  is  gi'ound  finer,  and 
is  sometimes  left  to  mellow  in  cellars  for  a  considerable 
time  before  using. 

10.  For  making  rubbers  for  gauged  arches,  the  clay 
is  carefully  picked,  aud  run  through  a  wash-mill  into 

ART    or    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  59 

pits,  where  it  remains  until  by  evaporation  and  settle- 
ment it  has  attained  a  proper  degree  of  consistency. 
The  clay  for  this  purpose  is  generally  mixed  with  a  cer- 
tain quantity  of  sand  to  diminish  the  labour  of  rubbing 
the  bricks  to  gauge,  the  proportion  varying  according 
to  the  quality  of  the  clay.  The  sand  used  for  this 
purpose  is  the  common  rock  sand,  which  burns  of  a 
red  colour. 

11.  The  clay  immediately  near  the  town  of  Notting- 
ham is  not  well  suited  for  making  roofing  tiles,  the 
ware  produced  from  it  being  generally  very  porous. 
This  statement,  however,  is  not  to  be  taken  without 
exceptions,  as  there  is  plenty  of  suitable  clay  for  the 
purpose  within  a  few  miles'  distance. 

12.  The  old  houses  in  Nottingham  are  built  with  very 
thin  bricks,  much  of  the  old  brickwork  gauging  lOi  in. 
to  4  courses  in  height,  including  mortar  joints.  These 
bricks  are  of  a  dark  red  colour,  and  were  from  works 
that  have  been  long  since  abandoned.  The  bricks  now 
made  are  much  thicker,  the  walls  of  many  new  build- 
ings gauging  21  in.  to  7  courses  iu  height,  or  about 
13|  in.  to  4  courses  in  height,  including  mortar  joints. 
The  common  bricks  ai'e  of  a  very  uneven  colour,  which 
arises  partly  from  the  manner  iu  which  they  are  set  in 
the  kiln,  and  partly  from  the  want  of  care  in  selecting 
the  clay,  and  the  quantity  of  limestone  ground  up  with 
it.  From  this  circumstance  the  fronts  of  many  of  the 
new  buildings  have  a  mottled  appearance,  which  is 
extremely  unsightly. 


13.  The  brick-yards  from  which  the  town  of  Not- 
tingham is  at  present  supplied  are  situated  on  the 
slopes  of  a  small  vaDey  along  which  runs  the  public 



road  firom  Nottingham  to  Southwell,  aud,  being  situ- 
ated on  the  sides  of  the  hills,  great  facilities  exist  for 
draining  the  workings  and  for  bringing  the  ground  into 
cultiration  again  after  the  clav  has  been  exhausted. 

14.  The  proprietor  of  a  brickwork  usually  rents  the 
required  land  from  the  owner  of  the  soil,  at  a  price  per 
acre,  and  in  addition  to  the  rent  pars  for  aU  clay  dug, 
whatever  its  quality,  at  a  set  price  per  thousand  bricks 
made  and  sold,  exclusive  of  those  used  for  the  erection 
and  repairs  of  the  buildings  and  works. 


15.  The  arrangement  of  the  several  buiklings  varies 
Tvith  each  yard  more  or  less;  but  tlie  prmciple  on 
which  they  are  laid  out  is  the  same  in  all  cases,  viz.,  to 
advance  towards  the  kiln  at  each  process,  so  as  to  avoid 
all  unnecessary  labour.  This  will  be  understood  by 
inspection  of  fig.  1,  which,  it  must  be  understood,  is  not 
an  exact  representation  of  a  particular  brickwork,  but  a 
diagram  to  explain  the  principle  of  arrangement  usually 
followed.  The  pits  from  which  the  clay  is  dug  are  at 
the  rear  of  the  works,  and  at  some  little  distance  from 
them  is  placed  the  clay-mill,  which,  to  save  labour  in 
wheeling  the  clay,  is  shifted  from  time  to  time  as  the 
workings  recede  from  the  kiln  by  the  exhaustion  of  the 
clay.  This  is,  however,  not  always  done,  as,  where  the 
mill  has  been  fixed  in  a  substantial  manner,  the  saving 
in  labour  would  not  repay  the  cost  of  re-erection. 

The  hovel  or  drying  shed  generally  forms  two  sides 
of  a  rectangular  yard  adjoining  the  public  road,  the 
kiln  being  placed  as  close  to  the  hovel  as  practicable, 
and  the  working  floors  or  flats  in  the  rear  of  the  latter. 
By  this  concentration  of  plan,  the  distance  to  Avliich 
the  bricks  have  to  be  carried  between  the  successive 
processes  of  moulding,  drying,  hacking  and  burning  is 
reduced  to  a  minimum,  which  is  an  important  point  to 
be  attended  to,  as  the  raw  bricks  are  shifted  by  hand 
and  not  harrowed. 

As  it  is  not  always  possible  to  obtain  a  supply  of 
water  at  those  parts  of  the  works  where  it  is  wanted 
to  be  used,  a  water-cart*  is  kept  at  some  yards  for  this 
purpose,  the  supply  being  taken  from  a  pond  into  which 
the  drainage  of  the  works  is  conducted. 

•  The  water-cart  is  seldom  used,  except  where  the  water  has  to  be 
fetched  a  considerable  distance — indeed  rarely,  bat  in  times  of  drought. 
It  is  usually  carried,  in  the  yard,  in  buckets  with  yokes,  as  in  the  time  of 


The  goods  for  sale  arc  stacked  in  the  open  part  of 
the  yard  as  near  the  public  road  as  practicable. 

16.  Clay-Mill. — The  machinery  used  in  grinding  the 
clay  is  very  simple.  The  clay-mill  consists  of  one  or 
more  pairs  of  cast-iron  rollers,  set  very  close  together 
in  a  horizontal  position,  and  driven  by  a  horse  who 
walks  in  a  circular  track,  and,  by  means  of  the  beam  to 
which  he  is  attached,  puts  in  motion  a  horizontal  bevelled 
dri^-ing-wheel  placed  at  the  centre  of  the  horse  track. 
A  horizontal  shaft  connected  at  one  end  with  one  of 
the  rollers  by  a  universal  joint,  and  having  a  bevelled 
pinion  at  the  other  end,  communicates  the  motion  of 
the  driving-wheel  to  the  rollers  by  spur-wheels  keyed 
on  their  axles.  The  clay  is  tipped  in  a  wooden  hopper 
placed  over  the  rollers,  and  passing  slowly  between  the 
latter  falls  on  a  floor  about  8  feet  below  them,  where 
it  is  tempered  for  the  moulder. 

17.  The  common  clay-mill  has  only  one  set  of  rollers, 
but  the  addition  of  a  second  set  is  a  great  improvement. 
In  this  case  the  bottom  rollers  arc  placed  almost  in 
contact  with  each  other,  and  should  be  faced  in  the 
lathe  to  make  them  perfectly  true.  If  only  one  set  be 
used  this  is  a  useless  expense,  as  the  gauge  to  which 
thev  are  worked  is  too  wide  for  anv  advantage  to  be 
derived  from  it. 

18.  Figures  2,  3,  4  represent  a  one-horse  mill  with 
a  single  pair  of  rollers  18  in.  in  diameter,  and  30  in. 
long,  manufactured  by  Messrs.  Clayton  and  Shuttle- 
worth,  of  Lincoln,  who  kindly  furnished  the  drawings 
from  which  the  engrarings  have  been  made.  The 
detailed  description  of  the  several  parts  will  be  found 
iu  art  C9. 

Fig.  2 




Fig.  3. 









ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  65 






--S           ^ 










U    (M 



This  is  a  very  good  mill,  of  simple  construction,  and 
not  expensive,  the  cost  when  ready  for  fixing  (exclusive 
of  foundations  and  brickwork)  being  .€35. 

It  cannot  be  too  strongly  insisted  upon  that  the 
machinery  should  be  boxed  up  close,  so  as  to  prevent 
stones  or  clay  from  clogging  the  wheels,  as  where  this 


is  not  done  the  macliinery  will  unavoidably  become 
deranged  in  a  very  short  time. 

19.  In  many  yards,  the  horse-track  is  raised  to  the 
level  of  the  top  of  the  hopper,  so  that  none  of  the 
machinery  is  exposed.  A  very  good  arrangement  of 
this  kind  is  shown  in  fig.  o,  of  which  a  detailed  descrip- 
tion is  given  in  art.  69. 

20.  The  quantity  of  work  performed  will  of  course 
vary  greatly,  accordiug  to  the  distance  between  the 
rollers  and  the  consequent  fineness  to  which  the  clay  is 
ground.  One  mill  will  grind  sufficient  clay  to  keep  six 
moulders  fully  employed,  and  therefore  there  are  very 
few  yards  in  which  the  rollers  are  constantly  in  work. 

21.  The  length  of  time  during  which  a  clay-mill  will 
last  in  good  working  condition  is  chiefly  regulated  by 
the  wear  of  the  rollers.  If  the  iron  is  of  very  imiform 
quality,  and  care  be  taken  to  pick  out  all  the  pebbles 
from  the  clay,  a  pair  of  rollers  will  last  many  years. 
The  other  parts  of  the  machinery  will  last  vriih  care  for 
an  indefinite  length  of  time. 

22.  JVash-mUL — The  wash-mill  is  used  only  in  the 
manufacture  of  arch  bricks,  and  does  not  differ  from 
that  used  in  other  places.  The  only  one  visited  by  the 
author  consists  of  a  circular  trough,  lined  with  brick- 
work, in  which  the  clay  is  cut  and  stirred  up  with 
upright  knives  fastened  to  a  horse-beam.  From  this 
trough,  the  slip  runs  through  a  grating  into  a  brick 
tank,  where  it  remains  until  by  evaporation  and  settle- 
ment it  becomes  sufficiently  consolidated  for  use. 

23.  The  Pug-mill  is  not  used  in  the  Nottingham* 
brick-yards ;  the  tempering  of  the  clay,  after  grinding, 
being  effected  by  treading  and  spade  labour.  Instead 
of  the  clay  being  tempered  directly  after  grinding,  it  is 

*  It  i^,  however,  used  in  the  neighbourhood. 





sometimes  deposited  to  ripen  iu  damp  cellars  for  a  year 
or  more.     This  is  done  for  the  best  bricks  only. 

24.  The  Moulding  Sand  used  is  tlie  common  rock 
sand,  which  burns  of  a  red  colour.  In  making  white 
bricks  this  is  a  great  disadvantage,  as  it  causes  red 
streaks,  which  greatly  injure  their  colour.  The  sand  is 
only  used  to  sprinkle  upon  the  table  to  prevent  the  clay 
from  adhering  thereto,  end  therefore  sand  with  a  sharp 
grit  is  preferred. 

25.  The  Moulding  Table  is  shown  in  fig.  G.     It  is 

Fiff.  6. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  69 

furnislied  with  a  sand-box^  wliicli  is  sometimes  fixed  to 
the  table,  as  shown  in  the  cut,  and  sometimes  detached, 
and  with  a  water-box,  in  which  the  moulder  dips  his 
hands  every  time  he  moulds  a  brick.  In  the  operation 
of  moulding,  the  moulder  stands  in  front  of  the  table, 
with  the  Avater-box  immediately  in  front  of  him,  the 
tempered  clay  at  his  right  hand,  and  the  sand-box  at 
his  left.  A  sloping  plank  is  placed  at  one  end  of  the 
table  to  enable  the  boy  who  brings  the  clay  from  the 
temperer  to  deposit  it  more  conveniently  on  the  table. 
The  boy  who  takes  oflF  the  newly-made  bricks^  and 
brings  back  the  empty  mould,  stands  on  the  side  of  the 
table  opposite  the  moulder,  to  the  right  of  the  water- 
box,  in  which  he  washes  his  hands  after  each  journey, 
to  prevent  the  clay  from  drying  on  them. 

The  cost  of  a  moulding  table  varies  according  to  the 
care  with  which  it  is  made.  Such  a  one  as  shown  in 
the  cut  will  cost  about  20*.,  and  will  last,  with  occasional 
repairs,  for  several  years.  The  part  where  the  brick  is 
moulded  soon  becomes  worn,  and  has  to  be  cased  as 
shown  in  the  cut.  This  casing  extends  over  the  part 
where  the  brick  is  taken  off  by  the  carrier  boy ;  but,  as 
the  wear  is  not  uniform  over  this  space,  the  casing  is  in 
two  or  more  pieces,  the  part  where  the  brick  is  moulded 
wearing  much  faster  than  the  others,  and  requiring 
renewal  sooner. 

It  is  of  importance  that  the  drippings  from  the  table 
should  not  fall  on  the  drying  floor,  as  they  would  render 
it  slippery  and  unfit  for  use ;  a  rim  is  therefore  placed 
at  one  end,  and  along  a  part  of  one  side  of  the  table, 
and  the  opposite  side  is  furnished  with  a  kind  of  apron 
and  gutter,  by  means  of  which  the  slush  is  conducted  to 
a  tub  placed  under  one  corner  of  the  table,  but  which  ia 
not  shown  in  the  cut. 




26.  Brick  Moulds. — Until  lately  the  moulds  used 
Avere  made  of  wood,  but  these  have  been  almost  entirely 
superseded  by  brass,  or,  as  they  are  technically  called, 
copper,  moulds. 

There  are  several 
diflferent  ways  in 
which  these  moulds 
are  made.  Some- 
times the  brass  work 
is  merely  an  inside 
lining,  screwed  to  a 
wooden  mould;  but 
the  best  construction 
appears  to  be  that 
shown  in  fig.  7,  in  which  the  mould  is  of  brass,  cast  in 
four  pieces,  and  riveted  together  at  the  angles,  the  wood- 
work being  in  four  distinct  pieces  and  attached  to  the 
brass  mould  by  the  angle  rivets.  These  moulds  are 
costly,  and  formerly  a  pair  of  moulds  cost  .€2,  but  they 
may  now  be  had  for  £1  5*.  the  pair. 

It  will  be  seen,  by  reference  to  the  engraving,  that  the 
brass  overlaps  the  woodwork  all  round  the  mould  on 
each  side,  and  these  portions  of  the  mould  wear  away 
very  rapidly,  so  that  the  bricks  made  at  the  close  of  the 
season  are  considerably  thinner  than  those  made  at  its 
commencement.  This  renders  it  necessary  to  renew  the 
projecting  rims  from  time  to  time  as  they  become  worn 
down  with  use,  and  this  will  require  to  be  done  every 
season  if  the  mould  has  been  in  constant  use.  It  is  an 
expensive  operation,  as  the  new  rim  has  to  be  brazed  on 
to  the  old  part,  and  this  must  be  done  with  great  nicety, 
and  so  as  to  make  a  perfectly  flush  joint  on  the  inside 
of  the  mould,  or  the  latter  would  be  rendered  useless. 
The  cost  of  plating  a  pair  of  moulds  is  nearly  the  same 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  71 

as  their  original  cost^  20^.  being  charged  for  the  opera- 
tion^ and  therefore  it  would  be  preferable  to  use  the 
moulds  until  they  are  quite  worn  out^  and  then  to  replace 
them  with  new  ones. 

27.  The  use  of  copper  moulds  is  confined  to  the 
making  of  building  bricks_,  and  quarries  for  paving 
floors^  their  weight  and  great  cost  preventing  their 
employment  for  larger  articles. 

28.  The  mould  has  no  bottom  as  in  the  London 
practice^  nor  is  it  placed  upon  a  raised  moulding  board 
as  in  Staffordshire ;  but  rests  on  the  moulding  table 
itself,  the  top  and  bottom  beds  of  the  brick  being  formed 
at  two  distinct  operations  with  a  little  instrument  called 
a  plane. 

29.  The  Plane,  fig.  8^  is  usually 
made  9  in.  long  by  3  in.  broad,  //O^^"^ 
with  a  handle  at  one  end.  Its  use 
is  to  compress  the  clay  in  the 
mould,  and  to  work  over  the  top 
and  bottom  beds  of  the  brick  to 
give  them  an  even  surface. 

The  strike  is  not  used  at  Nottingham. 

30.  The  Flats,  or  working  floors,  are  prepared  with 
care,  by  levelling  and  rolling,  so  as  to  make  them  hard 
and  even,  and  are  laid  out  with  a  slight  fall,  so  that  no 
water  may  lodge  on  them.  They  are  well  sanded,  and 
constant  care  is  requisite  to  keep  them  free  from  weeds. 
Their  usual  width  is  about  10  yards.  In  unfavourable 
weather  a  single  moulder  will  sometimes  have  as  many 
as  7,000  bricks  on  the  flats  at  once,  for  which  an  area 
of  from  300  to  400  superficial  yards  will  be  required. 
This,  however,  is  an  extreme  case,  and  in  good  drying 
weather  a  moulder  does  not  require  more  than  half  that 
extent  of  floor,  or  even  less  than  this. 


31.  77ie  Hovel f  or  drying  shed,  in  which  the  bricks 
arc  hacked,  is  generally  built  in  the  roughest  and 
cheapest  manner  possible,  with  open  sides  and  a  tiled 
roof,  supported  by  wooden  posts  or  brick  piers;  the 
width  of  the  hovel  is  about  18  ft.,  or  rather  more  than 
the  length  of  a  hack,  but  the  eaves  are  made  to  project 
a  couple  of  feet  or  so  beyond  this  distance,  in  order  to 
give  additional  shelter  from  the  rain,  for  which  reason, 
as  well  as  for  the  sake  of  economy,  the  eaves  are  carried 
down  so  low  as  to  make  it  necessary  to  stoop  to  enter 
the  shed. 

Some  of  the  hovels  have  flues  under  the  floor,  the 
fire-places  being  placed  in  a  pit  sunk  at  one  end  of  the 
hovel,  and  the  chimney  at  the  opposite  end.  These 
flues  are  made  use  of  when  the  demand  for  bricks  is 
so  great  that  sufficient  time  cannot  be  allowed  for  dry- 
ing in  the  open  air,  and  also  during  inclement  seasons. 
The  sides  of  the  hovel  are  then  walled  up  with  loose 
brickwork  to  retain  the  heat.  No  specific  rule  can  be 
given  for  the  relative  sizes  of  the  hovel  and  the  drying 
floor.  The  common  practice  appears  to  be  to  make 
them  of  the  same  length,  which  allows  ample  room, 
and  enables  the  moulder  to  keep  a  portion  of  his  shed 
always  available  as  a  drying  floor  when  the  weather  is 
too  wet  to  allow  of  the  bricks  being  laid  out  on  the 
flats.  "When  this  is  the  ease  the  moulder  protects  the 
raw  bricks  from  drafts,  by  surrounding  them  with  a 
skirting,  so  to  speak,  of  planks.  This  is  a  very  neces- 
sary precaution,  for  the  currents  of  air  from  different 
parts  of  the  shed  would  cause  the  bricks  to  dry  un- 
equally, and  they  would  crack  and  become  unsoimd. 
Matting  is  frequently  hung  up  at  the  sides  of  the  hovel 
for  this  purpose,  and  is  also  much  used  in  some  yards 
to  prevent  the  finer  clays,  when  tempered,  from  drying 



too  rapidly  where  cellars   are  not  provided  for  that 

32.  The  above  description  applies  to  the  ordinary 
hovel,  but  the  best  front  bricks  are  dried  wholly  under 
cover  in  a  brick  hovel  inclosed  by  walls  on  all  sides, 
and  furnished  with  flues,  by  which  the  place  is  kept 
at  a  regular  temperature.  The  expense,  however,  of 
conducting  the  whole  of  the  drying  under  cover  in 
this  manner  is  too  great  to  allow  of  its  general  adop- 

33.  The  claiyper,  fig.  9,  Fig.  9. 
is  simply  a  piece  of  board 
12  in.  by  6  in.  with  a 
handle  on  one  side.     It 
is  used  to  flatten  the  sur- 
faces  of   the  bricks   as 
they  lie   on  the  floors, 
and  the  bricks  are  also 
beaten  with  it  during  the  process  of  hacking,  to  correct 
any  warping  which  may  have  taken  place  in  the  first 
stage  of  drying. 

34.  Dressing    Bench. —  Fig.  10. 
Fig.  10.     This  is  simply  a 
stout  bench,    to  which   is 
fitted  a  plate  of  cast-iron, 
on  which    the   best    front 
bricks   are  rubbed  or  j^o- 
lishecl,  to  make  them  per- 
fectly true  and  even;  the 
workman,  at  tlie  same  time, 
beating  them  with  a  wedge-shaped  beater,  tipped  with 
iron,  called  a  dresser,  fig.  11.    This  operation  toughens 
the  brick,  corrects  any  warping  which  may  have  taken 
place,  and  leaves  the  arrises  very  sharp. 



^'9- 11-  35.     Machinery  for 

pressing  Bricks.  —  In 
some  yards  screw 
presses  are  used  for 
pressing  front  bricks, 
and  with  considerable 
success.  It  is,  however, 
questionable  whether 
they  are  as  durable  as 
those  dressed  by  liana.  In  making  machinery  for  this 
purpose  the  great  desiderata  are,  1st,  to  make  the  metal 
mould  in  which  the  brick  is  compressed  so  strong  that 
it  shall  not  spring  on  the  application  of  the  power;  and, 
2nd,  that  the  piston  shall  exactly  fit  the  mould  :  when, 
from  bad  workmanship  or  long  use,  this  is  not  the  case, 
the  clay  is  forced  between  the  piston  and  the  mould  for 
a  short  distance,  leaving  a  slightly-raised  edge  all  round 
the  side  of  the  brick. 

3G.  V\'e  do  not  propose  here  to  enter  upon  a  com- 
parison of  the  respective  merits  of  machine-pressed 
bricks  and  those  dressed  by  hand.  The  operation  of 
dressing  on  the  bench  requires  an  experienced  work- 
man, whilst  a  common  labourer  can  use  a  machine. 
For  this  reason  machine-pressed  bricks  can  be  pro- 
duced much  cheaper  than  those  dressed  by  hand, 
and  there  is  little  inducement  to  employ  the  latter 

37.  Kiln. — The  kilns  vaiy  considerably  as  regards 
their  dimensions  and  constructive  details,  but  they  are 
all  built  on  the  same  principle. 

Tlie  kiln  shown  in  figs.  12,  13,  14,  15,  16,  and  17,  is 
a  good  one,  though  rather  weak  at  the  angles,  and 
will  convey  an  idea  of  the  general  construction.     (See 
chap,  ix.j  page  210.1^ 



Fig.  12. 

It  consists  of  four  npriglit  walls,  inclosing  a  rectangu- 
lar chamber.  The  floor  is  sunk  about  4  ft.  below  the 
general  surface  of  the  ground,  and  is  not  paved.  The 
doorways  for  setting  and  drawing  the  kiln  are  merely 
narrow  openings  at  the  ends  of  the  kiln,  raised  a  step 
above  the  ground,  and  about  5  ft.  from  the  floor.  The 
fire-holes  are  arched  openings  opposite  each  other  on 
the  sides  of  the  kiln,  lined  with  fire  bricks,  which  require 
to  be  renewed  from  time  to  time,  generally  every  season. 
The  width  of  these  holes  is  reduced  to  the  required  space 



by  temporary  piers  of  brickwork,  so  as  to  leave  a 
narrow  opening  about  8  in.  wide  and  about  3  ft.  hio-h. 
This  will  be  understood  by  reference  to  fig.  12,  in  which 

Fig.  13. 



Fig.  14. 

-         1' 
.0 At 





Fig.  15. 

Fig.  16. 


Fig.  17. 

the  dark  shading  shows  the  fire-brick  lining,  and  the 
unshaded  parts  the  temporary  piers. 

On  each  side  of  the  kihi  a  pit  is  sunk  to  the  level  of 
the  floor,  and  covered  with  a  lean-to  roof,  which  protects 
the  fuel  and  the  fire-man  from  the  weather,  and  prevents 
the  wind  from  setting  against  the  fires.  The  avails  of 
the  kiln  are  about  3  ft.  thick,  and  are  built  of  old  bricks, 
rubble  stone,  and  the  refuse  of  the  yard.  No  mortar  is 
used,  as  the  use  of  lime  would  destroy  the  brickwork, 


under  the  intense  heat  to  which  the  walls  are  exposed. 
The  bricks  are  therefore  set  in  loam  or  fire-clay,  if  it 
can  be  readily  procured.  The  fire-bricks  for  lining  the 
fire-holes  are  sometimes  brought  from  Ilkeston,  where 
excellent  fire-clay  is  worked,  but  it  is  most  common  to 
make  them  at  the  yards  with  such  clay  as  can  be  got 
in  the  neighbourhood,  which  answers  pretty  well.  This 
clay  is  brought  from  the  neighbouring  collieries,  and 
is  obtained  when  sinking  shafts ;  there  is  no  fire-clay 
at  any  of  the  Nottingham  yards. 

38.  Instead  of  being  built  with  walls  of  parallel 
thickness,  resting  on  arches,  as  in  the  example  just 
described,  some  kilns  are  built  with  walls  of  great 
thickness  at  bottom,  and  diminishing  by  set-ofis  until, 
near  the  top  of  the  kiln,  they  are  comparatively  thin. 
Many  kilns  also  are  provided  with  massive  buttresses 
at  the  angles,  with  the  intention  of  counteracting 
the  tendency  which  the  walls  have  to  lift  themselves 
with  the  heat. 

Very  great  care  is  requisite  in  drying  a  newly-built 
kiln,  or  the  walls  will  be  cracked  at  the  first  firing,  and 
the  thicker  the  walls  the  greater  the  care  necessary. 

39.  So  long  as  the  brickwork  is  sufficiently  thick  to 
retain  the  heat,  no  purpose  is  attained  by  increasing 
the  strength  of  the  walls,  unless  they  are  made  so 
massive  that  they  are  unaffected  by  the  heat  externally, 
and  heavy  enough  to  counteract  the  Vijting  cause  by  the 
expansion  of  the  sides  exposed  to  the  fire.  In  the  one 
case  the  walls  expand  bodily  with  the  heat,  forming 
large  and  dangerous  cracks ;  in  the  other,  separation 
takes  place  between  the  inside  and  outside  of  the  walls, 
from  the  expansion  of  the  parts  most  exposed  to  the 
heat,  and  the  kiln  soon  requires  relining. 

40.  The  kiln  shown  in  figs.  12  to  17  is  an  example 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  79 

Fig.  IS. 

of  the  mode  of  building  with  -walls  of  the  same  thick- 
ness top  and  bottom ;  that  shown  in  fig.  18  is  one  of  a 
more  massive  construction^  and  has  buttresses  at  the 
angles.  The  upper  part  of  this  kiln  is  formed  by  build- 
ing, in  a  temporary  manner,  a  thin  parapet  roimd  the 
inside  of  the  top  of  the  walls,  about  a  couple  of  feet  in 
height.  This  expedient  is  often  resorted  to  for  the  sake 
of  increasing  the  capacity  of  a  kiln  at  a  small  expense. 

41.  Some  of  the  kilns  are  provided  with  a  Hight  of 
steps  by  which  access  is  obtained  to  the  top,  in  others 
ladders  are  used  for  this  purpose.  Many  of  the  kilns 
have  also  a  kind  of  light  fence  round  the  top,  made  of 
rough  poles.  This  serves  as  a  protection  from  falling, 
and  as  a  scaffold  to  which  screens  may  be  hung  in 
windy  Aveather  to  keep  the  wind  from  setting  on  the 
top  of  the  kiln.  This  fence  is  shown  in  fig.  2.  The 
outside  staircase  is  shown  in  figs.  1,  13,  and  16. 

42.  The  sizes  of  the  kilns  vary  considerably.  A 
kihi  such  as  that  shown  in  figs.  12  to  17,  20  ft.  long, 
10  wide,  and  12  ft.  high,  will,  with  the  addition  of  a 
parapet^  burn  25,000  bricks  at  once,  and  wiW  requii'e 
rather  more  than  that  number  of  bricks  for  its  erection. 
The  cost  of  such  a  kiln  would  be  from  £'30  to  £50,  the 
value  of  the  materials  being  almost  nominal. 

The  capacity  of  a  kiln  may  be  roughly  calculated  on 
the  assumption  that  ten  bricks  require  a  cubic  foot  of 
space  in  the  kiln,  but  much,  of  course,  will  del  end  on 


the  nature  of  the  clay  and  the  amount  of  shrinkage 
before  bui*niug. 

43.  A  ^ell-built  kiln  will  last  for  many  years  with 
occasional  repairs. 


44.  Clay  digging. — The  clay  or  marl  is^  or  should  be, 
dug  in  the  autumn,  and  collected  in  large  heaps  at  the 
bottom  of  the  slopes,  to  be  mellowed  by  the  ■sriuter  frosts. 
These  heaps  are  shown  in  fig.  1. 

The  cost  of  this  operation  varies  from  1*.  to  \s.  9d. 
per  1,000  bricks,  according  to  the  labour  of  getting  the 
clay,  and  the  distance  to  which  it  has  to  be  wheeled. 

45.  Tempering. — In  the  spring  the  clay  is  turned  over 
by  spade  labour,  being  at  the  same  time  well  watered 
and  trodden.  The  pebbles  and  large  lumps  of  lime- 
stone are  picked  out  by  hand  with  more  or  less  care. 
The  prepared  clay  is  then  wheeled  to  the  mill,  and 
tipped  into  the  hopper.  Sometimes  the  clay,  after 
being  ground,  is  at  once  tempered  for  use  on  the  floor 
beneath  the  rollers ;  but  for  the  best  bricks,  as  before 
stated,  it  is  allowed  to  remain  in  cellars  to  ripen  for  a 
year  or  more. 

46.  The  temperer  is  generally  paid  by  the  moulder, 
who  contracts  for  tempering,  moulding,  and  hacking  at 
a  price  per  1,000.  The  cost  of  tempering  for  common 
bricks  is  about  \s.  Sd.,  exclusive  of  the  cost  of  horsing 
the  mill,  which  is  borne  by  the  proprietor  of  the  yard. 

One  temperer  will  keep  one  moulding-table  constantly 
supplied,  and  will  also  assist  the  moulder  in  getting  up 
his  bricks  from  the  floor. 

47.  Moulding. — A  sufficient  quantity  of  clay  hanng 
been  prepared  on  the  tempering  floor,  one  of  the 
moulder's  boys   takes  up  as  large  a  lump  as  he  can 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  81 

conveniently  carry^  ancl^  placing  it  on  his  head,  walks 
with  it  to  the  moulding  table,  and  walking  up  the 
sloping  plank,  deposits  it  at  the  end  of  the  table,  to  the 
right  hand  of  the  moulder  at  b,  fig.  6. 

The  moulder  having  sprinkled  some  dry  sand  over 
the  part  of  the  table  marked  D,  takes  from  the  heap  of 
tempered  clay  a  piece  sufficient  to  make  a  brick,  and 
kneads  this  clot  with  his  hands  on  the  sanded  part  of 
the  table,  so  as  to  bring  it  approximately  into  shape. 
He  then  raises  the  clot  in  the  air,  and  dashes  it  with 
some  force  into  the  mould,  striking  off  the  superfluous 
clay  with  his  fingers.  He  then  dips  his  hands  into  the 
water-box,  and,  with  very  wet  hands,  works  over  the 
face  of  the  brick,  so  as  to  force  the  clay  perfectly  into 
the  mould  in  every  part.  He  next  takes  the  plane  and 
passes  it  backwards  and  forwards  with  considerable 
pressure,  until  the  face  of  the  brick  is  flush  with  the 
edges  of  the  mould,  and  then,  reversing  the  mould, 
planes  the  underside  in  the  same  way.  The  brick  being 
moulded,  the  moulder  slides  it  on  the  wet  table  to  his 
left  hand  side,  where  it  is  taken  off  by  a  second  boy, 
who  carries  it,  mould  and  all,  to  an  unoccupied  part  of 
the  floor,  where  he  turns  it  out  carefully  on  one  of  its 
sides,  and  returns  with  the  empty  mould.  Meanwhile 
the  moulder  has  made  another  brick  in  a  second  mould, 
which  is  now  ready  to  be  taken  off,  and  this  process  is 
repeated  until  the  distance  to  an  unoccupied  part  of 
the  floor  is  too  great  to  allow  of  the  boys  returning  in 
time,  and  the  table  is  then  shifted  to  another  part  of 
tlic  floor. 

48.  Drying. — After  the  bricks  have  remained  for  a 
few  hours  in  the  position  in  which  they  were  first  placed 
on  the  floors,  they  are  turned  on  their  edges  by  a  boy, 
who  turns  up  two  at  once,  one  with  each  hand.    They 

£  3 


remain  in  this  position  a  few  hours  longer,  and  are  then 
laid  flat  on  the  opposite  side  to  that  on  wliieh  they  were 
first  placed.  Careful  moulders  sprinkle  sand  over  the 
wet  bricks  as  they  lie  on  the  floor,  which  absorbs  the 
superabundant  moisture,  and  renders  them  less  liable 
to  crack ;  but  this  is  not  always  done. 

Tlie  new  bricks  sometimes  also  undergo  a  slight 
dressing  with  the  clapper,  to  take  off  any  roughness  at 
the  edges,  and  to  correct  any  alteration  of  form  which 
may  have  taken  place  on  turning  them  out  of  the  mould, 
and  in  some  cases  they  are  scraped  with  a  small  iron 
scraper,  to  remove  any  dirt  that  may  adhere  to  them. 

After  lying  flat  a  few  hours  longer,  they  arc  carried 
by  the  boys,  three  at  a  time,  to  the  hovel,  where  the 
moulder  builds  them  into  hacks  50  bricks  long  and  1  !• 
courses  high,  each  hack  containing  700  bricks.  As  the 
bricks  are  hacked  they  are  hatted  with  the  clapper,  to 
correct  any  warping  which  may  have  taken  place  whilst 
lying  on  the  floors.  The  bricks  remain  in  the  hovel 
without  being  again  shifted,  until  they  are  ready  for 

'19.  The  time  allowed  for  drying  varies  with  the 
weather,  the  size  of  the  kiln,  and  the  demand  for  bricks. 
Some  brickmakers  get  the  bricks  out  of  the  kiln  within 
a  fortnight  of  their  leaving  the  moulds,  but  this  haste 
is  very  prejudicial  to  the  soundness  of  the  bricks,  and, 
as  a  general  rule,  three  weeks  is  the  least  time  that 
should  be  allowed  for  drying. 

The  time  that  the  raw  bricks  lie  on  the  flats  depends 
Bolcly  on  the  weather.  In  good  drying  weather  the 
bricks  are  made  one  day  and  hacked  the  next;  but  at 
other  times  several  days  may  elapse  before  they  are  fit 
for  liacking. 

50.  It  is  not  very  easy  to  separate  the  cost  of  hacking 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  83 

from  that  of  moulding,  as  both  operations  are  per- 
formed by  the  moulder.  The  price  for  moulding,  in- 
cluding tempering  and  hacking,  is  from  5^.  per  1,000, 
and  upwards  J  5s.  3d.  is  a  common  price.  Where  the 
clay  is  ground  the  moulder  pays  for  feeding  the  mill, 
but  not  for  horsing  it,  this  expense  being  borne  by  the 
proprietor  of  the  yard. 

51.  The  above  description  refers  to  the  ordinary 
mode  of  proceeding,  but  for  facing-bricks  additional 
processes  are  employed.  Pressed  bricks,  as  their  name 
implies,  are  prepared  by  putting  the  raw  bricks  one  at 
a  time,  when  nearly  dry,  into  a  metal  mould,  in  which 
they  are  forcibly  compressed  by  the  action  of  a  powerful 
lever  which  forces  up  the  piston  forming  the  bottom  of 
the  mould.  This  gives  a  very  beautiful  face  to  the 
brick,  and  leaves  the  arrises  very  sharp,  but  bricks  so 
prepared  require  longer  time  for  drying  and  judicious 
management  in  the  kiln,  otherwise  they  will  be  un- 
sound, and  when  exposed  to  the  weather  soon  become 

52.  Polished  bricks,  as  they  are  called,  arc  rubbed 
upon  a  bench  plated  with  iron,  to  make  their  surfaces 
perfectly  even,  and  are  also  dressed  with  a  dresser,  as 
before  described.  This  process  is  only  gone  through 
with  the  very  best  bricks,  and  its  cost  is  such  that  it  is 
not  employed  to  any  very  great  extent. 

53.  The  contraction  of  the  clay  in  drying  is  very 
slight,  and  no  perceptible  diminution  of  size  takes 
place  in  burning  if  the  bricks  have  been  previously 
thoroughly  dried. 

The  brick  moulds  are  made  of  different  sizes  at  dif- 
ferent yards,  their  proportions  having  been  altered  from 
time  to  time,  so  as  to  increase  the  depths  of  the  moulds 
at  the  expense  of  the  other  dimensions. 


When  the  thickness  of  a  piece  of  brickwork  is  mea- 
sui'ed  by  the  number  of  bricks,  as  in  house  building, 
and  not  by  feet  and  inches,  as  in  building  the  piers  of 
bridges  and  other  solid  works,  the  number  of  bricks 
required  for  the  execution  of  a  rod  of  brickwork  is 
considerably  reduced  by  a  very  trifling  addition  to  the 
thickness  of  the  bricks,  and  this  is  always  an  induce- 
ment to  purchasers  to  prefer  the  yards  where  the 
deepest  moulds  are  used. 

The  largest  common  bricks  now  made  measure,  when 
burnt,  9^  in.  lonjr,  4f  in.  wide,  and  3yV  ^^-  thick,  or 
thereabouts ;  the  size  of  the  moulds  being  91  in.  long 
by  4^1^  in.  wide,  and  3  ^  in.  deep.  These  bricks  weigh 
about  7  lbs.  15  oz.  when  burnt. 

The  best  red  facing-bricks  made  at  Mr.  Wood's  yard, 
in  the  Carlton  Road,  measure,  when  burnt,  9^  in.  long, 
4|  in.  wide,  and  2|^  in.  thick.  The  moulds  for  these 
bricks  are  10  in.  long,  4^  in.  wide,  and  3^  in.  deep. 

54.  A  good  moulder,  if  solely  occupied  in  moulding, 
will  turn  out  2,000  bricks  in  a  day,  between  G  a.m.  and 
G  P.M. ;  but  as  nearly  one-third  of  the  moulder's  time  is 
taken  up  with  hacking,  the  average  day's  work  is  not 
more  than  about  1,300  per  day,  or  between  7,000  and 
8,000  weekly. 

55.  Burning. — The  setting  of  the  kiln  is  an  opera- 
tion on  which  much  depends,  and  requires  to  be  done 
by  an  experienced  hand,  as  there  is  a  great  deal  of  art 
in  arranging  the  bricks  in  a  proper  maimer,  so  as  to 
allow  the  heat  to  be  diffused  equally  through  the  kiln, 
and  to  afford  a  proper  draught,  so  as  to  obtain  the 
greatest  amount  of  steady  heat  Midi  the  smallest  ex- 
penditure of  fuel. 

The  lower  part  of  the  kiln  is  filled  with  common 
bricks,  narrow  openings  being  left,  as  shown  by  the 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  85 

dotted  lines  in  fig.  12^  forming  flues  connecting  the 
opposite  fire-holes^  the  tops  of  these  flues  heiug  formed 
by  oversetting  the  bricks  on  each  side  till  they  meet. 
These  flues  are  of  the  same  height  as  the  fire-holes. 

The  best  bricks*  are  placed  in  the  middle  of  the  kiln, 
and  above  these  again  are  placed  common  bricks  up  to 
the  top.  The  bricks  are  not  placed  close  together,  but 
a  space  is  left  all  round  each  brick  to  allow  of  the  pas- 
sage of  the  heat  round  it ;  the  bricks  in  the  successive 
courses  being  crossed  either  slantwise,  or  at  right  angles 
to  each  other.  When  a  brick  rests  partly  on  others, 
and  is  partly  exposed  to  the  fire,  the  exposed  part  will 
commonly  be  found  of  a  lighter  red  than  those  to  which 
the  fire  has  had  no  access,  and  this  is  one  great  cause 
of  the  mottled  colour  of  the  Nottingham  bricks.  When, 
therefore,  it  is  wished  to  produce  bricks  of  a  uniform 
red  tint,  great  care  is  taken  to  keep  the  faces  and  ends 
of  the  bricks  in  close  contact,  crossing  them  every  few 
courses  only. 

The  kiln  being  topped,  the  doorways  are  built  up  Avith 
refuse  brick  and  plastered  over  with  clay,  to  prevent 
the  admission  of  currents  of  cold  air,  and  the  fires  being 
lighted,  the  heat  is  got  up  gradually,  care  being  taken 
not  to  urge  the  fires,  until  all  the  steam  is  driven  ofi" 
from  the  bricks,  and  the  actual  bui'ning  begins.  "When 
the  fire  has  attained  its  full  heat,  the  fire-holes  arc 
partially  stopped  with  clay,  and  the  top  of  the  kiln  is 
covered  over  with  earth,  turfs,  or  boards,  to  check  the 
draught,  and  a  steady  uniform  heat  is  kept  up  until 
the  completion  of  the  burning,  which  generally  occupies 
three  days  and  three  nights  from  the  first  lighting  of 

•  If  tiles  be  burnt  at  the  same  time,  which  is  frequently  the  case,  as 
they  cannot  be  burnt  alone  without  great  waste,  they  take  the  sain« 
position  in  the  kila  as  dresied  bricks. 


tlic  fires  ;  at  the  expiration  of  which  time  the  fire-holes 
are  completely  stopped,  and  the  fires  put  out ;  after  the 
fires  have  been  extinguished,  the  kiln  should  be  allowed 
to  cool  very  gradually,  as  the  soundness  of  the  bricks  is 
much  deteriorated  by  the  kiln  being  opened  too  soon  j 
this,  however,  is  a  point  not  sufficiently  attended  to. 

56.  The  fuel  employed  is  coal,*  the  quantity!  used 
being  about  half  a  ton  per  1,000  bricks,  the  exact 
amount  depending  on  the  quality  of  the  fuel  and  the 
judicious  setting  of  the  kiln.  The  town  of  Nottingham 
being  situated  on  the  very  edge  of  the  Nottinghamshire 
coal-field,  the  cost  of  firing  is  very  low,  and  excellent 
coal  can  be  laid  down  at  the  yards  at  from  8s.  Gd.  per 
ton  upwards.  The  small  coal  or  slack  frequently  used 
in  the  early  stage  of  burning  does  not  cost  more  than 
5s.  to  6s.  per  ton. 

57.  The  colour  and  soundness  of  the  bricks  vary 
according  to  their  position  in  the  kiln  and  the  intensity 
of  the  heat  to  which  they  have  been  exposed.  Those 
nearest  the  fire  become  partially  vitrified,  and  of  a 
blackish  tint.  Those  w^hich  have  been  more  favourably 
placed  burn  of  various  tints  according  to  the  nature  of 
the  clay,  from  red  to  straw  colour  and  white,  and  when 
struck  together  riugw^ith  a  clear  metallic  sound.  Those 
which  are  underburnt  are  tender,  of  a  pale  red  colour, 
and  give  a  dull  sound  when  struck  together. 

58.  The  cost  of  setting  and  drawing  the  kiln  is  gene- 
rally reckoned  at  I*.  6d.  per  1,000,  this  including 
stacking  the  bricks  in  the  yard,  or  placing  them  in 
the  carts  of  the  purchasers.     If,   however,   they   are 

*  Soft  coal  is  preferred. 

t  In  some  great  yards  a  deal  of  coal  is  wasted  on  the  top  of  the  kiln. 
As  the  heat  has  always  an  upward  tendency,  this  lias  very  little  effect  on 
tlie  bricks,  and  a  great  deal  of  fuel  is  wasted  in  smoke  and  flame. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  87 

not  for  immediate  sale,  an  additional  6d.  is  charged  for 
loading  the  carts. 

59.  The  labour  in  firing  is  reckoned  at  Is.  per 

60.  At  "Nottingham,  and  at  the  yards  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood, many  varieties  of  brick  are  manufactured; 
as  cant,  or  splayed  bricks,  for  plinths ;  Tveathered  and 
throated  copings  of  several  sizes ;  round  copings ; 
bricks  with  quarter-round  ends ;  wedge-shaped  bricks 
for  culverts  ;  compass,  or  curved  bricks  for  lining  shafts 
and  wells,  and  also  paving,  roofing,  and  draining  tiles 
of  all  descriptions.  It  is  unnecessary  to  enter  into  any 
details  on  the  manufacture  of  these  articles,  as  they 
offer  no  particular  points  of  interest.  It  may,  however, 
be  worth  while  to  mention  that  the  use  of  copper 
moulds  is  confined  to  the  manufacture  of  those  articles 
which  are  of  a  convenient  size,  and  for  which  there  is 
a  large  demand ;  the  moulds  for  cant  bricks,  compass 
bricks,  and  other  fancy  articles  for  which  there  is  only 
a  limited  demand,  being  made  of  wood. 


61.  Land,  and  Brick-earth. — The  proprietor  of  a 
brickwork  usually  rents  the  necessary  land  at  a  price 
per  acre,  and  in  addition  pays  for  all  clay  removed  at  a 
set  price,  whatever  its  quality. 

As  the  brick-earth  is  exhausted,  or  the  workings 
reach  an  inconvenient  depth,  the  ground  is  levelled  and 
again  thrown  into  cultivation.  This  is  of  course  done 
at  the  earliest  period  possible ;  and  in  some  cases  the 
rental  of  the  land  is  nearly  made  up  by  the  profit  dc' 
rived  from  cultivating  the  site  of  the  exhausted  work 
iiigs,  so  that  it  is  impossible  to  give  an  accurate  estimate 


of  the  proportion  which  the  rental  of  the  land  bears  to 
the  total  cost  of  manufacture^  as  it  must  vary  widely  in 
each  particular  case.  This  remark  does  not  hold  good 
with  regard  to  the  brick-earthy  which  is  paid  for  at  the 
rate  of  8^.  per  cubic  yard,  or  2s.  per  1,000  bricks,  a 
thousand  bricks  requiring  about  3  cubic  yards  of  clay. 

It  must  be  remembered  that,  as  above  stated,  this 
price  is  paid  for  all  clay  removed,  whether  suitable  or 
not  for  brickmaking.  For  common  bricks  the  earth  is 
taken  as  it  comes,  good  and  bad  being  ground  up  to- 
gether ;  the  cost  of  grinding  being  less  than  the  loss 
wliich  would  result  from  the  rejection  of  the  inferior 
earths,  which  are  often  so  hard,  and  contain  so  much 
skerry  in  pieces  of  all  sizes  from  that  of  a  walnut  to  that 
of  a  man's  head,  that  they  could  not  be  worked  up  by 
the  ordinary  process  of  tempering  by  treading  and  spade 
labour  only.  For  front  bricks  and  the  best  qualities, 
the  clay  is  carefully  picked,  and  the  cost  is  propor- 
tionately increased  thereby. 

Ko  estimate  can  be  given  for  the  amount  of  land 
required  for  making  a  given  number  of  bricks,  as  it 
depends  on  the  situation  of  the  yard  and  the  depth  to 
which  the  workings  can  be  carried. 

62,  Buildings  and  Maclthieiy. — From  the  circum- 
stance that  in  existing  yards  the  buildings  have  been 
erected  at  different  times  without  any  very  systematic 
plan,  it  is  not  very  easy  to  ascertain  what  are  the  best 
relative  sizes  of  Avorking  floors,  hovels  and  kilns,  or 
what  extent  of  building  and  plant  are  required  for 
working  a  yard  to  the  greatest  advantage.  Unless  the 
manufacture  be  conducted  on  a  very  large  scale,  the 
griuding-mill  will,  in  most  cases,  be  often  unemployed ; 
aud  the  wash-mill  being  used  only  in  the  manufacture 
of  arch  brii^ks,  it  is  only  in  the  immediate  neighbour- 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  89 

hood  of  a  large  town  that  a  retui'ii  for  the  cost  of  its 
erection  can  be  hoped  for.  It  -will  always  be  found  an 
advantage  to  have  an  excess  of  shed-room  rather  than 
the  contrary. 

G3.  The  following  rough  estimate  will  give  an  idea  of 
the  buildings  and  machinery  required  for  mounting 
a  new  yard^  to  produce  from  -iOjOOO  to  50^000  per 
week  : — 

1  clay -mill. 

120  yards  lineal  of  hovel^  6  yards  wide. 

1^200  yards  superficial  of  working  floor. 

This  extent  of  hovel  and  floor  will  be  sufiicient  for  the 
operations  of  six  moulders ;  and^  taking  the  work  of 
each  moulder  to  average  throughout  the  season  1^300 
per  diem^  the  week's  work  of  the  six  moulders  would 
produce  46; 800  per  week^  or  in  round  numbers  140^000 
every  three  weeks. 

This  rate  of  production  would  render  necessary  two 
kilnSj  each  to  burn  Bo^OOO^  and  these  kilns  would  be 
kept  in  constant  activity,  each  kiln  bemg  fired  twice 
every  three  weeks. 

64.  For  a  yard  in  which  it  is  proposed  to  make  all 
kinds  of  brick  ware  additional  buildings  will  be  required, 
as: — 

Cellars  for  ripening  the  ground  clay ; 
A  tempering  shed,  for  tempering  under  cover ; 
One  or  more  drying-houses,  provided  with  furnaces 
and  flues ; 

A  wash-mill  for  running  the  clay  for  making  rubbers. 

Besides  the  above  erections,  there  will  be  required  in 
all  yards  stabling  to  a  greater  or  less  extent ;  a  cottage 
for  the  under-taker  of  the  yard ;  and  sheds  and  out- 
buildings for  keeping  tools,  carts,  and  implements. 

90  RUi)IMEXTS    OF   THE 

65.  Tools.  — The  tools  required  by  each  moulder 
are  : — 

A  pair  of  brass  moulds ; 

A  moulding  table,  and  appurtenances  complete ; 

A  plane ; 

A  clapper. 

In  addition  to  these  implements  a  variety  of  other 
articles  are  required,  as  shovels,  picks,  barrows,  planks, 
sand  baskets,  sieves,  &c.,  which  are  kept  in  store  by 
the  proprietor  of  the  yard,  and  supplied  to  the  men  as 

G6.  Labour. — The  proprietor  of  the  yard  finds  all 
tools  and  implements,  sand,  and  coals,  and  horses  the 
mills.  The  general  management  of  the  yard  is  con- 
ducted by  an  under-taker,  who  superintends  the  yard 
and  contracts  with  the  proprietor  for  all  the  labour 
required  in  the  actual  manufacture,  at  a  price  per 
1,000  on  the  tale  of  bricks  delivered  from  the  kiln, 
the  imder-taker  bearing  all  loss  from  frost,  wet,  or 
other  causes. 

The  under-taker  sublets  the  moulding  to  a  moulder, 
who  contracts  with  him  at  a  price  per  1,000  to  mould 
and  hack  the  bricks  ready  for  setting  in  the  kiln ;  the 
moulder  employing  two  boys  to  assist  him  in  moulding 
and  hacking,  and  also  a  tcmperer,  who  tempers  the 
ciay  for  him,  and  assists  in  getting  up  the  bricks  from 
the  floor.  The  first  turning  over  of  the  clay  is  per- 
formed by  labourers,  under  the  direction  of  the  under- 
taker, who,  with  the  assistance  of  a  few  boys  and 
labourers,  sets  and  draws  the  kilns  himself,  and  attends 
to  the  burning. 

67.  The  actual  selling  price  of  bricks  is  regulated 
more  by  the  demand  and  the  amount  of  competition 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  91 

than  by  the  cost  of  their  production.  Good  building 
bricks^  made  in  copper  moulds,  may  be  had  in  Notting- 
ham at  2os.  per  1,000 ;  but  a  fair  selling  price  may 
be  considered  as  28^.  per  1,000,  which  may  be  thus 
subdivided  : — 

Clay  digging per  1,000 

Turning  over  and  watering  clay  and  feeding  mill  „ 

Grinding „ 

Tempering  for  moulder „ 

Moulding,  drying  and  hacking         ...  „ 

Setting  and  drawing  kiln        ....  „ 

Burning ,, 

Total  cost  of  labour    ...  „ 

Coal,  half  a  ton,  at  8s „ 

Dutv,  OS.  lOd.  per  1,000,  with  5  per  cent,  added  „ 


Rent,  tools,  machinery,  and  profit  ...  „ 

Selling  price  at  yard      .        .        .  ,, 

This  may  be  considered  as  the  lowest  price  which 
^Till  afford  any  profit  to  the  proprietor  of  the  yard, 
when  proper  allowance  is  made  for  depreciation  in 
buildings  and  machinery,  tools,  repairs,  and  other 

68.  The  relative  value  of  the  different  qualities  of 

brick  may  be  thus  stated  : — 

£  s.  d. 
Common  bricks  (the  clay  not  picked)  .  .  per  1,000  18  0 
Front  bricks  (made  in  copper  moulds,  the  clay 

picked) „  1   13     0 

Polished  bricks  (made  in  copper  moulds,  the 

earth   selected   with   care,   and   the   bricks 

dicssed  on  a  bcnrh) ,,  3    0    0 












































69.  Repere.vce  to  the  Illustrations  accompanying 

TISED IN  Nottingham. 

Fig.  I.  General  view  of  a  brickwork,  showing  the  arrangement  of  the 

A.  The  face  of  the  workings. 

B  B.  Heaps  of  brick-earth,  dug  in  the  autumn,  to  be  worked  up  the 

following  season,  after  being  mellowed  by  the  winter  frosts. 
c.  The  clay-mill. 
D  D.  The  working  floors,  generally  made  about  9  or  10  yards  wide. 

E.  The  hovel.  This  hovel  is  flued, — the  door  at  the  end  of  the  hovel 
next  the  road  is  the  entrance  to  the  furnace  pit ;  the  chimney  into 
which  the  flues  are  conducted  is  shown  at  the  opposite  end.  In 
some  drying  houses  the  flues  arc  made  to  return  nearly  to  the 
furnaces  before  they  are  led  into  the  chimney,  so  that  the  latter  is 
close  to  the  former. 

F.  The  kiln.  This  form  of  kiln  is  a  weak  one,  and  is  liable  to  be 
split  from  top  to  bottom  by  the  expansion  of  the  walls,  from  the 
intense  heat  to  which  they  are  exposed.  The  reader  will  observe 
the  steps  and  the  wooden  fence  roimd  the  top  of  the  walls,  men- 
tioned in  article  41. 

G.  Goods  for  sale. 

This 'illustration  is  not  an  exact  representation  of  any  particular  brick- 
work, but  has  been  made  up  from  the  details  of  several  yards,  to  show  the 
principle  on  which  they  are  laid  out ;  which  is,  to  save  all  unnecessary 
carriage  of  either  brick-earth  or  bricks,  from  the  time  of  first  turning 
over  the  clay  to  the  stacking  of  the  finished  bricks  in  the  sale  yard. 

Figs.  2,  3,  and  4.  Clay-mill,  with  a  single  pair  of  rollers  18  in. 
in  diameter,  and  32  in.  long,  as  manufactured  by  Messrs.  Clayton  and 
Shuttleworth,  of  Lincoln.  The  letters  of  reference  are  the  same  in  each 

a.  Horse  beam,  12  feet  long,  from  centre  of  horse  track  to  centre  of 
driving  wheel. 

b.  Bevelled  driving  wheel. 

c.  Pinion. 

d.  Driving  shaft,  1^  in.  diameter. 

e.  Universal  joint. 
ff.  Spur  wheels. 

g  g".  Cast-iron  rollers  18  in.  diameter  and  32  in.  long.  The  roller 
marked  ^  is  longer  than  the  other,  hanng  a  flange  round  each 
end  by  which  the  roller  g  is  kept  in  its  proper  position.  The 
roller  marked  (f  is  coimected  by  the  universal  joint  e  with  the 
driving  shaft  d. 

h.  Wooden  hopper. 

J  I.  Cast-iron  standards  to  support  the  hopper. 

k  h.  Axles  of  rollers. 


/  L  Bearings  for  the  axles  k  h.    These  bearings  are  made  to  slide 
on  the  bottom  plate  m,  in  order  that  the  gauge  of  the  rollers  may 
be  adjusted  at  pleasure. 
m.  Bottom  plate,  on  which  the  bearings  rest. 
n.  Strengthening  bar. 

0  0.  Adjusting  screws,  by  which  the  rollers  can  be  set  to  any  gauge, 
according  to  the  degree  of  fineness  to  which  the  clay  is  required 
to  be  ground. 
p.  End  beam  of  fiaming. 
q  q.  Sides  of  framing. 
7-,  Balance  weight  to  horse  beam. 
The  rollers  in  this  mill  are  not  faced  in  the  lathe,  but  they  are  cast 
upright  in  loam  moulds,  which  insures  great  accuracy  in  casting,  and 
renders  turning  imnecessary,  where  only  one  set  of  rollers  is  employed. 
The  aiTangement  of  the  rollers,  when  two  or  more  sets  are  employed,  is 
shown  in  chap,  iv.,  figs.  1,  2,  and  3,  which  shows  the  construction  of  the 
clay-mills  used  in  Stafibrdsihire, 

The  temporary  floor  on  which  the  clay  falls  after  passing  between  the 
rollers  is  formed  about  8  feet  below  them,  and  is  inclosed  on  three 
sides  with  brick  walls  which  support  the  wooden  framework  of  the 
machinery.  The  clay  is  prevented  from  adhering  to  the  surfaces  of  the 
rollers  by  strong  knives  fixed  on  their  under  sides. 

Fig.  5  is  a  diagram  showing  an  improved  arrangement  of  the  ordinaiy 
clay-mill,  in  which  the  horse  track  is  raised  to  the  level  of  the  top  of  the 
hopper,  the  whole  of  the  machinery  under  the  hopper  being  completely 
boxed  up,  so  that  no  dirt  or  stones  can  lodge  on  the  wheels.  The  driving 
wheel  is  placed  in  a  circular  pit  lined  with  brickwork  to  keep  up  the 
horse  track  to  the  required  height. 
Fig.  6.  Isometrical  view  of  a  moulding  table. 

A.  Sloping  plank,  placed  at  one  end  of  the  table  to  enable  the 
moulder's  boy  to  deposit  the  clay  on  the  table. 

B.  End  of  the  table  where  the  tempered  clay  is  deposited. 

c.  Sand  box.  This  is  not  always  fixed  to  the  table.  In  many 
cases  it  is  a  detached  box,  on  three  legs,  placed  close  to  the 
moulding  table. 

D.  The  part  of  the  table  on  which  the  clot  is  moulded. 

E.  The  place  where  the  clot  is  put  into  the  mould. 

F.  The  water-box,  in  which  the  moulder  dips  his  hands  each  time 
he  moulds  a  brick. 

0.  A  slip  of  wood  on  which  the  plane  rests  in  order  to  raise  it  from 
the  table,  that  the  moulder  may  take  it  up  the  more  readily. 

H.  The  part  of  the  table  at  which  the  brick  is  taken  off.  This  part 
of  the  table  is  alw.iys  very  wet,  and  the  slush  runs  off  into 

1.  Gutter,  to  cany  off  the  drippings  from  the  table  into  a  tub  placed 
beneath  it,  but  which  is  not  shown  in  the  drawing.  If  the  water 
were  allowed  to  run  down  on  the  working  floor,  the  latter  would 
soon  become  wet  and  sUpperr,  and  unfit  for  receiving  the  bricks. 

Fig.  7.  Copper  brick  mould. 

This  kind  of  mould  is  cast  in  four  pieces  and  riveted  together,  the 
sides  projecting  half  an  inch  beyond  the  ends.  Each  casting  haa 
a  flange  at  top  and  bottom,  forming  a  rim  half  an  inch  wide  all 
round  the  top  and  bottom  of  Cbe  mould.    These  rims  become 


gradually  worn  down  by  the  friction  of  the  plane  and  the  action  of 
the  moulding  sand,  and  require  replating  from  time  to  time.  The 
expense  of  replating  with  brass  has  induced  a  trial  of  iron  rims, 
but  they  have  not  been  found  to  answer.  The  outside  of  the  mould 
is  cased  with  wood,  secured  to  the  brass  by  the  rivets.  To  give  a 
hold  to  the  latter,  each  pair  is  passed  through  a  piece  of  sheet 
copper,  as  shown  in  the  cut. 

The  moulds  for  making  quarries  are  somewhat  different,  two  of  tho 
sides  only  being  cased  with  wood,  whilst  the  others  arc  stiffened 
by  strengthening  ribs  cast  on  the  sides  of  the  mould. 
Fig.  8.  The  plane. 
Fig.  9.  The  clapper. 

Fig.  10.  Bench  on  which  the  best  bricks  are  polished  and  dressed  with 
a  dresser,  as  described  in  art.  34. 
Fig.  11.  The  dresser. 

Figs.  12,  13,  14,  15, 16,  and  17.    Plans,  sections  and  elevations  of  a 

Fig.  12.  Plan  at  level  of  floor,  showing  the  firing  sheds  and  fire-holes. 
The  latter,  in  this  example,  are  arched  over,  and  are  built  of  con- 
siderable width,  which  is  afterwards  reduced  by  temporary  piers  of 
brickwork.  In  many  kilns,  however,  the  fire-holes  are  made  at 
once  of  the  requisite  width,  and  finished  at  top  by  oversetting  the 
bricks  on  each  side  till  they  meet,  instead  of  being  arched  over. 
The  fire-brick  lining  to  the  fire-holes  is  indicated  in  the  plan  by  a 
tint  darker  than  that  of  the  rest  of  the  walls.  The  temporary  piers 
of  brickwork  are  shown  in  outline  only.  These  are  pulled  do^m 
whenever  the  fire-brick  lining  requires  to  be  renewed.  The  floor 
of  the  kiln  is  not  paved. 

Fig.  13.  Plan,  showing  the  roofs  of  the  firing  sheds  (b  b),  and  the 
stejjs  (a)  leading  to  the  top  of  the  kiln. 

Fig.  14.  Cross  section  of  kiln,  taken  through  the  firing  sheds,  and 
showing  the  construction  of  the  fire-holes. 

Fig.  15.  Longitudinal  section,  taken  through  the  doorways  at  the 
ends  of  the  kiln,  and  showing  the  appearance  of  the  fire-holes  in 
the  inside. 

Fig.  16.  End  elevation  of  kiln,  showing  the  doorway  and  the  ends  of 
the  firing  sheds,  as  well  as  the  steps  leading  to  the  top  of  the  kiln. 

Fig.  1 7.  Side  elevation,  with  the  firing  shed  removed,  in  order  to 
show  the  fire-holes. 
Fig.  18.  Perspective  view  of  a  kiln.  This  kiln  is  built  very  differently 
from  that  shown  in  the  previous  figures,  the  walls  being  very  massive 
at  the  bottom,  and  diminishing  in  thickness  as  they  ascend.  Tho 
angles  are  strengthened  by  buttresses.  The  doorways  do  not  reach 
to  the  top  of  the  walls,  and  are  arched  over,  so  that  the  latter  form 
a  continuous  terrace  all  round  the  top  of  the  kiln,  on  which  a  thin 
parapet  is  built  up  in  a  temporary  manner,  to  increase  its  capacity. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  90 


SHIRE POTTERIES.    By  R.  Prosseb,  C.E. 

1.  Bricks. — There  are  made  in  this  neighbourhood 
the  following  sorts  of  bricks  for  building,  viz.,  red,  blue, 
and  drabj  and  also  a  blue  brick  used  as  a  paviour  for 
footways,  which  brick  is  called  a  dust  brick,  from  the 
circumstance  of  coal  dust  being  used  when  it  is  moulded. 
When  fired  it  has  a  smooth  and  somewhat  glossy  sur- 
face, and  being  very  durable  is  extensively  used  as  a 

2.  The  drab  brick  is  used  to  a  limited  extent  for 
building,  but  more  generally  as  a  fire-brick  by  potters 
and  iron-masters ;  it  is,  however,  inferior  to  the  Stour- 
bridge brick,  the  latter  being  used  where  intense  heat  is 

3.  Tiles. — There  is  a  variety  of  other  articles  made 
in  the  brick-yards  of  this  locality,  as,  roofing  tiles  in 
several  varieties,  tubular  drain  tiles  from  3  in.  to  16  in. 
meter,  and  generally  18  in.  long;  also  floor  tiles  or 
t  ^uarries  both  red  and  blue,  the  latter  resembling  the 
blue  brick. 

4.  Clay. — The  blue  colour  is  obtained  from  the  same 
clay  that  fires  red  by  additional  heat  being  generated 
when  blue  is  required,  at  a  cost  of  half  a  ton  more  coal, 
and  two  hours  more  time  allowed  per  oven.  The  clays 
or  marls  are  selected  for  the  purposes  to  which  they  are 
best  adapted,  and  an  extensive  supply  of  the  best  quality 
for  red  is  procured  at  Cobshurst,  about  two  miles  south 
of  Longton  (which  marl  is  used  to  make  the  red  orna- 


mental  and  encaustic  tiles,  now  so  much  admired,  and 
which  are  extensively  made  by  Messrs.  !Minton  and  Co., 
of  Stoke-upon-Trent).  Marls  and  clays  suitable  for 
brickmaking  are  plentiful,  and  of  several  varieties,  in  this 
neighbourhood,  but  the  most  extensive  bed  of  red  marl 
runs  in  an  almost  unbroken  line  through  this  country 
from  south  to  north,  and  generally  west  of  the  great 
coal-field,  and  is  worked  with  the  same  results  at 
Stooi-bridge,  Tipton,  Hanford,  Basford,  Tunstall,  and 
other  places.  A  reference  to  a  map  of  the  country 
will  show  the  peculiarity  of  this  long  bed  of  stratified 

5.  In  the  pottery  district  there  are  about  ten  distinct 
sorts  or  strata.  The  following  names  are  given  to  the 
seven  sorts  most  used  ;  and  their  position  with  relation 
to  the  earth's  surface  is  shown  by  the  order  of  their 
names  here  given. 

Top  red  marl,  dun  coloured,  top  yellow  (rotten  red, 
not  used),  mingled,  bottom  yellow,  brown,  and  bottom 


Seven  of  these  marls  vary  but  slightly  in  their 
chemical  composition,  and,  when  used,  three  sorts  at 
least  are  generally  mixed  together.  (For  an  Analysis 
of  the  above-named  marls,  sec  Table  1,  art.  37.) 

In  this  locality  there  is  a  very  favourable  combination 
of  circumstances  for  the  manufacture  of  ornamental 
bricks  for  architectural  decorations;  and  Mcre  archi- 
tects to  give  the  subject  their  attention,  and  such 
bricks  free  from  duty,  much  might  be  done. 

6.  The  following  description  of  the  process  and  cost 
of  brick  and  tile-making  will  apply,  first,  to  the  make 
of  bricks,  &c.,  upon  the  property  of  the  manufacturer ; 
and,  secondly,  to  the  make  of  tiles^  &c.,  at  a  yard  which 
is  rented. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  97 


7.  Buildings  and  Plant. — This  yard,  "with  the  ground 
opened  for  work,  has  an  area  of  about  6  acres,  and  has 
the  following  buildings  and  machinery  upon  it,  viz. : — 

A  5-horse  power  steam  engine  ;  A  pug-mill ; 

A  set  of  horizontal  rollers  ;  Six  drying-houses  ; 

(Three  pairs  to  the  set,  placed  over  And  nine  ovens, 
each  other). 

The  drying-houses  measure  40  yards  in  length,  by  8^ 
yards  in  width,  and  have  two  flues  under  the  floor 
through  their  entire  length. 

At  times  they  fire  these  nine  ovens  in  one  week ; 
and  if  used  exclusively  for  bricks,  each  oven  sould 
be  fired  five  times  in  a  fortnight.  Besides  bricks,  the 
following  goods  are  made  at  this  yard  : — pipe  tiles  from 
3  in.  to  16  in.  diameter,  roof  and  ridge  tiles,  quarries, 
dust  bricks,  &c. 

8.  Rate  of  Production. — Provided  the  make  were 
confined  to  bricks,  with  these  conveniences  they  would 
make  100,000  weekly  during  the  usual  brick  season, 
which  at  the  present  selling  price,  £1  8s.  per  1,000, 
gives  a  weekly  produce  value  ^6140,  which  quantity 
would  pay  in  duty  £27  lis.  3^.,  the  duty  being  6s.  l^d. 
per  1,000,  with  10  per  cent,  off":  this  leaves  for  cost  of 
production  and  profit  £112  85.  9d. 

9.  Tempering. — The  marls  used  at  this  yard  answer 
to  the  description  previously  given,  'i'heir  average  con- 
traction when  mixed  is  1  in  10 ;  that  is,  a  10-iu.  mould 
gives  a  9-in.  brick  when  fired,  although  some  of  the 
varieties  used  separately  contract  1  in  G.  The  marls 
are  dug  and  wheeled  two  runs  for  Aid.  to  7d.  per  cube 
yard,  the  price  depending  upon  the  difficulty  of  digging. 
The  marl  is  then  placed  in  a  hopper  over  the  topmost 



rollers,  and  passing  successively  through  the  three  pairs, 
is  deposited  on  a  floor  about  8  ft.  below  the  hopper. 
The  marl  is  then  wheeled  away,  and  some  three  or  more 
sorts  mixed  together  with  a  proper  quantity  of  water, 
by  spade  labour  (for  the  quantity  of  water  in  the  marl 
when  dug,  see  Analysis,  Table  1,  art.  37).  The  mixed 
marls,  if  wanted  for  tiles  or  dust  bricks,  are  now  passed 
through  the  pug-mill ;  but  if  required  for  ordinary 
bricks,  the  ground  marls  are  mixed  with  marls  that 
have  been  weathered  but  not  ground.  Lastly,  the  marl 
is  tempered  by  spade  labour  until  the  proper  degree  of 
plasticity  is  obtained. 

10.  Moulding. — The  bricks  are  moulded  by  what  is 
called  the  slop -moulding  process  at  the  rate  of  3,000 
per  day.*  The  price  paid  for  tempering  and  moulding 
is.  -is.  6d.  per  1,000.  The  process  is  as  follows :  the 
temperer  wheels  the  prepared  marl  in  a  barrow  up  a 
plank,  and  empties  it  upon  the  moulding  table.  The 
moulder  having  sprinkled  sand  upon  the  moulding 
board,  and  upon  that  part  of  the  table  where  the  clot 
is  moulded,  takes  as  much  clay  as  will  fill  the  mould, 
and  by  a  quick  roll  and  a  tap  gives  the  clot  an  approxi- 
mate form  Xa)  the  movdd ;  he  then  lifts  up  this  lump  of 
clay  about  12  in.  high,  and  with  force  throws  it  into 
the  mould,  pressing  it  down  with  both  hands  to  fill  all 
the  cavities,  and  strikes  oflF  the  surplus  with  a  wooden 
striker,  which  he  throws  into  a  small  water-box  in  front 
of  him  after  each  time  of  using. f  An  attendant  boy, 
who  has  previously  dipped  a  moidd  in  a  water-trough 
by  the  side  of  the  table,  places  it  on  the  table  ready  for 
the   moulder,    and  carrying  away  the  moulded  brick 

•In  the  neighbourhood  of  Noltingham.uhere  the  bricks  are  not  Etrkken, 
but  planed,  the  rate  of  production  is  only  2,000  per  r5aj. — tc» 
t  See  chap,  iii.,  art.  47. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  99 

in  the  mouldy  carefully  empties  it  on  its  flat  side  on 
the  floor ;  these  operations  are  repeated  until  the  floor 
is  filled,  when  the  moulding-table  is  removed  to  a 
second  floor. 

11.  Drying. — The  floors  are  of  difierent  sizes  ;  a  con- 
venient size  is  25  yards  in  length  by  6  yards  in  breadth, 
upon  which  they  will  lay  3,000  bricks.  Here  they  are 
allowed  to  dry  until  sufficiently  hard  to  handle  and  place 
in  hacks,  the  length  of  time  depending  upon  the  weather. 
In  quick  drying  weather  they  vrill  remain  half  a  day  as 
deposited  from  the  mould,  and  half  a  day  tui'ned  upon 
edge,  and  afterward  they  are  placed  up  in  hacks,  where 
they  remain  until  placed  in  the  oven. 

12.  An  ordinary  blue  brick  weighs,  wet  from  the 
mould,  12  lbs.  4oz. ;  when  fired  it  weighs  8  lbs,  1  oz., 
having  lost  by  evaporation  in  drying  and  burning  4  lbs. 
3  oz.,  or  3i  per  cent,  of  its  original  weight. 

The  specific  gravity  of  an  ordinary  blue  brick 
in  the  wet  state  from  the  mould  is  .  ,  .  2,171 
In  the  dry  state,  ready  for  the  kiln  .  .  2,075 
And  when  burned,  the  specific  gravity  is  .  1,861 
The  Table  on  the  next  page  shows  the  amount  of 
evaporation  during  the  process  of  drying. 

The  total  loss  of  weight  in  drying  and  burning  is  as 
follows  : — 

196  ounces,  the  weight  of  a  brick  wet  from  the  mould. 
46       „  „  lost  by  drying,  or  23^  per  cent. 

150       „  „  dry  ready  for  the  kiln. 

21       „  ,,  lost  in  burning,  or  14  per  cent. 

129       „  „  of  an  ordinary  blue  brick. 

13.  Burning. — The  oven  is  of  a  circular  form,  with  a 
F  2 






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spherical  top,  and  will  contain  8,000  bricks,  which  are 
PD  placed  as  to  allow  a  space  between  the  sides  of  each 
for  the  action  of  heat,  and  an  equal  diffusion  thereof, 
^hen  the  oven  is  full,  the  clamm'ms  or  doorway  is  made 
up,  and  the  fires  kindled  and  kept  burning  3G  hours  for 
red,  and  38  hours  for  blue  bricks,  consuming  3^  tons  of 
coak  for  the  former,  and  4  tons  for  the  latter.     The 



firing,    and  drawing 
follows  :    labour   12s. 

an   oven  ol 
,   and  coals 

expense  of  setting, 
8,000  bricks  is  as 
£1  13*.  M. 

14.  Cost  of  Manufacture. — The  details  of  tlie  cost  of 
manufacture  are  as  follows : — 

Clay  getting     .        .  _      .        .        .        .per  1,000 

Tempering  and  moulding  .... 

Setting  oven,  firing  and  drawing 

Coals,  4  tons  at  8s.  Ad.,  divided  amongst  8,000 

Duty,  05.  10(/.,  with  5  per  cent,  added 

Eent,  machinery,  clay,  contingencies,  and  profit 

Present  seUing  price  for  ordinary  blue  bricks 



1     8     0 

15.  Rental. — Brick-yards  with  mines  of  marls  are  set 
with  the  following  appendages,  viz.  :  1  oven,  moulding 
or  drying-house,  and  pug-mill,  with  a  breadth  of  brick 
floor  and  marl  bank  sufficient  to  work  one  oven  for  £30 
per  annum ;  if  two  ovens  are  worked  in  the  take,  they 
are  set  at  £2o  each. 




IG.  Fi(js.  Ij  2,  3,  Machine,  with  three  pairs  of  Rollers, 

for  grinding  Marl. 

Fig.  1.  Side  elevation. 

Fig.  2.  Front  elevation,  with  the  gearing  removed. 

Fig.  3.  Elevation  of  gearing,  No.  1  being  the  drivicg  wheel. 



^v\\mr'^A\\\^m\:  iTiiiiJiiii'ii^piiB 


ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  103 

17.  Fig.  4.  Isometrical  View  of  a  Moulding  Table. 

A.  Sand  basket.       b.  Detached  water-box.        c.  Moulding  board 
D.  Water-box.  e.  Clay  knife. 

In  the  process  of  moulding  the  moulder  takes  in  his  hand,  from  the 
basket,  a  portion  of  sand,  and  dusts  upon  that  part  of  the  table  where  he 
rolls  the  clay  into  the  form  necessary  to  mould ;  also  upon  the  moulding 
board.  The  water-box  or  trough,  b,  is  used  by  the  boy  to  wash  the  mould 
in,  and  is  lower  than  the  table,  so  as  to  be  convenient  for  that  purpose. 
The  water-box,  d,  is  level  with  the  table,  and  is  used  to  throw  the  strike 
in  after  each  time  of  using. 

18.  Fig,  5.  Isometrical  View  of  a  Brick  Mould. 

N.B.  The  mould  is  made  of  oak,  the  edges  plated  with  iron. 



19.  Bgs.  6,  7,  8,  and  9.    The  Oven  or  Cupola 

Fig.  6.  Plan  taken  at  top  of  fire-holes  at  level  a  b,  Fig.  9. 


3    i'    1    O 

Fig.  7.  Plan,  looking  down  on  top  of  oven. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  105 

Fig.  8.  Elevation. 

Fig.  9.  Section,  on  line  c  d,  Fig.  6. 


20.  At  Basford  there  is  an  extensive  hill  of  good  marls 
from  which  eight  brick-yards  are  supplied  (working  four- 
teen ovens),  some  of  which  have  been  in  work  for  forty 
years.  The  makers  are  subject  to  the  rental  stated  in 
art.  15.  The  leading  article  made  at  these  yards  is  roofing 

F  3 

106  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

tiles ;  besides  which  are  also  made  some  quarries,  dust- 
bricks;  drain  tiles,  and  just  so  many  common  bricks  as  are 
necessary  for  the  manufacture  of  tiles,  it  being  necessary, 
in  order  to  set  the  oven  properly,  to  burn  2,000  bricks 
with  every  oven  of  roof  tiles,  as  will  be  hereafter  ex- 
plained. The  process  of  tile  making  here  is  as  follows  : — 

21.  Weathering  a7id  Tempering. — The  marl  is  dug 
and  spread  upon  slopes  of  this  hill  (which  has  a  south- 
east aspect)  to  weather;  the  length  of  time  depends 
upon  the  quality  of  the  air  :  a  hot  dry  summer's  day  will 
do  good  service,  and  three  or  four  such  days  would 
enable  the  makers  to  collect  a  thin  surface  in  a  work- 
able condition.  Frosty  weather,  provided  it  be  dry,  is 
preferred  ;  wet,  and  alternations  of  wet  and  dry,  retard 
the  process  of  what  is  termed  weathering.  During  ? 
hot  dry  season  marl  can  be  dug,  weathered,  and  mad& 
in  one  month,  and  this  is  frequently  done.  At  the  yards 
here  referred  to,  the  workers  collect  their  marls,  so 
weathered,  at  the  foot  of  these  slopes,  and  mix  them 
with  a  quantity  of  water.  That  to  be  used  for  tiles  is 
placed  in  the  pug-mill,  and  about  1  cube  yard  per  hour 
is  ground  by  one  horse ;  and  that  used  for  common 
bricks  is  not  ground,  but  simply  mixed  and  tempered. 

The  pug-mill  consists  of  a  wooden  tub  slightly 
tapered,  the  largest  end  being  uppermost ;  it  is  circular 
and  about  G  ft.  high  and  3  ft.  diameter  at  the  top  or 
largest  end,  in  which  a  cast-iron  spindle  revolves, 
carrying  a  series  of  flat  steel  arms,  arranged  so  as  to 
form  by  rotation  a  spiral  or  worm-like  motion  upon  the 
clay,  which  is  thereby  pressed  from  a  larger  to  a  less 
diameter  of  the  tub  in  which  the  clay  is  confined,  and 
ultimately  comes  oozing  out  of  an  aperture  at  the 
bottom :  this  operation  kneads  the  clay,  and  more  com- 
pletely mixes  it,  giving  it  great  cohesive  power.     This 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  107 

clay  or  prepared  marl  is  now  ready  to  make  roof  tiles, 
dust  bricks^  quarries,  &c.,  and  is  wheeled  away  to  the 
stock  kept  under  cover  for  that  purpose.  The  tiles,  and 
all  articles  in  the  making  of  which  coal-dust  is  used, 
are  made  in  a  building  called  by  brickmakers  the  hovel 
or  drying  house :  but  they  prefer  placing  their  tiles 
when  first  moulded  in  the  open  air,  weather  permitting. 
The  moulding  of  roofing  tiles  varies  from  that  of  bricks 
before  described,  principally  in  the  clay  being  stiffer, 
and  coal  dust  being  thrown  in  the  mould  each  time  it 
is  filled. 

22.  Moulding. — The  mould  is  12  in.  by  7|  in.  and 
^  in.  thick,  made  of  oak  plated  with  iron.  The  moulder 
at  his  bench  takes  up  a  lump  of  clay,  and  works  it  by 
hand  into  an  oblong  square,  somewhat  less  than  the 
mould,  say  11  in.  by  7  in.  or  thereabout ;  the  mould  is 
placed  upon  the  bench,  and  fine  coal-dust  thrown  into 
it ;  the  man  then  takes  up  the  lump  of  clay  in  the  right 
position  for  the  mould,  and  throws  it  into  it  with  con- 
siderable force  ;  then,  with  a  brass  wire  strained  upon  a 
wooden  bow,  cuts  off  the  surplus  clay  level  with  the 
mould,  removes  the  lump,  and  finishes  moulding  the 
clay  left  in  the  mould  by  adding  a  little  clay  if  it  be 
wanted,  and  smooths  it  over  with  a  wooden  tool.  By 
his  side  upon  the  bench  he  has  two  thin  boards  about 
the  size  of  the  moulded  tile,  their  surfaces  are  dusted 
over  with  coal-dust ;  upon  one  of  these  he  places  the 
moulded  tile,  without  the  mould,  the  half  circular  pro- 
jections extending  beyond  the  board;  and  so  he  repeats 
the  process  of  moulding  at  the  rate  of  from  1,300  to 
1,500  per  day,  adding  more  clay  to  his  lump  about  every 
six  tiles  moulded,  and  in  quantity  about  as  much  as  the 
six  tiles  moulded. 

23.  Drying, — The  attendant  boy  carries   away  two 

108  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

tiles  at  each  time  to  the  floor ;  he  takes  up  one  on  the 
boards  and  by  the  thick  part  of  the  hand  presses  up  the 
two  projections  at  right  angles  with  the  face  of  the  tile, 
and  then  places  board  and  tile  on  his  head,  and  takes 
up  a  second  and  operates  upon  this  in  like  manner,  as 
he  walks  to  the  floor,  where  he  lays  the  two  tiles, 
carrying  the  boards  back  to  the  moulding  bench  ;  and 
so  he  repeats  his  operations. 

The  tiles  remain  on  this  floor,  out  of  doors  in  fine 
weather,  about  four  hours  ;  they  are  then  collected  and 
placed  close  together,  the  nib  end  changed  alternately 
to  allow  of  their  resting  close  and  square ;  in  this  state 
they  are  walled  up  in  a  dry  but  not  hot  situation,  and 
so  remain  for  a  day  or  two :  this  is  said  to  toughen 

24.  The  Set. —  The  next  process  is  to  give  them  a 
curved  form,  sometimes  termed  the  set,  which  is  done 
on  a  three-legged  stool,  called  a  horse,  the  top  of  Avhich 
is  a  little  larger  than  the  tile,  and  is  curved  one  way  to 
about  a  10  feet  radius.  With  the  horse  is  used  a 
wooden  block,  curved  to  correspond  with  the  surface  of 
the  horse.  These  implements  are  used  as  follows  :  six 
tiles  are  taken  as  last  placed  and  put  on  this  horse ;  the 
man  lifts  up  the  wooden  block  and  gives  them  three 
sharp  blows  with  it ;  they  are  then  carried  away  and 
placed  in  an  ingeniously  built  wall  to  complete  the 
drying  process  (the  wall  built  with  the  tiles  to  be  dried), 
after  which  they  are  carried  to  the  oven,  twelve  at  each 
time,  in  a  peculiar  manner,  with  the  edges  of  the  tiles 
against  the  breast  of  the  carrier. 

25.  Quarries  and  dust  bricks  are  moulded  in  like 
manner  from  stiff"  clay,  coal-dust  being  used  to  facilitate 
the  articles  leaving  the  mould. 

26.  Drain  Tiles. — Pipe  drain  tiles  are  made  as  fol. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  109 

lows  :  tlie  clay  is  first  moulded  to  the  lengtli^  width, 
and  thickness  required,  and  then  wrapped  round  a 
drum,  the  edges  closed  together  by  hand,  the  drum  or 
mandril  turned  round,  and  the  pipe  tile  shaped  by  the 
operator's  hand,  assisted  in  some  cases  by  a  wooden 
tool :  this  is  the  mode  of  making  pipe  tiles  from  3  in. 
to  16  in.  in  diameter,  whether  cylindrical,  tapered,  or 

The  usual  length  is  18  in.,  and  the  diameter  from 
3  in.  to  9  in.  They  are  sold  at  Id.  per  in.  bore ;  that  is, 
a  pipe  3  in.  in  diameter  and  18  in.  long,  would  cost  at 
the  yard  3d. ;  and  a  pipe  9  in.  in  diameter  and  18  in. 
long,  9d.  This  price  applies  to  cylindrical  pipes  without 

27.  Tile  Machines. — One  of  Ainslie's  machines  has 
been  introduced  into  this  neighbourhood^  upon  the 
estate  of  the  Duke  of  Sutherland,  for  making  small 
tubular  drain  tiles,  which  makes  two  pipes  1^  in.  in 
diameter  at  the  same  time.  The  prepared  clay  is  forced 
through  two  dods  to  form  the  tubes,  which  are  cut  into 
lengths  by  wires  affixed  to  the  machine,  and  when 
partially  dry  are  rolled  straight  by  hand  upon  a  flat 
surface,  and  then  set  up  in  racks  to  finish  the  drying 

28.  Firing. — Firing  the  articles  enumerated  in  the 
previous  description  requires  much  more  care  than 
firing  bricks,  and  as  roof  tiles  are  the  thinnest  and 
require  most  care,  the  largest  sized  pipe  tiles  excepted, 
we  shall  describe  firing  an  oven  of  such  tiles. 

On  the  bottom  of  the  oven  are  first  placed  2,000 
bricks,  as  shown  in  fig.  13,  and  upon  these  are  placed 
7,000  tiles,  forming  a  square,  the  spaces  between  the 
tiles  and  the  curved  side  of  the  oven  being  filled  up 
with  bricks,  as  shown  in  fig.  14.     The  tiler  are  placed 

110  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

edgewisGj  in  parcels  of  twelve,  changing  their  direction 
each  parcel  of  twelve.  The  nibs  on  the  tiles  space  them 
off  from  each  other,  and  support  them  in  the  vertical 
position ;  from  this  description,  and  a  reference  to  the 
illustrations,  it  will  appear,  that  the  goods  placed  in  the 
oven  are  in  each  case  so  placed  as  to  allow  the  diffusion 
of  heat  between  them ;  and  as  the  uniformity  of  heat  is 
the  desideratum  in  firing  blue  bricks  and  tiles,  the 
circular  oven  is  found  to  answer  better  than  any  other 
at  present  in  use. 

It  is  necessary  to  have  a  wall  round  the  outside  of 
the  oven,  about  6  ft.  high,  and  at  a  distance  therefrom 
to  allow  the  fireman  space  to  attend  his  fires  conve- 
niently ;  this  wall  is  dry  built  generally  with  imperfect 
bricks,  and  its  use  is  to  avoid  one  fire  being  urged  more 
than  another  by  the  set  of  the  wind,  which  duty  it 
performs  tolerably  well. 

The  oven  being  set,  the  clammins  (doorway)  is  made 
up  with  bricks  daubed  over  with  street  sweepings  as  a 
loam ;  then  the  fires  are  kindled,  and  are  kept  slowly 
bui'ning  for  the  first  5  hours,  after  which  they  are  pro- 
gressively increased  for  the  next  33,  making  38  hours 
for  hard  fired  blue  tiles  or  bricks;  four  tons  of  coal 
being  consumed  in  the  firing.  The  heat  is  determined 
by  the  sight  of  the  fireman  directed  to  the  mouths  and 
top  outlet  of  the  oven.  When  the  heat  is  obtained,  and 
before  the  fires  bum  hollow,  the  mouths  arc  stopped  up 
with  ashes  to  prevent  the  currents  of  cold  air  passing 
through  the  oven,  which  is  then  suffered  to  cool  gradu- 
ally. An  oven  is  usually  fired  once  a  week,  but  may  be 
fired  three  times  in  a  fortnight.  After  firing,  twenty- 
four  hours  should  be  allowed  for  cooling  before  an  oven 
is  opened  to  take  out  the  tiles. 

29.  The  following  table  shows  the  selling  price  per 



IjOOOj  and  cost  per  superficial  yard^  of  quarries^  dust 
bricks,  and  roof  tiles  : — 

Site.              1 000        i  .  y*"^"^ 

'      '          1  m  pence. 

Thickness.    Description. 

6  in.  sq. 

7  „ 
9     » 

10  8X7  „ 

35s.          27-89  yards. 
46s.          37-80      „ 
80s.          62-50      „ 
40s.       '  31-25      „ 
25s.       1   58-33      „ 


I  1  inch  Quarries. 

2     „     Dust  bricks. 
1  „     Roof  tUes. 


30.  Fiy.  10.  Isometrkal  Vieiv  of  a  Bench  for  moulding 

A.  Coal-dust  box,  14  in.  by  8  in. 

B.  Moulding  board,  14  in.  by  10  in. 
c.  The  bow. 

31.  Fiy.  11.  Elevation,  showing  the  Manner  in  which 
the  Tiles  are  placed  during  the  last  Drying. 

d  d,  laths,  two  to  each  course. 



32.  Fig.  12.  Tile  Block  and  Horse. 

a.  The  block.        b.  The  horse. 


33.  Fig,  13.  Plan  of  Oven,  as  seen  when  eight  courses 
of  Bricks  are  placed  edgewise. 

The  eight  rows  of  twelve  bricks  in  each,  as  seen  in  plan,  cover  a  space 
left  in  continuation  of  flues  from  the  eight  fire-holes.  The  bricks  in  the 
fust  seven  courses  are  so  placed  as  to  leave  a  flue  of  an  average  width  of 
4  inches.    The  dotted  lines  show  the  position  of  the  fire-holes. 



Si.  Fiq.  1^-  Plan  of  Oven,  as  seen  when  the  first  course 
of  Tiles  are  placed  upon  the  Bricks,  as  seen  in 
Bg.  13. 

The  tiles  are  placed  in  bungs  of  twelve,  and  laid  alternately  cross  and 
lengthwise,  the  nib  spaces  them  off,  and  supports  them  in  a  vertical 
position.  Each  side  of  the  square  is  made  up  with  bricks,  as  shown  on 
the  plan. 

35.  The  manufacture  of  bricks^  &c.,  for  building  and 
paving  purposes^  in  a  systematic  mannerj  in  suitable 
premises  with  improved  conveniences^  so  that  the  opera- 
tives may  be  employed  the  whole  of  the  year  instead  of 
a  portion  of  it  as  noAV,  is  a  subject  deserving  the  atten- 
tion of  the  capitalist  and  inventor.  Improvements  in 
the  quality  and  conveniences  of  this  manufacture  are 
intimately  connected  -with  the  moral,  intellectual,  and 
physical  condition  of  society,  as  may  be  seen  by  a  visit 
to  any  ordinary  brickyard,  and  a  reference  to  the 
evidence  before  the  Sanitary  Commission.  "Where  ex- 
tensive supplies  of  marls  or  clay  are  found,  suitable 
works  might  be  erected  for  such  manufacture,  could  a 

114  nUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

cheap  and  ready  mode  of  transportation  be  commanded, 
so  as  to  carry  bricks,  See,  a  distance  of  60  to  100  miles 
without  materially  increasing  their  price. 

36.  Assuming  the  -sveight  of  bricks  to  be  3^  tons  per 
1,000,  the  present  railway  charges  for  the  carriage  of 
bricks,  viz.  2(1.  per  ton  per  mile,  if  under  40  miles,  and 
l|rf.  per  mile  if  more  than  40  miles,  would  add  to  their 
cost  as  follows  : — 

£    s.  d. 

If  carried  under  40  miles    .        .         .00  7  per  1,000  per  mile. 

Or  for  a  distance  of  39  miles      .        .12  9 

And  if  carried  above  40  miles     .        .00  6  per  1,000  per  mile. 

Or  for  a  distance  of  60  miles      .        .110  7 

Therefore  a  carriage  of  60  miles  at  the  lowest  railway 
rate  more  than  doubles  the  value  of  a  common  brick 
compared  with  the  price  at  the  yard.  The  high  rate  of 
charge  for  carriage,  and  the  duty,  which  amounts  to 
nearly  22  per  cent,  of  the  selling  price  at  the  yard, 
constitute  obstacles  to  the  improvement  of  the  brick 
manufacture,  and  the  bettering  of  tlie  coudition  of  the 
operatives  employed  therein.  The  recent  improvements 
in  connection  with  domestic  comfort  and  health,  and 
the  encouragement  offered  to  architectural  improve- 
ments in  the  houses  for  artisans,  may  probably  awaken 
an  interest  in  this  department  of  industry,  and  place 
even  brickmaking  in  the  position  its  importance 
deserves,  if  not  demands. 





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1  'eroxide  of  iron,  with  a  little  protoxide 
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ART   OF   MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  117 

No.  5,  Table  1,  contains  42"84  per  cent,  silicic  acid; 
this  requires^  theoretically,  47*60  of  alumina,  or  its 
chemical  equivalent  in  other  bases,  to  form  a  fusible 
compound  ;  it  therefore  contains  only  3'31  per  cent, 
excess  of  base.  This  is  insufficient  to  prevent  its  fusion 
— a  much  larger  excess  would.  No.  1  contains  2259 
of  base,  which  requires  25  "1  of  silicic  acid,  therefore 
69'87  —  25*10  =  44*77  the  excess  of  silicic  acid,  or 
uncombined  silica  in  the  clay,  rendering  it  infusible. 

Analysis  of  Coal,  called  Norton  Coal,  used  in  the 
potteries  for  burning  pottery  and  bricks : — 

Carbon 81  08 

Hydrogen 5'04 

Oxygen 10'55 

Sulphur 0-36 

Nitrogen Trace. 

Ash 2-97 


A.NALYSIS  of  a  porous  substance  which  floats  in  water. 
It  is  a  piece  of  a  vitrified  fort  from  Connel  Ferry,  near 
Dunstaffnage  Castle,  Scotland : — 

Alumina  and  peroxide  of  iron  28"45'\ 

Silica 67-85 

Lime 0-32 

Manganese   ....  Trace. 
Water  .        .        ,        .      1-88 

98-50  ; 

This  specimen  has  the  appear- 
ance of  pumice-stone.  It  is 
only  very  slightly  fusible  even 
in  the  very  highest  temperature 
of  the  blow-pipe. 


38.  The  following  additional  particulars  respecting 
brickmaking  in  Staffordshire  were  sent  to  the  author 
of  this  volume  by  Mr.  J.  L.  Brown,  of  Farewell,  near 
Lichfield,  and  arc  given  in  his  own  words  : — 

118  RUDIMENTS    OP    THE 

*'  The  brickyard  I  visited  is  on  the  highway  from 
Lichfield  to  Walsall^  at  a  place  called  Walsall  Wood ; 
it  is  -worked  by  ^Ir.  George  Brown,  of  the  Sand  Hills, 
near  that  place.  Mr.  B.  has  another  brickyard  in  the 
neighbourhood,  more  extensive  than  the  one  I  visited, 
and  from  these  brickyards  have  been  supplied  all  the 
bricks  used  for  building  the  bridges,  -viaducts,  cattle- 
arches,  culverts,  &c.,  &c.,  on  the  South  Staftbrdshire 
Junction  Railway. 

^'  The  brickyard  I  visited  has  six  kilns  or  cupolas,  and 
three  large  moulding  and  drying-sheds  for  use  in  the 
winter  season,  each  40  yards  long  by  8  yards  wide, 
having  fire-places  at  one  end,  and  traversed  by  flues, 
longitudinally,  to  a  chimney  at  the  other  end. 

"  The  material  used  is  not  a  clay,  but  a  friable  kind 
of  marl.  The  first  stratum  under  the  surface  soil  is 
about  4  ft,  thick,  very  compact  in  body,  and  requires 
the  pick  to  get  it ;  it  is  of  a  purplish  hue.  This  is  suc- 
ceeded by  a  stratum,  3  ft.  thick,  of  bright  yellow -looking 
marl,  equally  intermixed  with  marl,  of  a  bright  scarlet 
colour,  and  afterwards,  down  to  the  depth  of  20  ft.,  the 
purple-coloured  marl  comes  in  again. 

"  The  earth  in  its  raw  state  is  dra-vni  up  an  inclined 
plane  on  a  common  railway  truck,  by  a  steam-engine 
of  20-horse  power,  and  at  the  top  of  the  incline  it  tips 
itself  into  a  hopper  placed  over  the  cast-iron  rollers, 
between  which  the  marl  passes  and  comes  down  an 
inclined  board,  after  being  ground  quite  small.  It  is 
afterwards  wheeled  into  heaps  and  tempered,  and  is 
then  wheeled  up  an  inclined  plane  of  earth  to  the  engine- 
house,  where  it  is  passed  through  vertical  cylinders  of 
cast  iron,  in  the  centres  of  -which  are  revolving  pistons 
armed  with  flanges,  like  the  screw  propeller  of  a  steam 
vessel,  which  grind  the  tempered   clay   and   force  it 

ART    OF   MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  119 

tlirougli  holes  in  the  bottoms  of  the  cylinders  to 
chambers  beneath  them,  whence  it  is  -wheeled  to  the 

"  They  make  red  and  blue  bricks  of  the  same  marl, 
prepared  in  each  case  by  rolliog  and  grinding.  To 
make  the  blue  bricks,  they  keep  the  fires  very  much 
sharper  and  hotter,  which  changes  their  colour,  and 
seems  to  run  or  fuse  the  material  more,  giving  them  at 
the  same  time  a  shining  appearance.  They  make  very 
Pew  red  bricks. 

"  The  price  of  the  best  bricks  at  the  kiln  is  30^.  per 
1,000;  common  bricks,  2os.  per  1,000.  Plain-tiles 
for  roofing,  285.  to  32*.  per  1,000.  They  also  make 
chimney-pots,  pipes  for  the  conveyance  of  water,  splayed 
bricks,  coping  bricks,  and  bricks  to  any  model." 



1.  For  facility  of  reference,  we  propose  to  divide  the 
subject  under  three  heads,  as  follows  : — 

1st.  Materials  and  Plant. 
2nd.  Process  of  Manufacture. 
3rd.  Cost  of  Manufacture. 


2.  Brick-earth. — The  brickmakers  in  the  vicinity  of 
London  at  present  derive  their  principal  supplies  of 
brick-earth  from  the  alluvial  deposits  lying  above  the 
London  clay,  the  blue  clay  not  being  used  for  brick- 
making  at  the  present  day.     The  general  character  of 

120  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

the  brick-earth  may  be  described  as  being  a  gravelly 
loam,  passing  by  fine  gradations  into  either  a  strong 
clay  or  into  marl,  or,  as  it  is  technically  called,  malm,  an 
earth  containing  a  considerable  quantity  of  chalk  in  fine 
particles.  "We  may,  therefore,  for  the  purpose  of  descrip- 
tion, class  the  several  qualities  of  brick-earth  under  three 
heads,  as  follows  :*  strong  clay,  loam,  and  malm. 

3.  1st.  Stronff  Clay. — This  is  generally  sufficiently 
free  from  stones  to  be  used  without  washing,  and  the 
bricks  made  from  it  are  hard  and  sound,  but  are  liable 
to  crack  and  contract  very  considerably  in  drying,  and 
become  warped  and  misshapen  in  burning.  These  de- 
fects are  in  a  great  measure  removed  by  mixing  the 
earth  with  chalk,  reduced  to  the  consistency  of  cream, 
as  will  be  presently  described,  which  greatly  diminishes 
the  contraction  of  the  clay,  and  improves  the  colour  of 
the  brick. 

4.  2nd.  Loam. — The  loams  are  often  so  full  of  gravel 
that  it  is  impossible  to  free  them  from  stones,  except  by 
passing  the  earth  through  the  wash-mill.  The  quantity 
of  sand  present  in  these  earths  renders  them  less  liable 
to  shrink  and  warp  than  the  strong  clays ;  but,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  texture  of  tlie  earth  is  so  loose  and  in. 
coherent,  that  a  mixture  of  chalk  is  necessary  to  bind 
the  mass  together,  and  to  take  up  the  excess  of  fusing 
silica  in  the  process  of  burning. 

5.  3rd.  Malm. — This  is  an  earth  suitable  for  making 
bricks,  without  any  addition,  but  there  is  very  little  now 
to  be  had,  and  for  making  the  best  qualities  of  bricks 
(or,  as  they  are  called,  malms)  an  artificial  malm  is  made, 

*  It  may  be  obscn-cd  that  this  classification  is  such  as  wouKl  be  best 
understood  by  the  generality  of  readers,  but  would  not  be  comprehended 
by  most  brickmakers,  who  class  these  three  qualities  of  brick-earths  as 
strong  clay,  mild  clay,  and  malm.  When  the  clays  are  strong,  they  are 
said,  in  brickmakers'  language,  to  hc/vul. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  121 

by  mixing  together  chalk  and  clay,  previously  reduced 
to  pulp  in  wash-mills.  This  pulp  is  run  off  into  shallow 
pits,  where  it  remains  until,  by  evaporation  and  settle- 
ment, it  has  become  of  sufficient  consistency  for  subse- 
quent operations.  This  process  is  adopted  for  the  best 
qualities  of  bricks  only,  as  the  expense  of  it  is  very  con- 
siderable ;  and,  for  the  commoner  sorts,  all  that  is  done 
is,  to  mix  with  the  loam  or  clay  a  sufficient  quantity  of 
malm  to  make  it  suitable  for  brickmaking :  the  quan- 
tity of  malm  required  for  this  purpose  varies,  of  course, 
according  to  the  quality  of  the  earth. 

6.  It  -will  be  readily  understood,  from  the  above 
remarks,  that  the  mode  of  preparing  the  clay  differs 
greatly  in  different  yards.  The  brick-earth  (according 
to  its  quality)  being  used — 

1st.  Without  either  washing  or  maiming. 

2nd.  It  may  be  maimed,  i.e.,  covered  with  artificial 

3rd,  and  lastly.  The  bricks  may  be  made  entirely  of 

The  second  process  is  the  most  common,  and  we  pro- 
pose, therefore,  in  the  following  pages,  to  describe  the 
successive  operations  of  brickmaking  as  practised  at 
those  works  where  the  loamy  character  of  the  earth 
renders  the  maiming  indispensable.  This  will  enable 
the  reader  to  understand  the  first  and  third  methods  of 
treating  the  brick-earth  without  any  farther  description. 

7.  The  object  of  adding  chalk  to  the  clay  is  twofold. 
In  the  first  place  it  acts  mechanically,  in  diminishing 
the  contraction  of  the  raw  brick  before  burning ;  and 
in  the  second  place  it  acts  chemically,  as  a  flux  during 
the  burning,  combining  with  the  silica  of  the  clay,  so 
that  a  well-burnt  London  brick  may  be  described  as 
a  silicate  of  lime  and  alumina,  and,  therefore,  differs 



greatly  from  an  ordinary  red  kiln-burnt  brick  made  of 
pure  clay,  ■without  lime  or  alkaline  matter,  the  silica 
and  alumina  of  the  brick-earth  being,  in  the  latter  case, 
merely  in  mechanical  and  not  chemical  combination. 

8.  Soil. — The  process  of  maiming  is  not  the  only 
peculiarity  of  London  brickmaking.  Instead  of  the 
bricks  being  burnt  in  close  kilns,  as  is  the  practice  in 
most  country  yards,  "  clamping"  is  universally  resorted 
to ;  and  to  render  this  effective,  it  is  considered  neces- 
sary that  the  fuel  should  be  mLxed  up  with  the  brick- 
earth,  so  that  each  brick  forms,  as  it  were,  a  fire  ball, 
and  becomes  thoroughly  burnt  throughout,  instead  of 
being  merely  baked,  as  is  the  case  in  kiln  burning.  The 
fuel  used  in  clamp  burning  is  domestic  ashes,  or,  as  they 
are  technically  called,  breeze.  The  ashes  are  collected 
in  large  heaps,  and  sifted ;  the  siftiugs,  which  are  called 
soil,  being  mixed  with  the  brick-earth,  and  thoroughly 
incorporated  with  it  in  the  processes  of  soiling  and 
"tempering,"  whilst  the  cinders,  or  "  breeze,"  are  used 
as  fuel.  A  small  quantity  of  coal  and  wood  is  also 
made  use  of  in  lighting  the  clamp. 

The  soil,  or  sifted  ashes,  materially  assists  in  pre- 
venting the  contraction  of  the  raw  bricks  whilst  drying, 
and  the  sulphur  contained  therein  appears  to  assist  in 
colouring  the  bricks  when  burnt. 

9.  Sa7id. — The  moulding  sand  is  brought,  at  a  con- 
siderable  expense,  from  the  bed  of  the  river  Thames, 
near  Woolwich.  It  is  spread  out  to  dry  in  the  sun  in 
thin  layers,  which  are  repeatedly  raked  over,  so  as  to 
expose  every  particle  in  succession  to  the  sun's  rays, 
that  the  whole  may  be  perfectly  dry  when  brought  to 
the  moulding  stool.  The  moulding  sand  serves  many 
useful  purposes.  It  assists  in  preventing  the  contrac- 
tion of  the  clay,  and  gives  a  more  durable  surface  to  the 
bricks.     It  is  indispensable  to  the   moulder   for  pre- 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  123 

venting  the  bricks  from  sticking  to  his  mould.  It  also 
prevents  the  bricks  from  sticking  together  on  the  hacks, 
and  from  breaking  up  into  cracks  and  flaws  when  cool- 
ing, after  being  burnt.  Lastly,  the  salt  in  the  river 
sand  becomes  decomposed  in  the  burning,  and  assists 
in  fluxing  the  brick-earth,  and  in  giving  the  bricks  their 
grey  colour.  Common  sand  burns  of  a  red  tint,  and 
would  injure  the  colour  of  the  London  bricks. 

10.  General  Arrangement  of  a  Brickwork. — This  will 
be  readily  understood  by  reference  to  fig.  1.  The  brick- 
earth  is  turned  over  to  receive  the  malm  as  near  as 
possible  to  the  clay  pits.  The  clay  and  chalk  mills  are 
placed  close  together  in  some  convenient  position,  so 
as  to  interfere  with  the  works  as  little  as  can  be  helped, 
and  the  malm  is  conveyed  from  them  to  the  heap  of 
brick- earth,  by  means  of  troughs  or  shoots  supported 
on  tressels. 

Close  to  the  brick-earth,  and  immediately  behind  the 
moulding  stool  is  placed  the  pug-mill,  and  in  front  of 
the  moulding  stool  is  the  hack  ground,  which  should,  if 
possible,  be  laid  out  with  a  gentle  fall  towards  the 
clamps,  which  is  placed  at  its  furthest  extremity. 
These  arrangements  are  of  course  much  modified  by  the 
circumstances  of  the  locality. 

11.  The  Chalk  and  Clay  Mills. — These  washing- 
mills  are  placed  close  together  on  a  large  double  mound, 
sufiiciently  elevated  to  allow  the  malm  to  run  down 
freely  to  the  brick-earth.  The  chalk-mill  is  a  circular 
trough  lined  with  brickwork,  in  which  the  chalk  is 
ground  by  the  action  of  two  heavy  wheels  with  spiked 
tires,  made  to  revolve  by  either  one  or  two  horses.  The 
trough  is  supplied  with  water  by  a  pump,  the  lever  of 
which  is  worked  by  the  machinery  of  the  clay-mill,  and 
as  the  chalk  becomes  ground  into  pulp  it  passes,  by 

G  2 





ART    OP    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  125 

means  of  a  shoot,  into  the  clay-mill.  The  clay-mill  is 
also  a  circular  trough,  lined  with  brickwork,  but  much 
larger  than  that  of  the  chalk-mill ;  and  in  this  trough 
the  clay  is  mixed  with  the  pulp  from  the  chalk-mill,  and 
is  cut  and  stirred  by  knives  and  harrows  put  in  motion 
by  two  horses,  until  the  whole  mass  is  reduced  to  the 
consistency  of  cream,  when  it  passes  off  through  a  brass 
grating  into  the  troughs  or  shoots,  and  is  conducted  to 
the  brick  earth  which  has  been  heaped  up  to  receive  it. 
The  machinery  of  the  washing-mills  is  very  fully  de- 
lineated in  figs.  2  to  10,  and  is  described  in  detail  in 
arts.  53  and  54. 

12.  The  Pug-mill. — The  pug-mill  used  in  brick- 
raaking  is  a  conical  tub,  with  its  larger  end  uppermost, 
in  the  centre  of  which  is  a  revolving  vertical  shaft  of 
iron,  to  which  are  attached  horizontal  knives,  inclined 
so  that  the  clay  is  slowly  forced  downwards  by  their 
motion.  The  top  and  bottom  knives  are  called  force 
knives,  and  their  use  is  merely  to  force  the  earth 
through  the  mill,  and  out  at  the  ejectment  hole ;  all  the 
other  knives  are  furnished  with  cross  knives,  which 
assist  in  cutting  the  clay,  and  breaking  up  any  hard 
lamps  that  may  not  have  been  broken  up  by  the  pre%4ous 
wintering  and  turning  over.  In  order  to  feed  the  mill, 
an  inclined  barrow-run  is  laid  up  to  it,  to  enable  the 
wheeler  to  tip  the  clay  in  at  the  top. 

The  construction  of  the  pug-mill  is  shown  in  figs.  1 1 
and  12. 

13.  TJie  Cuckhold,  fig.  13,  is  an  instrument  for 
cutting  off  lumps  of  the  tempered  clay  for  the  use  of 
the  moulder,  as  it  is  ejected  from  the  pug-mill,  and 
requires  no  particular  description. 

14.  The  Moulding  Stool. — The  moulding  stool  is 
quite  different  from  that   used   in  most  parts  of  the 



J^i^.  2  and  3. 

country.  It  has  a  rim  at  each  cncl^  to  keep  the  moulding 
sand  from  falling  off,  and  is  provided  with  a  stock-board, 
which  forms  the  bottom  of  the  brick  mould,  and  with  a 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AXD    TILES.  127 

J^js.  i  and  5. 


page,  which  is  formed  with  two  rods  of  f  iron,  nailed 
down  at  each  end  to  the  wooden  rails  on  which  they 
rest.  The  use  of  the  page  is  to  slide  the  raw  bricks 
more  readily  from  the  moulder  to  the  place  from  whence 
thev  are  taken  and  put  upon  the  hack  barrow  by  the 
"  taking-off "  boy.     The  moulder,  when  at  work,  stands 

J  28 


I'lg.  6. 


near  the  middle  of  the  stool,  with  the  page  on  his  left 
hand,  and  his  assistant,  the  clot-moulder,  on  his  right. 



Fig.  6. 

The  moulding  sand  for  the  nse  of  the  moulder  and  clot- 
raoulder  is  placed  in  separate  heaps  at  the  opposite  ends 

G  3 



Fig.  7. 


ART   OF    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  13] 

Fig.  8. 





Figs.  9  and  10. 

of  the  stool,  and  the  tempered  clay  nearly  opposite  to 
the  moulder.    There  is  no  water-box,  but  a  tub  is  placed 



jpig.  11. 

on  the  stool,  into  which  the  strike  is  thrown  when  not 
in  use.     The  pallets  are  placed  at  one  end  of  the  page, 



Fig.  12. 



Fig,  13. 

and  close  to  the  moulder's  left  hand.  These  particulars 
will  be  fully  understood  by  reference  to  fig.  13,  and  to 
the  detailed  description  in  art.  56. 



15.  The  Brick  Mould  is  made  of  sheet  iroUj  iu  four 
pieces,  riveted  together  at  the  angles,  aud  strengthened 
with  wood  at  the  sides  only.  The  bottom  of  the  mould 
is  detached,  and  forms  what  is  called  the  Stock-board. 
See  fig.  14. 

Fig.  14. 



16.  The  Stock-board  is  a  piece  of  wood  plated  with 
iron  round  the  upper  edge,  and  made  to  fit  the  mould 


accurately,  but  easily.  At  each  corner  an  iron  pin  is 
driven  into  the  moulding  stool,  and  on  these  pins  the 
bottom  of  the  mould  rests,  the  thickness  of  the  brick 
being  regulated  by  the  distance  to  ^vhich  the  pins  are 
driven  below  the  top  of  the  stock -board.  The  hollow 
in  the  bed  of  the  brick  is  produced  by  a  rectangular 
piece  of  wood,  called  a  kick,  of  the  size  and  shape  of  the 
hollow  required,  which  is  fastened  on  the  upper  side  of 
the  stock-board. 

17.  The  Strike  is  a  smooth  piece  of  wood,  about 
10  in.  long  by  1^  in.  wide  and  \  in.  thick,  and  is  used 
to  remove  the  superfluous  clay  in  the  process  of 

The  Pallets  are  pieces  of  board  §  in.  thick,  and  of 
the  exact  width  of  the  mould,  but  about  f  in.  longer. 
Three  sets  of  pallets,  twenty-six  in  each  set,  arc  re- 
quired for  each  moulder  at  work. 

18.  The  Hack  Barrow,  figs.  15  and  16,  is  of  a  pecu- 
liar construction.  It  consists  of  a  light  frame,  sup- 
porting a  flat  top  of  lattice  work,  on  which  the  bricks 
are  placed  in  two  parallel  rows,  thirteen  in  each  row. 
Three  barrows  are  required  for  each  moulder. 

19.  The  Hack  Ground  occupies  the  space  between 
the  moulding  stool  and  the  clamp.  It  should  be  well 
drained,  and  it  is  desirable  that  it  should  be  on  a  slight 
fall  towards  the  clamp,  as  this  lessens  the  labour  of 
wheeling.  The  foundations  of  the  hacks  are  slightly 
raised.  It  is  of  importance  that  the  barrow-runs  be- 
tween the  hacks  should  be  perfectly  even,  as  any  jolting 
of  the  hack  barrow  would  injure  the  shape  of  the  raw 
bricks,  which,  when  first  turned  out  of  the  mould,  are 
very  soft.  The  hacks  are  placed  11  ft.  apart,  measured 
from  centre  to  centre,  their  length  varying  according  to 
the  shape  of  the  ground.     It  is  very  difiicult  to  say 



£ig.  15. 

T-    ' 

what  extent  of  hack  ground  should  be  allotted  to  each 
moulding  stool,  as  this  varies  greatly  in  diflFerent  yards. 
In  round  numbers,  the  quantity  of  land  required  for  a 
brickwork  may  be  stated  at  from  1  ^  to  2  acres  for  each 



Fig.  16. 

moulding  stool,  but  tins  includes  tlic  whole  of  the  land 
required  for  the  several  purposes. 


20.  Clay  Digging. — The  first  turning  over  of  the 
hrick-earth  should  take  place  in  the  autumn,  in  order 
that  it  mav  have  the  benefit  of  the  winter  firosts  before 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TiLES.  139 

being  used.  The  vegetable  mould  and  top  soil  having 
been  wheeled  to  spoils  the  brick-earth  is  turned  up  three 
or  four  spits  deep,  and  laid  on  a  level  floor,  prepared  for 
the  purpose,  and  banked  round  to  prevent  the  escape  of 
the  malm  in  the  process  of  maiming. 

21.  The  quantity  of  clay  required  per  1,000  bricks  is 
variable,  of  strong  clay  more  being  required  than  of 
milder  qualities. 

It  is  generally  calculated  that  an  acre  1  ft.  deep,  or 
about  1,600  cubic  yards  of  clay,  will  make  1,000,000 
bricks,  but  strong  clays  will  require  from  182  to  200 
cubic  yards  per  100,000  bricks.  For  practical  purposes 
the  quantity  may  be  thus  approximately  stated : — 

Strong  clay  2  cubic  yards  per  1,000  bricks. 
Mild  clay  If  cubic  yard  per  1,000  bricks. 

22.  Maiming. — It  has  been  before  explained  that  the 
best  bricks  only  are  made  entirely  of  malm,  but  that  the 
process  of  maiming  is  resorted  to  for  other  descriptions 
of  bricks,  where  the  quality  of  the  clay  renders  it  unfit 
for  brickmaking  without  this  addition.  It  Avill,  therefore, 
be  readily  understood  that  the  quantity  of  malm  mixed 
with  the  clay  in  the  ordinary  process  of  brickmaking 
varies  very  considerably,  so  that  it  is  impossible  to 
say,  a  priori,  what  quantity  of  malm  should  be  used,  as 
this  must  be  left  to  the  judgment  of  the  brickmaker  in 
each  particular  case,  according  to  the  quality  of  the 

To  keep  the  washing-mills  in  full  work  are  required — 

To  the  chalk-mill,  2  diggers  and  1  wheeler. 
To  the  clay-mill,  4  diggers  and  2  wheelers. 

The  chalk-mill  is  worked  sometimes  with  one,  and 
sometimes  with  two  horses.  The  clay-mill  always  re- 
quires two  horses.     No  drivers  are  required. 

140  nUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

The  average  work  of  the  washing-mills,  working  10 
hours  a  day,  may  be  taken  at  about  12  cubic  yards  of 
malm,*  or  sufficient  for  making  6,000  malm  bricks. 

The  process  of  maiming  scarcely  requires  description. 
Water  having  been  pumped  into  the  troughs,  chalk  is 
■wheeled  to  the  chalk-mill,  and  clay  to  the  clay-mill, 
and  the  horses  being  driven  round,  the  chalk  is  crushed 
and  ground  by  the  wheels,  and  runs  through  the  outlet 
into  the  clay-mill,  where  both  chalk  and  clay  get  well 
mixed  by  the  harrows,  the  liquid  malm  flowing  out 
through  the  brass  grating  to  the  shoots,  by  which  it  is 
conducted  to  the  brick-earth.  As  the  heap  becomes 
covered  the  shoots  are  shifted,  so  that  the  malm  shall 
be  equally  distributed  over  every  part  of  the  heap. 

When  a  sufficient  quantity  of  malm  has  been  run  oflp, 
it. is  left  to  settle  for  a  month  or  more,  until  it  has 
become  sufficiently  consolidated  to  bear  a  man  walking 
over  it.  As  the  solid  portion  of  the  malm  settles,  the 
water  is  drained  off  from  time  to  time,  and  when  the 
mass  is  sufficiently  firm,  the  soiling  is  proceeded 

23.  Soiling. — The  proportion  of  ashes  depends  very 
much  on  the  quality  of  the  earth,  but  may  be  stated 
approximately  at  about  35  chaldrons  for  every  100,000 
bricks.  The  soil  is  laid  on  the  top  of  the  maimed  earth, 
the  thickness  of  the  layer  depending  on  that  of  the 
heap,  about  3  in.  of  ashes  being  allowed  for  every  spit 
of  earth. 

The  soiling  concludes  the  preparation  of  the  brick- 
earth,  which  is  allowed  to  remain  undisturbed  until  the 

*  At  a  manufactory  of  artificial  hydraulic  lime  at  Meudon,  near  Paris, 
the  clialk  and  clay  arc  ground  together  in  a  washing-mill,  of  the  same, 
construction  as  those  used  in  England,  and  worked  by  two  horses.  The 
quantity  of  malm  produced  is  about  Ij  cubic  ^ard  per  hour. — See  Vicat 
on  Cements. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES,  ]  dl 

moulding  season,  -whicli  generally  commences  in  April, 
The  first  process  of  the  actual  manufacture  is — 

'14.'.  Tempering. — The  heap,  prepared  as  above,  is 
turned  over  by  spade  labour,  and  the  ashes  thoroughly 
incorporated  with  it,  wate?'  being  added  to  bring  the 
mass  to  a  proper  consistency.  The  tempered  clay  is 
then  wheeled  to  the  pug-mill,  which,  as  before  stated,  is 
placed  close  to  the  clay  heap,  and  immediately  behind 
the  moulding-stool. 

25.  Pugying. — The  tempered  clay  being  thrown  in 
at  the  top  of  the  mill,  gradually  passes  through  it,  and 
in  so  doing  becomes  so  thoroughly  kneaded  as  to  be  of 
a  uniform  colour,  the  ashes  being  equally  distributed 
through  the  mass.  The  quantity  of  clay  ground  is 
about  1^  cubic  yard  per  hour,  so  that  a  horse  working 
10  hours  per  diem  will  grind  12^  cubic  yards  of  clay, 
or  sufficient  to  make  6,250  bricks. 

If  the  moulding  process  does  not  proceed  as  fast  as 
the  pugging,  so  that  the  clay  will  not  be  immediately 
used,  the  clay,  as  it  comes  out  at  the  bottom  of  the 
mill,  is  removed  with  the  cuckhold,  and  covered  with 
sacks,  to  keep  it  from  becoming  too  dry  for  use, 

26,  Moulding. — Before  commencing  moulding,  the 
moulding-stool  is  provided  with  two  heaps  of  dry  sand, 
a  tub  of  water,  in  whicli  to  place  the  strike,  a  stock- 
board  and  brick-mould,  and  three  sets  of  pallets. 
Everything  being  in  readiness,  and  a  supply  of  tern- 
pered  clay  having  been  placed  on  the  stool  by  the  feeder, 
whose  business  it  is  to  carry  the  tempered  clay  from  the 
pug-mill  to  the  moulding-stool,  the  clot-moulder,  who 
is  generally  a  woman,  sprinkles  the  stool  with  dry  sand, 
and  taking  a  clod,  or  clot,  from  the  heap  of  tempered 
clay,  dexterously  kneads  and  moulds  it  roughly  into  tlie 
shjxpe  of  a  brick,  and  passes  it  to  the  moulder  on  her 

142  BUUIMENIS   Of   Tirz 

left  hand.  The  moulder,  having  sprinkled  sand  on  the 
stock-board,  and  dashed  the  mould  into  the  sand-heap 
on  his  left  hand,  places  the  mould  on  the  stock-board, 
and  dashes  the  clot  into  it  with  force,  pressing  it  with 
his  fingers,  so  as  to  force  the  clay  into  the  angles  of 
the  mould.  He  then,  with  the  strike,  which  has  been 
well  wetted  in  the  water-tub,  removes  the  superfluous 
clay,  which  he  throws  back  to  the  clot-moulder  to  be 
remoulded.  The  mould  is  then  lifted  oflf  the  stock- 
board,  and  placed  by  the  moulder  against  one  of  the 
pallets,  which  he  catches  dexterously  with  his  fingers, 
and,  turning  out  the  raw  brick  upon  it,  slides  it  along 
the  page  to  the  taking-oflf  boy,  and,  lifting  up  the 
empty  mould,  dashes  it  into  the  sand,  and  replaces  it 
on  the  stock-board,  preparatory  to  moulding  a  second 
brick  ;  when  he  has  moulded  one  set  of  bricks,  he 
scrapes  away  the  sand  which  has  adhered  to  the  mould 
during  the  operation  with  the  strike,  and  then  proceeds 
with  the  next  set.  A  moulder  and  clot-moulder,  with 
the  assistance  of  a  feeder,  a  taking-off  boy,  and  two 
men  to  wheel  and  hack  the  bricks,  will  make  about 
5,000  bricks  between  6  a.m.  and  6  p.m.  ;  but  this 
quantity  is  often  exceeded.* 

27.  Hacking. — The  raw  brick  is  removed  from  the 
page  by  the  taking-off  boy  and  placed  on  the  hack 
barrow,  and  when  the  latter  is  loaded,  dry  sand  is 
sprinkled  over  the  bricks,  and  they  are  carefully 
wheeled  away  to  the  hack  ground.  Having  arrived  at 
that  part  of  the  ground  where  the  hack  is  to  be  com- 
menced, the  man  takes  a  spare  pallet  and  pkccs  it  on 

*  Sec  the  following : — "  Brickmaking.  On  Wednesday  last.  Job.  Bash, 
at  Peterskre,  Cumberland,  performed  the  feat  of  making  1 ,000  bricks  in 
•n  boar ;  100  in  fire  minutes  ;  and  26  in  one  minate." — Carlisle  JoumdU 
(This  is  not  a  solitary  instance.) 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES  143 

one  of  the  bricks,  which  he  carries  between  the  two 
pallets  to  the  ground,  and  sets  it  up  carefully  edgeways, 
taking  care  in  removing  the  pallets  not  to  injure  the 
shape  of  the  soft  brick.  One  of  the  pallets  is  replaced 
on  the  barrow,  and  with  the  other  another  brick  is 
removed ;  and  the  process  is  repeated  till  the  twenty-six 
bricks  have  been  placed  on  the  ground,  when  the  empty 
barrow  is  wheeled  back  to  the  moulding  stool.  In  the 
meantime  another  barrow  has  been  loaded,  and  is  ready 
for  wheeling  to  the  hack  ground.  Three  hack  barrows 
are  required,  so  that  one  of  them  is  constantly  being 
unloaded  upon  the  hack  ground,  another  loading  at  the 
moulding  stool,  and  the  third  being  wheeled  to  or  from 
the  hack  ground.  Thus  two  men  are  necessarily  em- 
ployed in  the  operations  of  wheeling  and  hacking.  The 
hacks  are  set  up  two  bricks  in  width,  the  bricks  being 
placed  slantwise,  and  not  at  right  angles,  to  the  length 
of  the  hack.  After  the  bottom  row  of  one  hack  is  com- 
pleted, a  second  hack  is  commenced,  to  give  the  bricks 
time  to  harden  before  a  second  course  is  laid  on  them ; 
and  when  the  second  course  is  commenced,  the  bricks 
must  be  placed  fairly  on  each  other,  or  they  will  be 
marked,  which  injures  their  appearance.  The  hacks 
are  carried  up  in  this  way  until  they  are  8  bricks 
high,  when  they  are  left  for  a  few  days  to  harden.  To 
protect  the  new  bricks  from  frost,  wet,  or  intense  heat, 
straw  or  reeds  are  provided  and  laid  alongside  the  hack; 
and  with  these  the  bricks  are  carefully  covered  up  at 
night,  and  at  such  other  times  as  the  weather  may 
render  necessary.  When  half  dry,  they  are  scintled,'^- 
that  is,  set  farther  apart,  to  allow  the  wind  to  pass 
freely  between  them,  and  they  receive  no  further  atten- 
tion  until    sufficiently   dry  for  burning.      The  time 

•  Literally,  scattered. 

144  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

required   for  drying  varies  from  tlii'ce  to  six  weeks, 
according  to  the  weather. =»= 

28.  C/o/«;;i»^.— Figures  17,  18, 19,  20,  and  21.  The 
process  of  clamping  requires  great  skill,  and  its  prac- 
tical details  are  little  understood,  except  by  the  ■work- 
men engaged  in  this  part  of  the  manufacture.  Scarcely 
any  two  clamps  are  built  exactly  alike,  the  differences 
in  the  methods  employed  arising  from  the  greater  skill 
or  carelessness  of  the  workmen,  and  local  circumstances, 
such  as  the  situation  of  the  clamp,  and  the  abundance 
or  scarcity  of  burnt  bricks  in  the  yard  with  which  to 
form  the  foundation  and  the  outside  casing.  We  pro- 
pose, therefore,  first  to  describe  the  method  of  building 
a  clamp,  according  to  the  most  approved  system,  and 
then  to  explain  the  principal  variations  practised  in 
different  yards. 

29.  A  clamp  consists  of  a  number  of  walls  or  necks, 
3  bricks  thick,  about  60  bricks  long,  and  24  to  30  bricks 
high,  in  an  inclined  position  on  each  side  of  an  upright 
or  double  battering  waU  in  the  centre  of  the  clamp,  the 
upright  being  of  the  same  length  and  height  as  the 
necks,  but  diminishing  from  6  bricks  thick  at  bottom 
to  3  bricks  thick   at  top.     The  sides  and  top  of  the 

•  Mr.  n.  Chamberlain,  in  a  paper  read  before  the  Society  of  Arts,  IV. 
515,  speaks  of  the  great  importance  of  drj-ing  bricks  : — "  The  dning  of 
bricks  ready  for  burning  is  a  matter  of  great  importance,  and  requires 
more  attention  than  it  generally  receives.  From  hand-made  bricks  we 
have  to  evaporate  some  25  per  cent,  of  water  before  it  is  safe  to  burn 
Ihem.  In  a  work  requiring  the  make  of  20,000  bricks  per  day,  we  have 
to  evaporate  more  than  20  tons  of  water  every  24  houi-s.  Hand-made 
bricks  1092  in  drying  about  one-fourth  of  their  weight,  and  in  drying  and 
burning  aboui  ur.e-tliird.  The  average  of  machine  bricks — those  made 
of  the  stiff  plastic  ciay-do  not  lose  more  than  half  the  above  amount 
from  evaporation,  and  arc,  therefore,  of  mutit  ^;:rcatcr  specific  gravity 
than  hand-made  ones."  The  artificial  drying  of  bricks  over  flues  can  of 
course  only  be  carried  on  where  coal  is  cheap.  Mr.  Beart  has  contrived 
a  steam  chamber,  where  steam  made  to  circilate  in  pipes  is  the  source  of 
heat  for  drying  tl)e  bricks. 



Fq.  ll 



Fig.  la 



Fig.  20. 


7/  /  //  //>/////  r-n-rn-T 


I  I  I  I  I  r 

I  I  I  I  rfn  I  i\i  I  I 





TTT  I  I    1)    )  I    I  I    I   I 

THE   l/y£-//OL£    (cj 



Fig.  21. 


ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  149 

clamp  arc  cased  with  burnt  brick.  The  fuel  used  in 
burning  the  laid  bricks  consists  of  cinders  (breeze,  as 
before  described), which  are  distributed  in  layers  between 
the  courses  of  bricks,  the  strata  of  breeze  being  thickest 
at  the  bottom.  To  light  the  clami^,  live  holes  or  flues, 
7  in.  wide  and  9  in,  high,  are  left  in  the  centre  of  the 
upright,  and  at  every  7th  or  neck.  These  live  holes 
extend  through  the  whole  thickness  of  the  clamp,  and 
are  filled  with  faggots,  which,  being  lighted  from  the 
outside,  soon  ignite  the  adjacent  breeze.  As  soon  a^ 
the  clamp  is  fairly  lighted,  the  mouths  of  the  live  holes 
are  stopped,  and  the  clamp  burns  until  the  whole  of  the 
breeze  is  consumed,  which  takes  from  three  to  six 
weeks.  This  description  will  give  the  reader  a  general 
idea  of  the  arrangement  of  a  clamp ;  and  we  will  now 
describe  in  detail  the  manner  of  building  one,  premising 
that  the  term  close  bolting  signifies  stacking  bricks  so 
that  they  shall  be  perfectly  close  to  each  other ;  and 
that  scintling  means  stacking  bricks  with  spaces  be- 
tween them. 

30.  Foundation. — The  ground  is  first  carefully  drained 
and  levelled,  and  made  perfectly  firm  and  hard.  The 
exact  position  of  the  clamp  having  been  fixed,  the 
ground  is  formed  with  a  flat  invert  whose  chord  is 
equal  to  the  width  of  the  intended  clamp.  The  object 
of  this  is  to  give  a  lift  to  each  side  of  the  clamp,  which 
prevents  the  bricks  from  falling  outwards  as  the  breeze 
becomes  consumed.  The  ground  being  prepared,  the 
upright  is  commenced.  But,  previous  to  building,  the 
clamp  barrow-roads  or  tramways  of  sheet-iron  are  laid 
down  between  the  hacks,  and  extended  to  the  clamp 
ground,  to  give  an  easy  motioi.  to  the  barrows ;  as,  from 
the  kind  of  barrows  used  in  clamping,  tlie  bricks  being 
piled    on   each    other   several    courses    high,  and  the 

]30  KUDIMENTS    OF    TIIi: 

wheeling  carried  on  with  considerable  vclocitr,  they  are 
apt  to  upset. 

31 .  Upright. — The  upright  is  commenced  by  building 
two  9  inch  battering  walls  about  45  ft.  apart,  of  burnt 
bricks  laid  on  edge,  which  are  termed  close  bolts,  the 
length  of  each  wall  being  equal  to  the  thickness  of  the 
upright,  which  at  the  bottom  is  6  bricks  thick,  or  about 
4  ft.  6  in.  (their  height  is  IG  courses,  or  about  6  ft.). 
Between  these  bolts  a  line  is  stretched,  by  which  the 
upright  is  built  true.  The  ground  between  the  bolts  is 
paved  with  burnt  bricks  laid  on  edge,  to  exclude  the 
moisture  of  the  ground.  Upon  this  paving  are  laid 
two  courses  of  burnt  bricks  with  spaces  between  them, 
termed  scintles.  In  the  bottom  course  of  scintUs  the 
bricks  are  laid  diagonally  about  2  in.  apart.  The 
second  course  consists  of  bm-nt  bricks  on  edge,  laid 
across  the  lower  one,  in  lines  parallel  to  the  ends  of  the 
clamp,  and  also  2  in.  apart.  In  laying  these  two  courses 
of  scintles,  a  live  hole  is  left  about  7  in.  wide,  the  whole 
length  of  the  upright ;  and,  on  the  completion  of  the 
second  course,  the  live  hole  is  fiUed  up  with  faggots,  and 
the  whole  surface  covered  over  with  breeze,  which  is 
swept  or  scraped  into  the  spaces  left  between  the  bricks. 
On  this  surface  is  placed  the  first  couree  of  raw  bricks, 
laid  on  edge  and  quite  close,  beginning  over  the  live- 
hole.  Over  this  first  course  of  raw  bricks  is  laid  a 
stratum  of  breeze  7  in.  thick,  the  depth  being  increased, 
at  the  ends  of  the  uprights,  to  9  or  10  inches,  by  inserting 
three  or  four  bricks  on  edge  among  the  breeze.  The 
object  of  this  is  to  give  an  extra  lift  to  the  ends.  The 
first  course  of  bricks,  it  should  be  observed,  is  laid  all 
headers.  Over  the  first  layer  of  breeze  is  laid  a  second 
course  of  raw  bricks  on  edge,  all  stretchers.  This  is 
covered  with  4  in.  of  breeze,  and  at  each  end  arc  inserted 

ART   OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  15  1 

two  or  three  bricks  to  increase  the  lift  still  more ;  huL  this 
time  they  are  laid  flat^  not  edgeways.  Upon  the  4  in. 
layer  of  breeze  is  laid  a  heading  course  of  raw  bricks  laid 
close,  and  on  this  2  in.  of  breeze,  without  any  extra  lift  at 
the  end.  To  this  succeed  stretching  and  heading  courses 
of  raw  bricks  on  edge,  laid,  close  up  to  the  top  of  the 
clamp,  a  layer  of  breeze,  not  more  than  |  in.  thick,  being 
placed  on  the  top  of  each  course,  except  on  the  top 
course,  which  has  3  in.  of  breeze.  The  top  of  the  up- 
right is  finished  by  a  close  bolt  of  burnt  bricks.  The 
upright  is  built  with  an  equal  batter  on  each  side,  its 
width  diminishing  from  six  bricks  lengthways  at  the 
base  to  three  bricks  lengthways  at  the  top.  In  order 
that  the  upright  should  be  perfectly  firm,  it  is  necessary 
that  the  bricks  should  be  well  tied  in  at  the  angles  j 
and,  in  order  to  obtain  the  proper  width,  the  bricks 
are  placed  in  a  variety  of  positions,  so  that  no  very 
regular  bond  is  preserved,  as  it  is  of  more  consequence 
to  keep  the  batter  uniform. 

The  close  bolts  first  commenced,  and  which  form  the 
outer  casing  of  the  clamp,  are  not  built  close  to  the  raw 
bricks,  there  being  a  small  space  left  between  the  clamp 
and  the  close  bolting,  which  is  filhd  up  with  breeze. 
The  close  bolts,  however,  are  built  with  a  greater  batter 
than  the  ends  of  the  upright,  so  that  they  just  touch  the 
latter  at  the  16th  course,  above  which  the  clamp  is  built 
without  any  external  casing.  "When,  however,  the  up- 
right is  topped,  and  whilst  the  top  close  bolting  is  going 
on,  the  casing  is  continued  up  to  the  top  of  the  clamp. 
This  upper  casing  is  called  the  bestowing,  and  consists 
of  five  or  six  courses  of  burnt  brick  laid  flat,  forming  a 
casing  4|  in.  or  half  a  brick  thick ;  and  above  the  6th 
course  the  bricks  are  laid  on  edge,  forming  a  still 
thinner  casing  only  3  in.  thick.     When  the  weather  is 

152  KUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

bad,  and  during  the  latter  part  of  the  brickmaking 
season,  a  little  extra  bestowing  is  given  beyond  what  is 
here  described.  The  great  art  in  clamping  consists  in 
the  proper  construction  of  the  upright,  as  the  stability 
of  the  clamp  depends  entirely  upon  it. 

32.  Necks. — The  remainder  of  the  clamp  consists  of 
a  number  of  neck?  or  "svaUs  leaning  against  the  upright. 
They  are  built  in  p'"ecisely  the  same  way  as  the  upright, 
as  regards  invert,  close  bolts,  paving,  scintling,  breeze, 
and  end  lifts.  But  there  is  this  essential  difference,  viz., 
that  they  sive  parallel  walls,  built  in  alternate  courses  of 
headers  and  stretchers  laid  on  edge,  each  heading  course 
in  one  neck  being  opposite  to  a  stretching  course  in  the 
next  neck,  and  vice  versa.  The  thickness  of  each  neck 
is  made  up  of  three  bricks  lengthways  in  the  heading 
courses,  and  ten  bricks  edgeways  in  the  stretching 
courses.  The  necks  are  close  bolted  at  top,  and  be- 
stowed in  the  same  manner  as  the  upright.  When  the 
last  necks  have  been  built,  the  ends  of  the  clamp  are 
close  bolted,  and  bestowed  in  the  same  way  as  the  sides, 
and  this  operation  completes  the  clamp. 

33.  Firing. — The  number  of  necks  on  each  side  of 
the  upright  may  be  extended  to  eight  or  nine,  without 
an  additional  live  hole;  but  if  this  limit  be  exceeded, 
additional  live  holes  are  required,  according  to  the 
judgment  of  the  brickmaker  or  the  demand  for  bricks; 
the  live  holes  are  placed  seven,  eight,  or  nine  necks 
apart.  It  is  not  necessary  that  the  additional  live  holes 
should  pass  under  the  centres  of  the  necks,  and  it  is 
more  convenient  to  form  each  live  hole  so  that  the  face 
of  the  last-built  neck  shall  form  one  of  its  sides. 

In  the  close  bolting  surrounding  the  clamp,  two  bricks 
are  left  out  opposite  the  end  of  each  live  hole,  and  to 
each  of  these  openings  a  fire  is  applied  made  of  coals, 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  153 

and  wood  heaped  up  in  a  brick  fire-place  built  round 
the  opening,  and  known  by  the  name  of  a  devil-stove. 
The  fire  is  kept  up  for  about  a  day,  until  the  faggots  in 
the  live  hole  are  thoroughly  ignited,  and  as  soon  as  this 
is  found  to  be  the  case,  the  fire  is  removed,  and  the 
mouth  of  the  live  hole  stopped  with  bricks,  and  plastered 
over  with  clay.  In  firing  a  large  clamp  with  many  live 
holes,  it  should  be  begun  at  one  end  only,  the  live  holes 
being  fired  in  succession,  one  after  the  other. 

The  bricks  at  the  outside  of  the  clamp  are  under- 
burnt  ;  they  are  called  burnovers,  and  are  laid  aside 
for  reburning  in  the  next  clamp  that  may  be  built. 
The  bricks  near  the  live  holes  are  generally  partially 
melted  and  run  together  in  masses  called  clinkers  or 
burrs.  The  bricks  which  are  not  fully  burnt  are  called 
place  bricks,  and  are  sold  at  a  low  price,  being  unfit  for 
outside  work,  or  situations  where  they  will  be  subjected 
to  much  pressure.  The  clinkers  are  sold  by  the  cart- 
load, for  rockwork  in  gardens  and  similar  purposes. 

34.  The  quantity  of  breeze  required  varies  much  with 
c'Ae  quality  of  the  earth.  The  usual  proportions  for 
every  100,000  bricks  are  about  35  chaldrons  of  the  sifted 
ashes,  mixed  with  the  brick-earth,  and  about  12  chal- 
drons of  the  cinders  or  breeze  to  light  the  clamp. 

The  quantity  of  fuel  to  the  live  holes  it  is  difiicult  to 
calculate;  about  lOs.  may  be  taken  as  the  average  cost 
of  coals  and  wood  for  every  100,000  bricks. 

35.  If  the  proportion  of  breeze  be  too  small,  the 
bricks  will  be  undcrburned,  and  will  be  tender  and  of 
a  pale  colour.  If  too  much  fuel  be  used,  there  is  danger 
of  the  bricks  fusing  and  running  into  a  blackish  slag. 
No  rules  can  be  laid  down  for  avoiding  these  errors, 
as  the  management  of  the  breeze  must  depend  upon  the 
quality  of  the   earth,    and   can  only  be   learnt   from 

II  <J 


experience,  some  brick-earths  being  much  mere  fusible 
than  others. 

36.  The  time  of  burning  varies  considerably.  If  ex- 
pedition is  requisite,  the  flues  are  placed  near  together, 
and  the  burning  may  be  completed  in  a  fortnight  or 
three  •weeks;  but,  if  time  is  no  object,  the  flues  are 
further  apart,  and  the  clamp  is  allowed  to  bum  off"  more 

37.  Another  system  of  clamping  is  to  begin  at  one 
end  and  to  follow  with  the  necks  iu  one  direction  only. 
This  is  done  when  the  clamp  ground  is  partly  occupied 
by  the  hacks,  so  as  to  render  it  impossible  to  commence 
at  the  centre.  AVhen  this  system  is  adopted,  the  clamp- 
ing begins  with  the  erection  of  an  end-wall,  termed  the 
upright  and  outside,  which  is  made  to  batter  very  con- 
siderably on  the  outside,  but  of  which  the  inside  face  is 
vertical.  As  regards  dimensions  and  modes  of  building, 
the  outside  and  upright  is  built  in  the  same  way  as  the 
ordinary  upright,  but  it  has,  of  course,  no  live  hole  under 
it,  the  first  live  hole  being  provided  in  the  centre  of  the 
2nd  or  3rd  neck.  In  the  style  of  clamping  the  necks 
are  all  upright.  The  live  holes  are  placed  at  every  8th 
or  9th  neck,  as  in  the  usual  system. 

38.  We  now  proceed  to  describe  the  principal  varia- 
tions in  the  methods  of  clamping  practised  in  different 

Paving. — The  practice  with  regard  to  the  paving  of 
burnt  bricks  is  very  variable.  Some  clampers  omit  it 
altogether;  others  pave  only  where  clamping  for  the  first 
time  on  a  new  clamp  ground. 

Scintks. — "U'hen  burnt  bricks  run  short,  as  in  build- 
ing the  first  clamp  on  a  new  ground,  the  second  course 
is  laid  with  raw  bricks.  This,  however,  is  a  very  objeC' 
tionable  pr?ctice. 

AllT    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  155 

Live  Holes. — The  live  holes  are  sometimes  close- 
bolted  at  the  sides^  to  prevent  the  breeze  from  the 
scintles  falling  into  them.  This^  howe\^er,  is  not  often 
done,  and  its  utility  is  questionable. 

Breeze. — Some  clampers  put  the  7  in.  stratum  of 
breeze  on  the  top  of  the  scintles^  instead  of  placing  it 
over  the  1st  course  of  raw  bricks;  very  frequently  the 
breeze  is  dispensed  ■with  after  the  2  in.  stratum,  with 
the  exception  of  the  top  layer.  All  clampers,  however, 
agree  as  to  the  necessity  of  having  the  7  in.,  4  in.,  and 
2  in.  layers. 

39.  The  several  descriptions  of  bricks  made  for  the 
Londoujgjoarket,  and  their  relative  prices,  as  given  in 
the  Builders'  and  Contractors'  Price  Book,  for  1868  are 
as  under,  viz. : — 

Price  per  1,000. 

.£    s.  d. 

Malm  cutters 5     5  0 

„      seconds        .         .         .                  .         .  3  12  0 

„      paviours      .         ,         .         .         .         .  3     2  0 

„      pickings 3     2  0 

„      stocks 2     7  0 

„      roughs 1   18  0 

„      place 1   10  0 

Comraon  stocks 2     2  0 

„      roughs 1  16  0 

„      place 18  0 

Red  stocks 2     5  0 

„   rubbers 3     4  0 

Paving  bricks 2  10  0 

Dutch  clinkers 2     5  0 

The  prices  of  the  various  kinds  of  fire-bricks  will  be  found  at  page  18. 

The  bricks  commonly  sold  are  known  by  the  follow- 
ing terms : — 

Cutters. — These  are  the  softest,  and  are  used  for 
gauged  arches  and  other  rubbed  work. 

Malms. — These  are  the  best  building  bricks,  and  are 
only  used  in  the  best  descriptions  of  brickwork  j  coloui 

156  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE  ^ 

Seconds. — These  are  sorted  from  the  best  qualities, 
and  are  much  used  for  the  fronts  of  buildings  of  a 
superior  class. 

Paviours. — These  are  excellent  building  bricks,  being 
sound,  hard,  well  shaped,  and  of  good  colour.  They 
must  not  be  confounded  with  paving  bricks,  ha^-ing 
nothing  in  common  with  them  but  their  name. 

Pickings. — These  are  good  bricks,  but  soft,  and 
inferior  to  the  best  paviours. 

Rough  Paviours. — These  are  the  roughest  pickings 
from  the  panours. 

Washed  Stocks. — These  are  the  bricks  commonly  used 
for  ordinary  brickwork,  and  are  the  worst  description  of 

Grey  Stocks. — These  are  good  bricks,  but  of  irregidar 
colour,  and  are  not  suited  for  face  work. 

Rough  Stocks. — These  are,  as  their  name  implies,  very 
rough  as  regards  shape  and  colour,  and  not  suited  for 
good  work,  although  hard  and  sound. 

Grizzles. — These  arc  somewhat  tender,  and  only  fit 
for  inside  work. 

Place  Bricks. — These  are  only  fit  for  common  purposes, 
and  should  not  be  used  for  permanent  erections. 

Shuffs. — These  are  unsound  and  shuffy — that  is,  full 
of  shakes. 

Burrs  or  Clinkers. — These  arc  only  used  for  making 
artificial  rockwork  for  cascades  or  gardens,  &c. 

Bats. — These  are  merely  refuse. 

It  may  be  here  observed,  that  at  the  brickworks 
round  Loudon  the  bricks  made  are  usually  in  the  form 
of  regular  parallelopipcdons,  9  in.  long,  4^  in.  wide,  and 
3  in.  thick.  If  in  the  execution  of  apiece  of  brickwork, 
bricks  of  other  shapes  are  required,  it  was  formerly  the 
practice,  and  still  sometimes  is,  for  the  bricklayer  to  cut 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  157 

the  ordinary  bricks  to  the  required  shape.  This  practice^ 
so  destructive  to  sound  bond  and  good  work,  cannot  be 
too  strongly  reprehended;*  especially  now  that  the 
manufacture  is  free  from  the  trammels  of  the  excise 
there  can  be  no  excuse  for  not  making  bricks  of  a  great 
variety  of  shapes  for  various  purposes. 

40.  Brickmaking'".t  Cheshunt. — In  the  "  Illustrations 
of  Arts  and  Manufactures,"  by  Mr.  Arthur  Aikin,  is  a 
valuable  paper  on  pottery  and  brickmaking,  the  perusal 
of  which  is  strongly  recommended  to  the  reader.  The 
following  notice  is  there  given  of  the  Cheshunt  bricks  : — 
''  At  Cheshunt,  in  Hertfordshire,  is  a  bed  of  malm  earth 
of  the  finest  quality,  no  less  than  35  ft.  in  depth ;  from 
this  are  made  the  best  smUl  kiln-burnt  bricks,  called 
paviers."  Not  having  an  opportunity  of  personally 
examining  the  Cheshunt  works,  the  author  requested 
Mr.  B.  P.  Stockman  to  do  so,  and,  in  reply,  received 
the  foUoAving  communication,  from  which  it  appears  that 
kiln  burning  has  been  now  disused  for  some  time  at 
Cheshunt ;  clamping  being  now  generally  adopted  : — 

"  There  are  no  bricks  now  made  near  London  of 
natural  malm ;  the  once  well-known  bed  at  Grays  in 
Essex  has  been  exhausted  some  years.  No  one  can 
inform  me  of  any  bed  of  natural  malm  except  that  at 
Cheshunt,  and  I  was  told,  previous  to  my  going  there, 
that  I  should  not  find  the  works  conducted  as  I  had 
been  led  to  expect  from  your  letter. 

"  There  are  only  two  brickmakers  at  Cheshunt,  and, 
from  going  over  their  works,  I  am  able  to  vouch  for 
the  accuracy  of  the  following  particulars. 

*  The  brick  columns,  wliosc  failure  caused  the  frightful  accident  which 
OCCun-ed  in  January,  a.d.  1848,  during  the  erection  of  the  new  buildings 
at  the  Euston  Station  of  the  North  Western  Eaihvay,  were  built  in  thia 
way.  The  additional  cost  of  bricks  made  expressly  lor  the  work,  of  such 
forms  as  would  have  bonded  properly  together  without  any  cutting,  would 
have  been  very  trifling. 

158  nUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

"  There  is  a  bed  of  natural  malm,  and  a  bed  close  to 
it  of  ordinary  brick-earth,  which  also  contains  malm. 
When  they  make  malms,  -which  they  ■\vere  not  doing  at 
the  time  of  my  visit,  they  do  not  use  the  natural  malm 
earth  by  itself,  but  wash  and  mix  chalk  with  it,  and  I 
am  told  that  they  never  have  made  malms  without 
adding  chalk  to  the  natural  earth,  although  the  propor- 
tion is  small  compared  to  that  required  for  the  other 
bed  from  which  they  also  make  malms.  The  earth  is 
soiled  with  ashes  precisely  in  the  same  way  as  in  the 
London  works,  and  turned  over  and  pugged  in  the 
same  kind  of  pug-mill.  The  bricks  are  hacked  and 
clamped,  as  in  London,  and  there  are  none  burnt  in 
kilns,  nor  have  been  for  many  years.  There  are  no 
kilns  on  the  ground,  and  no  kiln  burning  of  any 
description,  though  in  former  years  there  used  to  be 
kilns  for  bricks  and  tiles,  and  also  for  glazed  ware. 

"  The  bricks  made  at  Cheshunt  are  very  superior  to 
the  London  bricks ;  in  fact,  the  stock  made  there  is 
really  a  kind  of  malm  brick,  and  the  malms  themselves, 
as  you  may  suppose,  are  perfection.  I  examined  the 
brick-earth  from  both  pits,  and  saw  the  several  processes 
of  moulding,  hacking,  scintiing,  and  clamping  going 
on.  The  names  of  the  different  qualities  are  the  same 
as  in  London ;  but,  as  regards  quality,  some  of  the 
common  descriptions  are  equal  to  the  London  malms, 
and  I  believe  the  shuffs  would  be  sold  for  malms  in 

41.  Brickmaking  is  carried  on  to  a  great  extent  all 
round  the  metropolis,  but  the  principal  brick-fields  are 
situated  north  of  the  Thames. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    A\D    TILES.  159 


42.  We  propose  to  consider  the  cost  of  manufacture 
under  three  heads^  viz.: — 

1.  Materials  and  fuel. 

2.  Machinery  and  tools. 

3.  Labour. 


43.  Clay. — The  cost  of  brick-earth  must  depend  ver/ 
much  on  the  circumstances  of  the  locality^  but  it  ii> 
usually  considered  to  be  worth  2^.  6d.  per  1,000  bricks, 
exclusive  of  getting. 

41.  Chalk. — The  cost  of  chalk  is  trifling  where  the 
works  have  the  advantage  of  water  carriage,  as  it  can 
be  brought  to  the  canal  wharfs  round  London  at  2s.  lOd. 
per  ton.  To  this  must  be  added  the  cartage,  which,  in 
some  cases,  must  be  a  serious  expense. 

45.  Sa7id. — The  above  remarks  apply  to  the  mould- 
ing sand ;  which  is  brought  from  the  bed  of  the  Thames, 
near  Woolwich,  in  barges  to  the  canal  wharfs  at  2s. 
per  ton,  a  ton  being  about  1;^  cubic  yard.  To  this  must 
be  added  cartage,  and  labour  in  drying  the  sand  to 
make  it  fit  for  use. 

It  is  difiicult  to  say  what  quantity  of  sand  is  used  per 
1,000  bricks,  but  the  cost  may  be  taken  approximately 
at  from  6d.  to  8^.  per  1,000  bricks. 

46.  Breeze. — The  quantity  of  breeze  required  varies 
according  to  circumstances ;  the  proportion  may  be 
taken  to  range  from  12  to  20  chaldrons  per  100,000 
bricks.     The  cost  of  breeze  may  be  taken  at  about  10^. 

*  The  estimates  under  this  head  must  be  considered  as  belonging  to 
the  date  of  the  first  edition  of  this  work  (1850),  but  later  prices  will  be 
found  at  page  162. 

160  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

per  chaldron.  It  may  here  be  mcntioued,  that  in 
London  stringent  regulations  are  in  force  to  prevent 
householders  from  making  use  of  their  domestic  ashes^ 
which  are  collected  by  parties  who  contract  with  the 
parish  authorities  for  this  privilege. 

In  the  Midland  Counties  the  domestic  ashes  are 
generally  used  for  manure^  the  ashes  being  thrown  into 
the  cesspoolsj  an  aiTangement  which  would  not  be  per- 
mitted in  the  metropolis.  This  mode  of  disposing  of 
the  domestic  ashes  completely  prevents  the  use  of  breeze 
in  the  manufacture  of  bricks  in  the  district  where  it  is 

47.  Soil. — The  cost  of  soiling  cannot  be  very  accu- 
rately ascertained.  The  quantity  of  soil  required  de- 
pends much  on  the  quality  of  the  brick-earth;  35 
chaldrons  per  100.000  bricks  may  be  considered  a  fair 
average.  The  cost  per  chaldron  may  be  taken  at  85.  to 
9s.  To  this  must  be  added  the  cost  of  harrowing  to  the 
clay  heap,  say  10s.  to  125.  per  100^000  bricks. 

48.  Coals  and  Wood. — The  quantity  of  faggots  re- 
quired will  depend  on  the  number  of  live  holes.  This 
item  of  expense  is  very  trifling,  say  \0s.  per  100,000  for 
faggots  and  coals  to  light  the  clamp. 

49.  Water. — The  water  required  for  the  washing- 
mills  is  pumped  into  the  troughs  as  before  described, 
and  as  shown  in  the  drawings  of  the  washing-mills, 
fig.  7.  That  which  is  used  in  tempering  the  clay  is 
brought  in  buckets  from  the  nearest  pond  on  the  works. 
In  some  yards  the  supply  is  drawn  from  wells  by  the 
contrivance  known  in  the  East  as  a  shadoof,  and  in  use 
at  the  present  day  in  Germany,  and  throughout  Russia. 
This  simple  contrivance  is  described  at  page  3  of  Mr. 
Glynn's  "  Rudimentary  Treatise  on  the  Construction 
of  Cranes  and  Machinerv,"  and  the  reader  is  there- 

ART    OF    RIAKINO    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  161 

fore  referred  to  the  description  and  "svood-cut  there 

It  may,  however,  be  worth  while  to  remark,  that  there 
is  scarcely  any  difference  between  the  ancient  shadoof 
used  in  Egypt  in  the  time  of  the  Israelitish  bondage 
and  that  in  common  use  at  Stoke  Newington,  and  other 
places  near  London,  in  our  own  time. 

It  is  impossible  to  make  any  calculation  as  to  the 
proportionate  cost  of  the  necessary  supply  of  water 
to  a  brickfield,  as  it  forms  a  portion  of  the  cost  of 
tempering,  and  cannot  be  separated  from  it. 


50.  The  average  cost  of  the  machinery  and  tools  re- 
quired in  a  London  brickfield  is  about  as  follows : — 

Chalk  and  clay  mills,  together    . 
Pug-mill    ....... 

Cuckhold   ....... 

For  each  moulder  arc  required — 

1  moulding  stool,  complete,  at 

1  mould  „ 

3  sets  of  pallets,  26  in  each  set 

3  bearing-ofF  barrows    . 

In  addition  to  the  above  are  required,  a  few  plauks, 
shovels,  barrows,  buckets,  sieves,  and  other  articles,  the 
aggregate  cost  of  which  it  is  impossible  to  estimate. 

No  buildings  are  required  for  the  actual  manufacture. 

It  is,  however,  usual  for  the  foreman,  or  '''moulder,^' 
to  live  at  the  field.  Stabling  may  be  required  or  not; 
according  to  circumstances  and  locality. 




£00  to 







5s.  to 










at  3s. 




at  12s. 







51.  The  cost  of  labour,  &c.,  may  be  taken  as  follows :  — 


1,000  bricks. 
£    s.    d. 

Rent  of  field 

Ashes    .... 

Removing  top  moulJ 

Dijrging  earth 

Soiling  and  turning  cartli 

Clialk  and  expense  of  washii 


Horse  grinding  earth 


Straw  and  hurdles 


Bolting,  sorting,  fee. 


Implements,  &c.     . 

Superintendence     . 

Interest  on  capital 

.  Royalty 

Bad  debts 

Preparing  hacks,  obtuining  water,  making 
coals    and  wood    in    burning,  materials 
building  sand-houses      .... 

1     8 
0     6 


0     0     6 

1      0     0 

This  is  the  actual  cost  for  every  thousand  bricks  be- 
fore they  leave  the  field ;  and  in  order  to  secure  a  fail 
profit,  I.  e.,  about  20  per  cent.,  the  stock  bricks  must  be 
sold  at  £1  85.  per  1,000;  while  the  place  bricks -will 
sell  at  from  15*.  to  £1,  the  grizzles  and  rough  bricks 
at  from  19*.  to  £1  Zs.,  and  the  shuff's  at  from  85.  to 
10«.  per  1,000. 


After  the  above  description  of  the  ordinary  practice 
of  London  brickmakers  was  written,  ^lessrs.  Pearce 
and  Smith,  the  contractors  for  the  Copenhagen  Tunnel, 

ART    OF    MAKING    UUICKS    AND    TILES.  163 

ou  tlie  line  of  the  Great  Northern  Railway,  commenced 
brickmaking  on  a  large  scale  at  the  tunnel-works ;  and 
as  the  mode  of  manufacture  practised  by  them  was  new 
at  the  time  in  London,  a  short  notice  of  it  may  Le 
interesting: — 

The  clay  is  neither  Aveathered  nor  tempered,  but  as 
soon  as  dug  is  wheeled  up  an  incline  to  the  grinding- 
mill,  which  consists  of  a  single  pair  of  cast-iron  rollers, 
driven  by  a  steam-engine.  The  clay  is  mixed  with  a 
certain  proportion  of  sifted  ashes,  and,  passing  between 
the  rollers,  falls  into  a  shed,  whence  it  is,  without  further 
preparation,  wheeled  to  the  moulders. 

The  moulds  are  of  wood,  and  the  process  employed  is 
that  known  as  slop-moulding. 

The  moulding  and  drying  processes  are  both  carried 
ou  in  drying  houses,  with  flues  under  the  floors. 

The  bricks,  as  soon  as  moulded,  are  carried  one  by 
one  to  the  floors,  where  they  remain  until  dry,  when, 
without  being  hacked,  they  are  wheeled  to  the  kilns. 

The  kilns  are  of  the  construction  commonly  used  in 
the  Midland  Counties,  but  have  no  sheds  at  the  sides  to 
shelter  the  fires.     The  fuel  used  is  coal. 

The  bricks  thus  mode  are  of  an  irregular  reddish 
brown  colour,  and  of  fair  average  quality. 

On  first  commencing  operations,  Messrs.  Pearce  and 
Smith  made  a  large  quantity  of  bricks  without  any 
admixture  of  ashes,  sand  only  being  added  to  diminish 
the  contraction  of  the  clay.  These  bricks  burnt  of  a 
clear  red  colour,  and  were  mostly  very  hard,  but  proved 
brittle,  and  were  apt  to  become  cracked  in  burning. 

Amongst  other  novelties  adopted,  may  be  mentioned 
the  use  of  saw-dust  in  lieu  of  sand,*  the  latter  material 

♦  It  may  be  necessary,  perhaps,  to  remind  the  reader  that  sand  is  used 
lov  many  purposes  besides  that  of  sanding  the  brick-mould. 

164  KUDIMEXTS    OF    THE 

being  very  costly,  ^Thilst  the  former  is  supplied  on  the 
works  from  a  saw-mill  worked  by  a  steam-engine,  which 
at  the  same  time  drives  the  mortar-mill,  and  works  the 
lifts  at  two  of  the  tunnel  shafts. 

GOING Account  of  BRiciMAKixo  ix  the  vicinity  of 

52. — Fig.  1.  General  Plan  of  a  Brickworl:. 
(Scale  40  ft.  to  an  inch.) 

A.  The  chalk-mill. 

B.  The  clav  washing-mill. 
c  The  pump. 

D.  The  shoot  to  the  brick-earth. 

i;.  The  brick-earth  turned  over  in  readiness  to  receive  the  malm. 
r.  The  pug-mill. 
G.  The  moulding  RtooL 
H.  The  hack  ground. 
K.K..  Clamps. 

53.  The  Chalh-miU. 

Figs.  2  and  3.  Section  and  Plan.     (Scale  10  ft.  to  an  inch.) 
a.a.  Grinding-whccls. 
b.  Inlet  from  pump.' 
e.  Outlet  to  clav  washing-mill. 
Details.     (Scale  5  ft.  to  an  inch.) 
Fig.  4.  Grinding-wheel. 

Fig.  5.  Mode  of  connecting  the  axle-tree  of  the  grinding-wheels  will: 
the  centre  shaft. 

The  mill  consists  of  a  circular  trough  lined  with  brick- 
work, and  furnished  with  a  pair  of  heavy  wheels  with 
spiked  tires,  which,  being  drawn  round  by  horses,  crush 
and  grind  the  chalk  until  it  is  reduced  to  a  pulp.  The 
wheels  arc  shown  in  detail  in  fig.  4.  It  is  necessar}' 
that  they  should  accommodate  themselves  to  the  level 
of  the  chalk  in  the  trough,  and  to  effect  this,  the  framing 

ART    or    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  165 

of  which  the  axle-tree  forms  a  part  is  secured  to  the 
centre  shaft  by  a  staple^  as  shown  in  fig.  5,  which 
allows  the  whole  of  the  timbering  to  rise  or  fall,  as  may 
be  requisite.  The  centre  shaft  is  a  bar  of  iron,  steadied 
by  being  built  up  in  a  mass  of  brickwork.  The  yoke 
beams  are  kept  at  the  proper  height,  and  their  weight 
supported  by  common  light  chaise  wheels,  about  2  ft.  6  in. 
diameter,  which  run  on  the  outside  of  the  horse  track. 
The  mill  represented  in  these  engravings  is  mounted  for 
two  horses ;  many  mills,  however,  have  but  one. 

5-1.  The  Clay-washing  Mill. 

Figs.  6  and  7.   Plan  and  elevation.     (Scale  10  ft.  to  an  inch.) 

a.  The  inlet  from  the  chalk-mill. 

b.  The  outlet  to  the  shoot. 
ex.  The  harrows. 

d.d.  The  cutters. 
e.  The  pump. 

Details,    (Scale  \\  in.  to  5  ft.) 
Fig.  8.  The  cutters. 

Fig.  9.  The  outlet  to  the  shoot,  and  the  strainer. 
Fig.  10.  The  strainer. 

The  mill  consists  of  a  circular  trough  of  larger  dimen- 
sions than  that  of  the  chalk-mill,  also  lined  with  brick- 
work, and  furnished  with  a  two-horse  gin,  to  which  are 
attached  knives  and  harrGws,  which,  in  their  passage 
round  the  trough,  cut  up  the  clay  and  incorporate  it 
with  the  pulp  from  the  chalk-mill.  The  framing  of  the 
gin  is  very  simple,  and  requires  no  description.  The 
knives,  or  cutters,  are  placed  in  two  sets,  four  in  each. 
They  are  fixed  in  an  upright  position,  and  steadied  to 
their  work  by  chains,  and  by  being  bolted  together  with 
bolts  passing  through  tubular  distance  pieces,  as  shown 
ki  fig.  8.  The  knives  cut  the  clay  and  clear  the  way 
for  the  harrows,  which  are  similar  to  those  ujsed  for 
agricultural  purposes,  and   arc  merely  suspended  by 

166  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

chains  from  the  timber  framing.  The  piimp  is  worked 
by  the  horizontal  wheel  f,  fig.  7,  which  is  provided 
with  friction  rollers  on  its  rim,  for  the  purpose  of  lifting 
the  lever  g,  which  raises  the  lever  of  the  pump  by  means 
of  the  spindle  h.  The  outlet  to  the  shoots  is  simply  a 
square  trunk  made  of  2  in.  plank.  It  is  furnished  with 
a  brass  grating,  or  strainer,  shown  in  fig.  10.  The  bars 
are  |  in.  wide,  and  ^  in.  apart,  so  that  even  small  stones 
will  not  pass  through.  This  grating  is  fixed  in  grooves, 
so  that  it  can  be  lifted  out  of  its  place  by  the  handles, 
when  required. 

55.  The  Pug-mill. 

Fig.  1 1 .  Elevation.    (Scale  4  ft.  to  an  inch.) 

a.  The  yoke  arm. 

b.  The  opening  for  the  ejectment  of  the  earth  when  ground. 

c.  The   brick-earth  surrounding  the  mill,  on   whitJi   is   an 

inclined  barrow  road  to  the  top  of  the  mill. 
Fig.  12,   Section.     (Scale  2  ft.  to  an  inch.) 

a.a.  Force  knives.  These  are  not  provided  with  cfuss  knives, 
their  purpose  being  merely  to  force  the  ei»rth  downwards 
and  out  at  the  ejectment  hole. 

56. — Fig.  13.  Isometrical  View  of  the  Moulding  Stool. 
(Scale  4  ft.  to  an  inch.) 

a.  The  lump  of  ground  earth  from  the  pug-mill. 

b.  The  moulder's  sand. 

e.  The  clot-moulder's  gand. 

d.  The  bottom  of  the  mould,  termed  the  ttock-loard. 

e.  The  water-tub. 

/.  The  pape,  which  is  formed  of  two  rods  of  gths  of  an  inch  round 
or  square  iron,  nailed  down  at  each  end  to  the  wooden 
rails  or  sleepers  on  which  they  rest.  The  use  of  the  page 
is  to  slide  the  new  bricks,  with  their  pallets,  away  from  the 
moulder  with  facility. 

p.  The  pallets  in  their  proper  position  for  use. 

k.  A  newly-made  brick  just  slidden  from  the  moalder,  and  rcadjr 
for  the  taking-off  boy, 

k.  The  moulder's  place. 

m.  The  clot-moulder's  place. 

«.  The  taking-off  boy's  place. 

g.  The  cuckhold,  a  concave  shovel  used  for  catting  off  the  ground- 
earth  as  it  is  ejected  from  the  pug-mill. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  167 

7o. — Fig.  14.  Isometrical  View  of  the  Brick  Mould, 
with  its  detached  bottom  or  Stock-board.  (Scale  2  in, 
to  a  foot.) 

a.a,a.  The  iron  pegs  on  which  the  mould  rests  daring  the  opera- 
tion of  moulding.  They  are  driven  into  the  stool  in  the 
positions  shown  in  the  drawing  ;  their  height  from  the  stool 
regulates  the  thickness  of  the  brick.  The  mould  is  lined 
throughout  with  sheet-iron,  which  is  turned  over  the  edges 
of  the  mould  at  the  top  and  bottom. 

58.— Fig.  15.  The  Hack  ^arroz^;— loaded.    (Scale  2  ft. 
to  an  inch.) 
Fig.  16.  The  hack  Harrow— unloaded.    (Scale  2  ft.  to  an  inch.) 

59.  The  Clamp. 

Fig.  17.  Transverse  section  (parallel  to  necks).    (Scale  10  ft.  to  an 

Fig.  18.  Longitudinal  ditto  ditto  ditto. 

a.  The  upright. 
b.h.  Close  bolts. 

c.  Live  hole. 

d.  Bestowing. 

Details.     (Scale  2  ft.  to  an  inch.) 
Fig.  19.  Plan  of  the  lower  course  of  scintles. 
Fig.  20.  Plan  of  the  upper  course  of  scintles. 
.  The  live  hole. 

It  should  be  understood  that  the  directions  of  the  scintles, 

as  well  as  that  of  the  paving  below  it,  are  changed  for  every 

neck,  so  as  to  conrespond  with  the  upper  work,  as  shown  in 

the  figures. 

Fig.  21.  Detail  of  the  end  of  the  upright,  showing  the  paving,  the 

ecintling,  the  live  hole,  and  the  7  in.,  4  in.,  and  2  in.  courses  of  breeze. 



1.  The  general  term^  "  Tile  Manufacture,"  is  so  com- 
prehensive, that  it  would  be  impossible,  within  the  limits 
of  a  little  volume  like  the  present,  to  give  anything  like 
a  complete  account  of  the  manufacture  of  the  different 

J  68  RUDIMENTS    OF    TUE 

articles  made  at  a  large  tilery ;  we  only  pro^jose,  there- 
fore^ in  the  present  chapter,  to  give  a  succinct  account 
of  the  manufacture  of  pantiles,  as  carried  on  at  the 
London  tileries,  which  will  serve  to  give  the  reader  a 
general  idea  of  the  nature  of  the  processes  employed  in 
tile-making.  It  must,  however,  be  borne  in  mind,  that 
although  the  principle  of  proceeding  is  the  same  in  each 
case,  there  are  no  two  articles  made  exactly  in  the  same 
way,  the  moulding  and  subsequent  processes  being 
carried  on  in  a  different  manner,  and  with  different 
tools  and  implements,  for  every  description  of  article. 

The  manufacture  of  plain  tiles  and  drain  tiles  has 
already  been  described  in  Chap.  IV.,  to  which  the 
reader  is  referred,  as  also  to  the  supplementary  chapter 
at  page  220. 

2.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the  principal  articles 
made  at  the  London  tileries : — 

Oven  tiles.  Kiln  bricks. 

10-in.  paving  tiles.  Fire  bricks. 

Foot         ditto.  Paving  bricks. 

Plain  tiles.  Circulars  (for  setting  coppers.&c.) 

Pantiles.  Ck)lumn  bricks  (for  forming  co- 

Ridge  tiles.  lumns). 

Hip  tiles.  Chimney-pots. 

Drain  tiles.  Garden-pots. 

Drain  pipes. 
And  anytbing  required  To  order. 

For  all  these  articles  (excepting  fire  bricks)  the  same 
clay  is  employed  (mixed,  for  the  making  of  paving  tiles, 
oven  tiles,*  kiln  bricks,  paving  bricks,  circular  bricks, 
and  column  bricks,  with  a  certain  quantity  of  loam), 
and  they  are  all  burnt  in  the  same  kiln,  the  fire  bricks 
included  ;  but  each  different  article  presents  some  pecu- 
liarity in  the  processes  intervening  between  the  tem- 
pering and  the  burning,  having  its  separate  moulding. 
♦  For  oven  tiles  the  stufT  must  be  of  superior  quality. 



Fig.  1. 

st©ol,  frames^  strike,  &c.,  and  being  stacked  and  dried 
differently.  The  details  of  these  differences,  however 
(even  would  our  limits  allow  us  to  describe  them),  would 
scarcely  be  suited  to  the  pages  of  a  rudimentary  work 
intended  for  popular  reading. 



Figs.  2  and  3. 



3.  Pugmill. — The  pug-mill  used  in  tile  making  for 
pugging,  or,  as  it  is  termed,  grinding  the  elay,  differs 
considerably  from  that  used  in  brick-making.  The  tub, 
instead  of  being  conical,  is  made  to  taper  at  both  endsj 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  171 

Fig.  5. 





and  the  ejectment  hole  is  at  the  bottom  instead  of  in 
the  front,  as  in  the  brick  pug-mill. 

The  knives,  also,  are  made  in  a  superior  manner. 
1  3 



Fig.  9. 


The  mill  is  provided  vith  foree   knives  -without  cross 
knives  at  top  and  bottom.     See  figures  1,  2,  and  3. 

The  pug-mill  is  placed  under  cover  in  a  shed  called 
the  grinding  shed. 

ART    OF    MAKING    UUICKS    AND    TILES.  173 

Fig.  6. 

4.  The  Sling,  fig.  4,  is  simply  a  piece  of  thin  wire 
Tvitli  two  liandles,  used  for  cutting  the  clay. 

5.  Moulding  Shed. — Tiles  are  made  uuder  cover  in 
sheds  about  7  yards  wide,  the  length  of  the  shed  de- 
pending on  the  number  of  moulding  tables,  the  area 
allotted  to  each  table  being  about  7  yards  in  length  by 
4  yards  in  breadth. 

The  moulding  tables  are  placed  against  one  side  of 



Fiy.  10. 

the  shed,  and  the  remainder  of  the  area  is  oecupied  by 
the  blocks  or  drying-shelves  ;  every  shelf  being  formed 
with  three  1  in.  planks  placed  edge  to  edge,  and  sepa- 
rated from  each  other  by  bricks  placed  edgewise  at  the 
end  of  the  planks,  as  well  as  at  intermediate  points, 
each  block  containing  about  1-i  shelves,  and  thus 
measuring  12  ft.  long  by  2  ft.  8  in.  wide,  and  about  7  ft. 
high.  A  passage  way,  3  ft.  wide,  is  left  round  the 
blocks,  to  give  free  access  to  every  part  of  them. 

These  details  will  be  understood  by  reference  to  fig.  5. 

6.  The  Pantile  Table,  or  moulding  table,  is  shown  in 



Fig.  11. 

Fig.  12. 

Fig.  13. 

Fig.  15. 

fig.  6.  It  is  furnished  with  a  trug  or  trough,  in  which 
the  moulder  dips  his  hands  when  moulding,  and  with 
a  block  and  stock-board,  on  which  the  tile  mould  is 
placed  in  the  operation  of  moulding. 

7.  The  Block  and  Stock-board  is  shown  in  fig.  7. 
The  two  form  one  piece,  which  rests  on  the  moulding 
table,  and  is  firmly  keyed  to  it  by  means  of  a  tenon  on 


Fig.  13. 


thte  under  side  of  the  block  passing  through  a  mortice  in 
the  table.  Four  pegs,  driven  into  the  table  at  the  corners 
of  the  block  and  stock-board,  serve  as  a  support  for  the 
mould  and  regulate  the  thickness  of  the  tile,  f  in.  being 
the  thickness  of  a  pantile. 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  177 

Fig.  14. 


8.  The  Tile  Mould  is  sliown  in  fig.  8,  and  requires  no 
particular  description. 

9.  The  Foil,  fig.  9,  is  merely  a  round  roller  of  a 
particular  size,  as  sliown  by  the  scale,  and  is  used  for 
striking  a  smooth  surface  to  the  tile. 

10.  The  Washincj-off  Table,  fig.  10,  is  a  stand  with 

I  3 



t'ig'<.  17  and  18. 


py -^  ^^^^^ .  V 

fP  in 

-36  7- ^v-> 



a  water  trougli   and  a  frame   ealled   the    JVashing-oif 
Frame,  see  fig.  11,  on  wbicli,  when  moulded,  the  tile 'is 



Fig.  19. 





M  '1  I  1   I  I  I  1  1- 


washed  into  a  curved  form.  The  washing-off  table  is 
placed  at  the  left  hand  end  of  the  pantile  table,  and 
near  the  block. 





11.  TTie  SpJayer,  fig.  12,  is  an  instrument  on  which 
the  tile  is  removed  from  the  washing-off  frame  to  the 

12.  The   Thicacking   Frame,  fig.   13;  is  a  frame  on 



Fig.  21. 




^i^M^M%^  -MM^^.;^^^^^.^c^:.^i^ 

ART    or    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  183 

wliicli  the  tilcj  when  half  dry,  is  thwacked  or  beaten 
with  a  ihwacker  (lig.  15),  to  correet  any  warping  which 
may  have  taken  place  whilst  drying  in  the  block. 

When  thwacking  those  tiles  taken  from  the  bottom 
of  the  block,  the  thwacking  frame  is  placed  upon  the 
Thwacking  Stool,  fig.  13  ;  but  when  the  tiles  to  be 
thwacked  are  at  the  top  of  the  block,  the  thwacking 
frame  is  placed  upon  the  Thwacking  Horse,  fig.  14, 
which  brings  it  conveniently  to  their  level. 

The  Thvjacking  Knife,  fig.  16,  is  used  for  trimming 
the  wing  of  the  pantile  immediately  after  thwacking. 

13.  The  Tile  Kiln,  figs.  17,  18,  19,  20,  21,  and  22, 
consists  of  a  kiln  Avith  arched  furnaces,  enclosed  in  a 
conical  building  called  a  dome.  The  arrangement  of 
die  whole  building  Avill  be  clearly  understood  by  refer- 
ence to  the  figures,  and  to  the  detailed  description  at 
the  end  of  this  chapter. 


14.  Clay-getting  and  Weathering. — The  clay  used  for 
making  tiles  is  purer  and  stronger  than  that  used  for 
making  bricks,  and  consequently  requires  more  care  in 
its  treatment. 

When  the  clay  is  too  strong,  it  is  mixed  with  sand 
before  passing  it  through  the  pug-mill,  but  this  is  not 
often  required. 

The  weaMicring  of  the  clay  is  performed  by  spreading 
it  out  in  thin  layers,  about  2  in.  thick,  during  the  winter, 
and  each  layer  is  allowed  to  receive  the  benefit  of  at 
least  one  night's  frost  before  the  succeeding  layer  is 
placed  over  it.  Sometimes  the  clay  is  spread  out  in 
the  summer  to  be  scorched  by  the  sun,  which  effects 
the  flreathcriug  equally  well.     The  greater  the  heat,  or 

184;  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

the  sharper  the  frost,  the  thicker  may  be  the  layers,  but 
4  in.  is  the  maximum  thickness. 

The  object  of  the  process  of  weathering  is,  to  open 
the  pores  of  the  clay,  and  to  separate  the  particles,  that 
it  may  absorb  water  more  readily  in  the  subsequent 
process  of  mellowing. 

The  clay  thus  weathered  is  thrown  into  pits,  where  it 
is  covered  with  water,  and  left  for  a  considerable  time 
to  mellow,  or  ripen. 

15.  Tempering. — The  process  of  tempering  is  per- 
formed simply  by  passing  the  clay  through  the  pug-mill. 
If  the  clay  be  very  foul,  that  is,  full  of  stones,  it  is  sluny 
before  using,  and  passed  a  second  time  through  the  mill. 
For  chimney-pots  and  similar  articles,  the  clay  is  slung 
either  once  or  twice,  and  pugged,  or,  as  it  is  called, 
ground,  twice  or  thrice,  according  to  the  nature  of  the 
clay,  and  the  purpose  to  which  it  is  to  be  applied. 

16.  Slinging. — The  operation  of  slinging  is  as  fol- 
lows :  as  the  clay  issues  from  the  ejectment  hole  of  the 
pug-mill,  it  is  cut  into  lengths  of  about  2  ft.,  with  a 
sling.  These  lumps  are  taken  by  the  slingers  and  cut 
up  into  slices,  not  exceeding  j  in.  in  thickness,  during 
which  operation  most  of  the  stones  fall  out,  and  those 
which  remain  are  picked  out  by  hand.  The  clay  thus 
freed  from  stones  is  once  more  ground,  and  is  then 
ready  for  the  moulder. 

(N.B.  In  some  parts  of  England  the  clay  is  freed 
from  stones  by  sifting,  and  the  tempering  is  performed 
by  treading  ;  this  part  of  the  work  being  done  by  boys, 
who  tread  in  a  spiral  track,  so  as  to  subject  each  portion 
of  the  mass  to  a  uniform  amount  of  kneading.) 

17.  Moulding. — The  clay,  as  it  issues  from  the  mill, 
is  cut  into  lumps,  called  pieces,  which  arc  stacked  on  a 
rough  bench  in  the  grisding  shed.     A  labourer  cuts 


these  lumps  in  half,  each  half  being  called  a  half-piece, 
and  wheels  these  half-pieces  one  by  one  to  the  pantile 

A  rough-moulder,  generally  a  boy,  takes  the  half- 
piece  and  squares  it  up,  that  is,  beats  it  up  into  a  slab 
near  the  shape  of  the  mould,  and  about  4  in.  thick,  from 
which  he  cuts  off  a  thin  slice,  the  size  of  a  tile,  and 
passes  it  to  the  moulder. 

The  moulder,  having  sanded  his  stock-board,  and 
placed  his  mould  on  the  four  pegs  which  regulate  the 
thickness  of  the  tile,  takes  the  slice  of  clay  from  the 
rough-moulder,  and  puts  it  into  the  mould.  He  then, 
with  very  wet  hands,  smooths  the  surface,  cutting  off 
the  superfluous  clay  with  his  hands,  in  long  pieces,  called 
strippings,  which  are  thrown  to  a  corner  of  the  table. 
This  done,  he  strikes  the  surface  level  with  the  roll;  and 
turning  the  tile  out  of  the  mould  on  the  washing-off 
frame,  with  very  wet  hands  washes  it  into  a  curved 
shape.  He  then  strikes  it  smartly  with  the  splayer,  and 
turns  it  over  on  that  implement,  on  which  he  conveys  it 
to  the  block,  where  he  deposits  the  tile  with  the  convex 
side  uppermost,  and,  the  splayer  being  withdrawn,  the 
tile  is  left  to  dry.  The  button  end  of  the  tile  is  placed 
inside  the  block. 

18.  Thwacking. — The  tiles  remain  in  the  block  until 
they  are  half  dry,  when  they  are  taken  out  one  by  one, 
placed  on  the  thwacking  frams,  and  beaten  with  the 
thwacker  to  perfect  their  shape. 

The  wing  of  each  tile  is  then  trimmed  with  the 
thwacking  knife,  and  the  tiles  replaced  in  the  block,  still 
with  the  convex  side  uppermost;  but  this  time  the  button 
end  is  placed  outside.  The  tiles  then  remain  in  the 
block  until  ready  for  kilning. 

It  should  be  observed  that  the  tiles  flatten  slightly 


whilst  ill  the  block,  aud  for  this  reason  the  washing-off 
frame  is  made  a  little  more  convex  than  the  thwacking 
frame,  which  corresponds  to  the  permanent  form  of  the 

19.  Kilning. — In  setting  the  kiln,  a  course  of  vitrified 
bricks  is  laid  at  the  bottom,  herring-bone  fashion,  the 
bricks  being  placed  \h  in.  apart.  On  this  foundation 
the  tiles  are  stacked  as  closely  as  they  will  lie,  in  an 
upright  position,  one  course  above  another.  As  the 
body  of  the  kiln  is  filled,  the  hatchways  are  bricked  up 
with  old  bricl:s,  and  when  the  kiln  is  topped,  the)'  are 
plastered  over  with  loam  or  clay.  The  top  is  then 
covered  with  one  course  of  unburnt  tiles,  placed  flat,  and 
lastlv,  upon  these  a  course  of  old  pantiles  is  loosely 

The  fires  are  lighted  on  Monday  morning,  and  are 
not  put  out  until  Satiu'day  evening,  whatever  the  articles 
in  the  kiln. 

The  fuel  used  is  coal,  and  the  quantity  consumed  at 
each  burning  about  eight  tons.  This,  however,  varies 
with  the  kind  of  articles  to  be  burnt, — hollow  goods,  as 
chimney-pots,  garden-pots,  kc,  requiring  less  than  more 
solid  articles.  Foot  tiles,  oven  ditto,  and  10-in.  ditto, 
are  stacked  in  the  kiln  the  same  way  as  paving  bricks. 
The  covering  on  the  top  of  the  kiln  varies  in  thickness, 
according  to  the  sort  of  goods  to  be  fired. 


20.  From  the  manufacture  of  tiles  being  carried  on 
under  cover,  the  establishment  of  a  large  tile-work 
involves  a  considerable  amount  of  capital.     The  kiln 

•  The  estimates  here  given  refer  to  the  First  Edition,  except  where 
otherwise  stated. 

ART    OF    MAKIXG    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  187 

used  in  London  is  very  costly^  such  a  one  as  we  have 
shown  in  figs.  17  to  22  costing  in  its  erection  no  less 
than  £2,000. 

The  cost  of  making  pantiles  is  about  as  follows,  per 

1,000  :— 

£   s.    d. 

Clay — this  is  usnally  included  in  the  rent,  but,  if  pur- 
cliased  separately,  may  be  taken  at  2^.  6rf.  per  yard 
cube — 2^  yards  cube  make  1,000  pantiles    . 

Weathering  clay 

Mellowing  ditto,  and  grinding  once  _     •        •        •        • 

Add  for  horsing  the  pug-mill  .   ■     .         .         . 

If  slung  and  ground  a  second  time,  add  .... 

Moulding,  including  all  labour  in  fetching  clay  from  mill, 
moulding,  washing,  blocking,  thwacking,  and  blocking 
second  time 

Setting  and  drawing  kiln 


Cost  of  making  .... 

Rent,  repairs,  breakage,  contingencies,  and  profit    . 

Selling  price  per  1,000        .        .         .3100 

21.  The  following  are  the  ordinary  prices,  in  1862, 
for  a  variety  of  articles,  which  will  give  an  idea  of  the 
comparative  amount  of  labour  bestowed  upon  them  : — 































Plain  tiles 

Patent  tiles 

Pan,  hip,  or  ridge  tiles 

Ornamental  plain  tiles 

Paving  tiles,  9  in. 

10  „ 

12  „ 
Mathematical  tiles,  red     . 
„  white 

Oven  tiles 

per  1,000 



































22.  The  above  sketch  of  the  manufacture  of  pantiles 
will  g've  the  reader  a  general  idea  of  the  processes  used 
in  tile-makiug,  but  every  article  presents  some  pecu- 
liarity of  manufacture.  Plain  tiles  are  dried  on  flats, 
called  Flace  Grounds.     Hip  and  ridge  tiles  are  washed 

188  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

and  thwacked  in  a  similar  manner  to  pantiles.  Drain 
tiles  are  only  washed.  Pa\'ing  tiles  and  oven  tiles  are 
stricken  with  a  flat  strike  instead  of  the  roll,  and  are 
not  washed,  but  they  are  thwacked  and  dressed  with  a 

23.  Description  of  Illustrations. 

Figs.  1,  2,  and  3.   The  pug-mill. 
The  png  mill  used  in  tilc-making  is  different  from  that  used  in  brick- 
makinr],  as  will  readily  be  seen  from  the  figures. 
Fig.  1.  Eleration  of  pug-milL     (Scale  \  in.  to  the  foot.) 
Fig.  2.  Details  of  the  knives.     (Scale  ^  in.  to  the  foot.) 

These  knives  are  made  in  a  superior  manner  to  those  of  the  brick 
pug-mills,  both  as  regards  strength  and  fitting.  The  mill  is  provided 
with  force  knives  at  top  and  bottom,  which  have  no  cross  knives 
attached  to  them. 
Fig.  3.  Cross  section  of  the  tub.     (Scale  \  in.  to  the  foot.) 
a.  The  ejectment  hole,  which  is  at  the  bottom  of  the  tub,  and  not 
at  the  side,  as  in  the  brick  pug-mill. 
Fig.  4.  The  sling,  or  wire  knife,  used  for  cutting  the  clay  into  lengths 
as  it  issues  from  the  pug-mill,  and  also  for  freeing  the  clay  from  stones 

Fig.  5.  The  tile  shed,  shown  in  plan  and  section.    (Scale  10  ft.  to  the 

a.a.a.  The  blocks,  which  consist  of  a  series  of  shelves,  on  which  the 
tiles  are  placed  to  dry.     Each  shelf  is  formed  of  three  11-inch 
planks.  The  shelves  arc  4J  in.  apart,  and  are  spaced  off  from  each 
other  by  bricks  laid  edgewise,  at  the  end  of  the  block,  and  also 
midway  between  these  points. 
b.h.b.  The  moulding  tables. 
Fig.  6.  The  pantile  table,  used  for  moulding  pantiles.  (Scale  |  in.  to 
the  foot.) 

a.  The  half-piece  squared  up. 

b.  The  block  and  stock-board. 
e.  The  trug  or  trough. 

d.  The  moulder's  sand. 

e.  The  stripping?. 

/.  A  hole  in  the  table  for  sweepings  to  drop  through. 
g.g.ff.  The  pegs  on  which  the  mould  is  placed.     There  are  four  of 
these  pegs  ;  viz.,  one  at  each  comer  of  the  block  and  stock-board  ; 
and  the  distance  to  which  they  are  driven  below  the  top  of  the 
Etock-boiird,  determines  the  thickness  of  the  tile.' 
Fig.  7.  The  block  and  stock-board.     (Scale  1  in.  to  the  f(X)t.) 

c.  A  tenon,  which  drops  into  a  mortice  in  the  table. 

d.  A  mortice  in  r,  by  which  the  block  and  stock-board  is  keyed 
tightly  to  the  table. 

Fig.  8.  The  pantile  mould.     (Scale  1  in.  to  the  foot) 
Fig.  9.  The  roll.     (Scale  1  in.  to  the  foot.) 

ART    OF   MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  189 

Fig.  10.  The  washing-off  table.     (Scale  ^  in.  to  the  foot.) 
a.  The  washing-off  trug. 
}.  The  washing-off  frame. 
Fig.  11.  The  washing-off  frame.     (Scale  1  in.  to  the  foot.) 
Fig.  12.  The  splayer.     (Scale  1  in.  to  the  foot.) 
Fig.  13.  The  thwacking  frame  placed  on  the  thwacking  stool.    (Scale 
1  in.  to  the  foot.) 

Fig.  14.  The  thwacking  horse,  on  which  the  thwacking  frame  Is  placed 
for  thwacking  those  tiles  at  the  top  of  the  blocks.  (Scale  ^  in.  to  the  foot.) 
a.  Tiie  table  on  which  the  thwacking  frame  is  placed. 
d.  The  place  where  the  thwacker  stands  to  thwack. 
c.c.  Two  wheels  to  facilitate  the  moving  of  the  horse  from  place  to 
place  when  required. 
Fig.  15.  The  thwacker.     (Scale  1  in.  to  the  foot.) 
Fig.  16.     The  thwacking  knife.     (Scale  1  in.  to  the   foot.)     This  is 
simply  an  iron  blade,  with  a  piece  cut  out  exactly  to  the  intended  profile 
of  the  wing  of  the  pantile,  which  is  trimmed  with  it  immediately  after 

Figs.  17  to  22.  The  tile  kiln. 
(N.B.  The  whole  of  the  furnace  and  body  of  the  kiln  is  constructed 
of  fire  brick.) 
Fig.  17.  Plan  of  the  kiln,  taken  through  the  body.    (Scale  20  feet  to 
the  inch.) 
k.h.  The  hatchways. 
Fig.  18.  Plan  of  the  basement,  to  the  same  scale,  showing  the  entrance 
to  the  vaults. 

Fig.  19.*  Section  through  the  centre  of  the  kiln,  in  the  direction  of 
the  line  a  b,  fig.  18.     (Same  scale.) 

Fig.  20.  Section  through  the  centre  of  the  kiln,  in  the  direction  of  the 
line  c  d.     (Same  scale.) 

Fig.  21.  Transverse  section  of  the  furnaces.  (Scale  \  in.  to  the  foot.) 
The  section  marked  a  is  taken  through  the  throat  of  the  furnace,  on  the 
line  marked  x  ij,  in  fig.  22. 

Fig.  22.  Longitudinal  section  of  the  furnaces.  (Same  scale.)  The 
arrows  ia  each  of  the  above  figures  show  the  direction  of  the  flues. 



1.  The  highly-decorative  pavements  of  the  mediaeval 
ages,  principally  to  be  found  in  our  old  ecclesiastical 
structures,  which  often  shared  the  fate  of  many  beautiful 

*  This  cut  and  the  following  are  not  quite  accurate,  the  sides  of  the 
dome  not  being  straight,  as  shown  in  the  engraving,  but  slightly  convex. 

190  BUDIMEXTS    OP    THE 

details  of  architectural  ornament,  by  being  made  to  give 
way  to  -what  rustic  cliurcbwardens,  and  others  of  equal 
taste  and  discemmentj  deemed  improvements  —  after 
attracting  the  attention  of  the  antiquary  for  centuries, 
have  at  length  excited  some  interest  amongst  the  prac- 
tical minds  of  these  our  stirring  business  times.  About 
thirty  years  since  a  patent  was  obtained  by  Mr.  S. 
"Wright,  of  the  Staffordshire  Potteries,  for  the  revival  of 
this  interesting  branch  of  art,  for  such  it  may  be  truly 
called.  As  might  have  been  expected,  many  difficulties 
beset  the  patentee,  and  for  some  years  nothing  was  pro- 
duced equal  to  the  old  specimens.  But  still  a  beginning 
was  made  that  promised  success  when  skill  and  capital, 
and  a  determination  to  succeed,  should  be  brought  to 
bear  upon  the  subject.  And  these  were  not  long  want- 
ing, as  the  patent  ultimately  passed  into  the  hands  of  a 
gentleman  undeterred  by  difficulties  or  previous  failures, 
and  who  expressed  his  intention  to  make  encaustic  tiles, 
such  as  would  secure  the  public  approbation,  even  if 
each  one  cost  him  a  guinea!  This  is  the  spirit  that  has 
achieved  such  surprising  results  in  our  manufactures 
generally,  within  a  comparatively  brief  period ;  and  no 
wonder  that  in  this,  as  in  most  other  instances,  success 
has  been  the  satisfactory  result.  TVe  need  scarcely  say 
that  the  gentleman  referred  to  is  !Mr.  Herbert  Minton, 
who,  with  untiring  industry,  collected  the  best  speci- 
mens of  old  tiles  that  could  be  found  in  this  country,  and 
by  a  succession  of  experiments  overcame  the  obstacles 
that  had  retarded  the  success  of  the  undertaking. 

2.  The  chief  of  these  obstacles  was,  to  discover  clays 
of  different  colours  that  could  be  made  to  amalgamate 
in  such  a  way  as  to  contract  or  shrink  equally  during  the 
processes  of  drying  and  firing;  and  until  this  was  effected, 
a  perfect  tile  of  several  colours  could  not  be  produced, 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS   ANP    TILES.  191 

sundry  unsightly  cracks  appearing  on  the  inlaid  parts 
of  the  surface.  It  will  be  unnecessary  to  speak  of  the 
present  state  of  perfection  to  which  these  beautiful  tiles 
have  been  brought^  further  than  to  observe  that  they 
are  yearly  becoming  more  appreciated^  both  on  the  score 
of  durability  and  ornament;  and  there  can  scarcely  be  a 
doubt  thatj  very  soon^  no  ecclesiastical  building,  having 
any  pretensions  to  architectui'al  superiority,  will  be  con- 
sidered to  be  complete  in  its  decorations  without  them. 
By  way  of  information,  we  may  add,  that  not  only 
copies  of  old  tiles  are  manufactured,  but  every  variety 
of  design  suitable  for  the  character  of  the  building  they 
are  intended  for  are  supplied.  Indeed,  almost  any 
pattern  can  be  produced  with  facility;  and  we  have  seen 
some  of  the  arms  of  our  nobility  and  gentry  so  finely 
executed,  that  the  uninitiated  might  be  pardoned  for 
mistaking  these  inlaid  clays  for  the  highly-finished  and 
elaborate  work  of  the  pencil.  In  many  instances  they 
have  been  adopted  as  a  substitute  for  oil- cloth  in  the 
halls  and  passages  of  the  mansions  of  our  nobility, 
being  considered  far  more  beautiful,  and,  from  their 
durability,  more  economical  also,  in  the  long  run. 

3.  We  will  now  take  a  peep  into  the  interior  of  Messrs. 
Minton  and  Co.^s  manufactory.*  We  must  first  notice, 
that  the  clays  of  which  the  tiles  are  composed  are  ob- 
tained in  the  immediate  neighbourhood — the  ordinary 
marl  producing  a  good  buff  colour  when  fired  j  another 
kind  a  warm  red ;  black  is  produced  by  staining  with 
manganese;  blue  with  cobalt,  &c.  W'th  the  native 
clays  there  is  a  slight  admixtui'e  of  Cornwall  stone  and 
clay,  and  flint  from  Kent,  &c.  The  whole  are  subjected 
to  a  variety  of  washings  and  purifications — the  clay  in- 

•  Further  details  will  be  fouud  ia  "  Tomlinsoa's  Cjclopjedia  "— 
article,  Pottery  and  Porcelain. 

193  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

tended  for  tlie  surface^  especially — and  passed  througli 
fine  lawn  sieves  in  a  liquid,  or  ''slip''  state,  as  it  is 
technically  termed.  In  this  state  it  is  conveyed  to  the 
slip-kiln,  or  rather  pumped  on  it,  and  boiled,  until  it  is 
in  a  plastic  state,  and  fit  for  use. 

4.  After  the  modeller  has  done  his  part,  the  pattern 
is  cast  in  plaster  in  relief,  and  is  then  placed  in  a  metal 
frame  of  the  size  required ;  but  it  should  be  stated  that 
to  produce  the  ordinary  6-in.  square  tile,  it  is  modelled 
6f  in.,  to  allow  for  shrinkage  or  contraction,  which  takes 
place  during  drying  and  firing.  The  maker  then  com- 
mences his  operations.  A  piece  of  the  fine  clay  for  the 
surface  is  flattened  out  to  about  a  quarter  of  an  inch 
thick,  somewhat  after  the  manner  of  preparing  a  pie 
crust,  and  this  is  thrown  upon,  and  pressed  upon,  the 
plaster  pattern,  and  receives,  of  course,  a  correct  indenta- 
tion, or  outline  of  the  design.  The  metal  frame  containing 
the  plaster  mould  is  divided  horizontally,  and  after  the 
surface  is  put  in,  the  upper  part  of  the  frame  is  screwed 
on,  and  the  maker  fills  up  with  clay  of  a  somewhat 
coarser  description,  to  form  the  tile  of  the  requisite 
thickness.  The  tile  is  then  put  under  a  screw-press  to 
impart  the  proper  degree  of  solidity. 

5.  As  far  as  we  have  gone,  the  tile  is  but  of  one 
colour;  next  comes  the  task  of  giving  the  difi'erent 
colours  required.  Suppose  a  tile  be  required  of  three 
colours — red,  blue,  and  buff.  "SVe  will  say  the  surface 
piece  already  put  in  is  of  abuff  colour.  The  maker  provides 
himself  with  vessels  of  a  suitable  kind,  containing — the 
one  the  blue,  the  other  the  red  colour,  in  a  "  slip"  state, 
and  these  he  pours  into  those  parts  of  the  indented  surface 
that  the  drawing  or  finished  tile  before  him  tells  him  to 
be  correct.  These  slips  cover  the  surface  entirely,  and 
\hexe  is  now  not  the  slightest  appearance  of  any  pattern 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  193 

or  design.  After  remaining  in  this  state  for  three  days, 
until  the  water  has  evaporated  for  the  most  part^  the 
process  of  scraping  or  planing  the  surface  commences, 
which  is  an  operation  requiring  care,  though  easily 
effected  by  experienced  hands.  The  pattern  then  makes 
its  appearance,  but  the  colours  are  scarcely  distinguish- 
able the  one  from  the  other. 

6.  The  tile  is  then  finished  as  far  as  the  maker  is 
concerned ;  and,  after  remaining  in  the  drying  house 
from  14  to  21  days,  according  to  circumstances,  is  con- 
veyed to  the  oven,  where  it  is  exposed  to  an  intense 
degree  of  heat  for  about  60  hours.  After  being  drawn 
from  the  oven,  the  tile  is  finished,  except  it  be  that  the 
parties  ordering  wish  the  surface  glazed,  a  rapid  and 
easy  process,  the  dipper  merely  placing  tbe  surface  in  a 
tub  of  glaze. 

7.  Plain  self-coloured  tiles,  such  as  black,  red,  choco- 
late, buff,  &c.,  and  also  tesserae,  are  made  of  the  same 
material  as  the  encaustic,  only  that  it  is  dried  longer  in 
the  kiln,  passed  through  rollers  to  reduce  it  to  a  powder, 
and  is  then  finely  sifted.  Presses  of  great  power,  made 
under  Prosser's  patent,  make  these  tiles.  The  powdered 
clay  is  swept  into  a  recess  of  the  proper  size,  the  screw 
descends,  and,  by  its  immense  power,  presses  the  powder 
into  a  solid  tile,  ready  for  drying  and  firing.  One  man 
can,  with  ease,  make  about  500  per  day. 

8.  Tessera. — The  tesserae  made  by  Messrs.  Minton, 
under  Mr.  Prosser's  patent,  are  now  extensively  used 
for  mosaic  pavements,  for  which  they  are  admirably 
adapted.  A  few  words  will  suffice  to  explain  the  nature 
of  the  improvements  effected  in  this  branch  of  art  by 
the  introduction  ot  the  new  material. 

The  mosaic  pavements  made  by  the  Romans  were 
formed  of  small  pieces  of  stone  or  marble  of  various 


194  RUDIMENTS    OF    THB 

colours,  bedded  one  by  one  in  a  layer  of  cement,  each 
(if  the  pieces  being  levelled  with  the  others  as  the  work 
l>roceeded,  and  on  the  completion  of  the  work  the  un- 
avoidable inequalities  of  surface  were  corrected  by 
rubbing  the  whole  to  a  plciue  surface. 

This  mode  of  proceeding  was  attended  with  many 
defects.  The  irregular  shapes  of  the  tesserae  caused 
the  cement  joints  to  be  of  a  thickness  that  greatly  in- 
jured the  effect  of  the  design,  whilst  the  piecemeal  way 
in  which  the  work  was  laid  rendered  it  very  difficult  to 
produce  a  level  surface. 

It  is  not  our  purpose  here  to  detail  the  several  at- 
tempts that  have  been  made  during  the  last  few  years, 
with  various  degrees  of  success,  to  produce  mosaic  pave- 
ments, by  the  use  of  clay  tesserae,  coloured  cements, 
&c. ;  but  it  will  readily  be  understood  that  the  principal 
difficulties  to  be  overcome  in  the  use  of  solid  tesserje 
arc  those  aiising  from  irregularity  in  the  shape  and  size 
of  the  several  pieces,  as  well  as  the  great  labour  and 
expense  attending  the  laying  of  such  pavements  piece 
by  piece. 

These  difficulties  have  been  entirely  overcome  by  the 
use  of  the  patent  tesserae,  which,  being  made  in  steel 
dies,  by  the  process  above  described,  are  perfectly  uni- 
form in  size,  and  fit  closely  together,  with  an  almost 
imperceptible  joint. 

The  mode  in  which  the  tesserae  are  used  is  precisely 
the  reverse  of  the  Roman  process,  and  is  as  follows : — 
a  coloured  design  of  the  intended  mosaic  having  been 
drawn  to  scale,  after  the  fashion  of  a  Berlin  wool 
pattern,  the  pattern  is  set  out  full  size  on  a  cement  floor, 
perfectly  smooth  and  level,  and  on  this  floor  the  tesserae 
are  placed  close  together,  the  workmen  being  guided  in 
the  arrangement  of  the  colours  by  the  small  drawing. 

ART    OP    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  195 

The  pieces  are  then  joined  together  by  a  layer  of 
cement  applied  to  the  upper  surface,  and  in  this  way  they 
are  formed  into  slabs  of  convenient  size,  which,  when 
hard,  are  ready  for  use,  and  can  be  laid  with  as  much 
ease  as  ordinary  flagstones.  It  will  at  once  be  under- 
stood, that  the  side  of  the  slabs  which  is  next  the  floor 
during  the  process  of  manufactui'e  forms  the  upper 
side  of  the  flnished  pavement,  the  pattern  appearing 
reversed  during  its  formation. 



Ii  is  the  general  opinion  that  brickmaking  by  ma- 
chinery is  not  economical  in  small  work,  since  the  cost 
of  moulding  bears  so  small  a  proportion  to  the  total 
cost.  In  large  engineering  works,  however,  where  a 
contractor  requires  many  millions  of  bricks  in  a  limited 
time,  for  the  construction  of  a  tunnel  or  viaduct,  the  use 
of  machinery  may  be  desirable.  In  this  chapter  we  do 
not,  of  course,  pretend  to  give  descriptions  of  the  various 
patented  and  other  machines  connected  with  the  manu- 
facture of  bricks  and  tiles.  Our  object,  in  a  work  of 
this  kind,  being  to  deal  with  the  principles  of  the  art 
rather  than  with  a  multiplicity  of  minute  details.  "We 
may,  however,  in  order  to  show  the  great  vitality  of  the 
trade,  quote  a  few  titles  of  inventions,  &c.,  belonging  to 
the  years  18G1  and  1862.  The  patent  list  displays  the 
strong  tendency  to  invention  for  making  bricks,  &c.,  by 
machinery.     Thus,  we  have — 

K  2 

196  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

Wimball's  pateut  for  making  bricks^  tiles,  and  drain 

^Morrell  and  Charnley's  apparatus  for  making  bricks^ 
tiles,  and  other  articles  from  plastic  materials. 

Green  and  Wright's  machinery  for  the  manufacture 
of  plain  and  ornamental  bricks,  slabs,  tiles,  and  quarries. 

Basford's  patent  for  constructing  brick  -M-alls,  and 
ornamenting  the  materials  to  be  used  for  the  same. 

Effertz'  machinery  for  making  bricks,  tiles,  &c. 

Grimshaw's  patent  for  compressing  brick-eai'th  and 
other  materials. 

^lorris  and  Radford's  pateut  for  the  manufacture  of 
fire  bricks,  blocks,  kc. 

Poole's  patent  for  making  ornamental  bricks,  tiles,  &c. 

Newton's  machine  for  making  bricks. 

Sharp  and  Balmer's  apparatus  for  the  manufacture 
and  drying  of  bricks. 

GrimshaVs  patent  apparatus^  used  in  drying,  pul- 
verising, and  compressing  clay. 

Piatt  and  Richardson's  apparatus  for  making  bricks. 

Foster's  method  of  rendering  bricks  impervious  to 

Smith's  patent  apparatus  for  the  manufacture  of 
bricks,  tiles,  S:c. 

The  following  description  of  Oatcs's  brickmaking 
machine  is  from  Tomlinson's  "  Cyclopsedia  of  Useful 
Arts,  &c."  It  was  described  by  ':Mr.  J.  E.  Clift,  of 
Birmingham,  at  a  meeting  of  the  Institution  of  Me- 
chanical Engineers,  in  November,  1859,  and  the  descrip- 
tion is  printed  in  the  ''Proceedings"  of  that  body,  and 
is  illustrated  by  four  engraved  plates,  from  which  Mr. 
Tomlinson  has  compiled  the  illustrative  figure.  "NVc  do 
not  give  this  machine  as  the  best,  since  there  are  many 
other  well-known  machines  of  merit  in  use ;  but  we 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  197 

offer  it  as  an  example  of  the  meclianical  means  adopted 
in  tins  class  of  inventions. 

The  present  brickmaking  machines  at  work  are 
divided  by  Mr.  Clift  into  two  classes,  viz.,  those  that 
operate  on  the  clay  in  a  moist  and  plastic  state,  and 
those  for  -which  the  material  requires  to  be  dried  and 
ground  previous  to  being  moulded.  In  the  former  class, 
the  plastic  column  of  clay,  having  been  formed  into  a 
continuous  length  by  the  operation  of  a  screw,  pugging 
blades,  or  rollers,  is  divided  into  bricks  by  means  of 
wires  moved  across,  either  while  the  clay  is  at  rest  or 
while  in  motion,  by  the  wires  being  moved  obliquely  at 
an  angle  to  compensate  for  the  speed  at  which  the  clay 
travels.  This  wire-cutting  requires  the  clay  to  be  soft, 
so  that  the  bricks  are  but  little  harder  than  those  made 
by  hand,  and  require  a  similar  drying  before  being  placed 
in  the  kiln ;  and  aV  this  renders  the  expense  of  manu- 
facture about  the  same  as  for  hand-made  bricks.  In  the 
second  class  of  machines,  tlie  bricks  are  compressed  in 
a  dry  state  in  the  mould  ;  but  the  processes  for  drying 
the  clay,  and  reducing  it  to  a  uniform  powder,  add  to 
the  cost  of  manufacture. 

JNIr.  Gates  has  got  rid  of  both  objections,  viz.,  the 
difficulty  respecting  the  previous  preparation  of  the  clay, 
and  the  subsequent  drying  of  the  bricks.  In  his  machine 
the  clay  is  used  of  such  a  degree  of  dryness  as  to  allow 
of  its  being  mixed  up  and  macerated,  and  compressed 
into  bricks  by  a  single  continuous  action,  the  clay  being 
formed  into  a  continuous  column  and  compressed  into 
the  moulds  by  the  action  of  a  revolving  vertical  screw. 
The  clay  requires,  in  general,  no  previous  preparation 
beyond  that  given  by  the  ordinary  crushing  rollers,  and, 
in  some  cases,  may  be  put  into  the  machine  direct  from 
the  pit,  unless  it  contain  stones,  when  it  is  passed  through 



a  pair  of  rollers.  Figs.  2  and  3,  when  joined  at  the 
parts  indicated  by  the  dotted  lines^  form  a  longitudinal 
section  of  the  machine,  and  fig.  1  is  a  plau  of  the  screw. 

Fig.  I. 

The  cast-iron  clay  cylinder  A  is  expanded  at  the  upper 
part  to  form  a  hopper,  into  which  the  clay  is  supplied, 
and  the  lower  cylindrical  portion  is  about  the  same  in 



diameter  as  the  length  of  the  brick  mould  F,  at  the 
bottom  of  the  pressing  chamber  B.  The  vertical  screw 
C  is  placed  in  the  axis  of  the  cylinder,  and  carried  by 

200  RUDIMENTS    OF    THE 

two  bearings  in  the  upper  frame  D ;  this  screw  is 
parallel  at  the  lower  part^  the  blade  nearly  filling  the 
parallel  portion  of  the  clay  cylinder,  and  is  tapered 
conically  at  the  upper  part  to  nearly  double  the  diameter. 
"When  the  clay  is  thrown  loosely  into  the  hopper  it  is 
divided  and  directed  towards  the  centre  by  the  curved 
arm  E  revolving  with  the  screw  shaft,  and  drawn  down 
by  the  tapered  portion  of  the  screw  into  the  parallel 
part  of  the  clay  cylinder  in  sufficient  quantity  to  keep 
this  part  of  the  cylinder  constantly  charged.  The  clay 
is  then  forced  downwards  by  the  parallel  portion  of  the 
screw  into  the  pressing  chamber  B_,  and  into  the  brick 
mould  F,  which  consists  of  a  parallel  block  equal  in 
thickness  to  a  brick,  and  sliding  between  fixed  plates 
above  and  below,  and  containing  two  moulds,  F  and  G, 
corresponding  in  length  and  breadth  to  the  bricks  to  be 
made.  The  mould-block  F  is  made  to  slide  with  a  reci- 
procating motion  by  means  of  the  revolving  cam  H, 
which  acts  upon  two  rollers  in  the  frame  I,  connected 
to  the  mould-block  by  a  rod  sliding  through  fixed  eyes; 
and  the  two  brick  moulds  are  thus  placed  alternately 
under  the  opening  of  the  pressing  chamber  B  to  receive 
a  charge  of  clay,  the  mould-block  remaining  stationary 
in  each  position  during  one  quarter  of  the  revolution  of 
the  cam  H.  "When  the  brick  mould  F  is  withdrawn 
from  under  the  pressing  chamber,  the  brick  is  dis- 
charged from  the  mould  by  the  descent  of  the  piston  K, 
which  is  of  the  same  dimensions  as  the  brick  mould ; 
the  piston  is  pressed  down  by  the  lever  M,  worked  by 
the  cam  X,  when  the  brick  mould  stops  at  the  end  of 
its  stroke,  and  is  drawn  up  again  before  the  return 
motion  of  the  mould  begins.  A  second  piston  L  acts  in 
the  same  manner  upon  the  second  brick  mould  G,  and 
the  discharged  bricks  arc  received  upon  endless  bands 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS   AND    TILES.  201 

O,  by  wliich  they  are  broiiglit  successively  to  the  fron^ 
of  the  machine,  when  they  are  removed  hy  boys  to  the 
barrows  used  for  conveying  them  to  the  kihis  to  be  burnt. 
The  solid  block  that  divides  the  two  brick  moulds 
F  and  G  is  slightly  Avider  than  the  discharge  opening 
at  the  bottom  of  the  pressing  chamber  B,  having  an 
over-lap,  so  that  the  making  of  one  brick  is  terminated 
before  that  of  the  next  begins,  in  order  to  ensure  com- 
pleteness in  the  moulding.  During  the  instant  wheij 
this  plauk  is  passing  the  opening  at  the  bottom  of  the 
pressing  chamber,  the  discharge  of  the  clay  is  stopped, 
and  it  becomes  necessary  to  provide  some  means  eithei 
of  relieving  the  pressure  during  that  period,  or  of  stop- 
ping the  motion  of  the  pressing  screw.  Accordingly 
the  pressure  is  relieved  by  an  ingenious  contrivance, 
forming  in  effect  a  safety-valve,  which  prevents  the 
pressure  in  the  chamber  from  increasing  wdien  the  brick 
mould  is  shut  off,  and  also  serves  to  maintain  a  uniform 
pressure  during  the  formation  of  the  brick,  so  as  to  en- 
sure each  mould  being  thoroughly  and  equally  filled 
with  clay;  this  is  effected  by  an  escape-pipe  P,  similar 
in  form  to  the  brick  mould,  but  extending  horizontally 
from  the  side  of  the  pressing  chamber,  and  is  open  at 
+hc  outer  extremity.  The  regular  action  of  the  screwy 
forces  the  clay  into  the  escape-pipe,  as  far  as  its  outer 
extremity,  forming  a  parallel  bar  of  clay  in  the  pipe. 
The  resistance  caused  by  the  friction  of  this  bar  in 
sliding  through  the  pipe  is  then  the  measure  of  the 
amount  of  pressure  in  the  machine ;  and  this  pressure 
cannot  be  exceeded  in  the  machine,  for  the  instant  that 
the  brick  mould  is  full,  the  further  supply  of  clay,  fed 
into  the  pressing  chamber  by  the  continuous  motion  of 
the  screw,  escapes  laterally,  by  pushing  outwards  the 
column  of  clay  in  the  escape-pipe.     The  uniform  pres- 

K  3 


sure  of  every  brick  in  the  mould  up  to  this  fixed  limit 
is  ensured  by  the  escape-pipe  not  beginning  to  act  until 
that  limit  of  pressure  is  reached.  Its  action  is  similar 
to  that  of  a  safety-valve,  and  the  amount  of  pressure 
under  which  the  bricks  are  made  is  directly  regulated 
by  adjusting  the  length  of  the  escape-pipe.  The  latter 
discharges  a  continuous  bar  of  solid  clay,  advancing  by 
intermittent  steps  of  j  to  ^  in.  in  length,  each  time 
that  the  brick  mould  is  shut  oflF  and  changed.  The 
projecting  piece  of  clay  from  the  end  of  the  escape-pipe 
is  broken  off  from  time  to  time,  and  thrown  back  into 
the  hopper  of  the  machine. 

The  upper  side  of  the  solid  block  separating  the  two 
moulds  F  and  G  is  faced  with  steel :  and  the  upper 
face  of  the  brick  is  smoothed  bv  beiug  sheared  oflp  bv 
the  edge  of  the  opening  in  the  pressing  chamber ;  the 
under  face  of  the  brick  is  smoothed  by  being  planed  by 
a  steel  bar  R,  fixed  along  the  edge  of  the  under  plate, 
and  having  a  groove  in  it  for  discharging  the  shaving 
of  clay  taken  oflf  the  brick. 

The  screw  shaft  is  driven  by  bevil  gear  from  the  shaft 
S,  which  is  driven  by  a  strap  from  the  engine,  the  speed 
being  adjusted  according  to  the  quality  of  the  clay  or 
the  Avear  of  the  screw.  The  screw  is  driven  at  about 
thirty  revolutions  per  minute,  when  at  full  speed,  or  one 
brick  for  each  revolution  of  the  screw.  The  machine 
completes  12,000  bricks  per  day,  or  an  average  of 
twenty  per  minute.  The  clay,  as  already  stated,  can 
be  taken  dii'cct  from  the  pit,  passed  through  crushing 
rollers,  and  then  fed  straight  iuto  the  moulding  machine. 
Indeed,  tlie  clay  within  a  quarter  of  an  hour  after  being 
brought  from  the  pit  may  be  seen  stacked  in  kilns,  and 
in  a  few  days  burnt  ready  for  use.  The  amount  of 
power  required  for  driving  the  machine,  and  the  wear 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  203 

of  the  screw,  vary  according  to  the  material  worked. 
With  a  calcareous  marl  about  twelve  horse-power  was 
found  sufficient.  AVhen  the  material  is  very  siliceous 
the  cast-iron  screws  wear  out  quickly.  Gun-metal  has 
been  found  much  more  durable  than  iron  for  the  screw 
and  mould-block. 

In  burning  bricks  that  contain  much  alumina,  and 
consequently  retain  a  good  deal  of  moisture,  it  is  found 
advisable  to  stack  the  bricks  in  the  kiln  in  lifts  of  from 
fifteen  to  twenty  courses  each.  As  soon  as  the  bottom 
lift  has  been  stacked,  small  fires  are  lighted  to  drive  off 
the  steam  from  the  bricks,  which  might  otherwise  soften 
those  stacked  above ;  the  middle  lift  is  then  stacked  and 
similarly  dried,  and  then  the  top  lift;  after  which  the 
full  fires  are  lighted. 

The  crushing  strength  of  these  bricks  made  in  the 
machines  at  Oldbury  is  said  to  be  double  that  of  the 
hand-made  blue  bricks  of  the  neighbourhood,  being  an 
average  of  150  tons  compared  with  76  tons,  or  8,024  lbs. 
per  square  inch  compared  with  4,203  lbs.  The  trans- 
verse strength,  with  7  in.  length  between  the  bearings, 
was  found  to  be,  for  hand-made  bricks,  2,350  lbs., 
for  machine-made  bricks,  3,085  lbs.,  and  for  the  same, 
hard  burnt,  4,320  lbs. 

One  of  the  advantages  of  this  machine  is,  that  clay 
containing  a  good  deal  of  stone,  which  could  scarcely 
be  worked  for  hand-made  bricks,  can  be  used.  Th.< 
brick-earth  at  Cobham  is  very  unfavourable  for  brick- 
making,  it  being  so  weak  and  friable  that  hand-made 
bricks  made  fi'om  it  were  crushed  by  a  moderate  pres- 
sure; when  made  by  the  machine,  however,  serviceable 
bricks  were  turned  out.  A  material  containing  84  per 
cent,  of  silica  has  been  made  by  this  machine  into 
bricks.     The  bricks  had  not  any  hollow  or  frog  in  the 


upper  space  for  holding  the  mortar,  but  arraugementt 
were  being  made  for  producing  it. 

The  extent  to  which  bricks  absorb  water  is  im- 
portant, since  dry  houses  cannot  be  built  with  bricks 
that  are  very  absorbent.  A  brick  of  9  lbs.  weight  will 
absorb  about  1  lb.  of  water,  and  it  is  stated  that  the 
bricks  made  by  this  machine  absorb  less. 

The  cost  of  Oates's  machine  is  from  £150  to  £200, 
exclusive  of  the  engine  for  driving  it.  The  cost  of  brick- 
making  varies  according  to  the  price  of  coal  in  diflferent 
localities ;  but  there  is  very  little  variation  in  the  price 
of  the  unburnt  bricks  made  by  the  machine,  the  differ- 
ence arising  chiefly  from  the  varying  amount  of  royalty 
charged  on  the  clay  in  the  pit,  which  varies  from  1*. 
to  2s.  6d.  per  1,000.  A  machine  at  Cobham,  employed 
by  ^lessrs.  Peto  and  Betts,  produced  200,000  bricks  in 
a  fortnight  of  eleven  days,  but  the  average  number  per 
week,  of  five  and  a  half  days,  was  considered  to  be 
80,000,  or  at  the  rate  of  twenty-four  bricks  per  minute. 
The  contract  for  the  bricks  in  and  out  of  the  kilns, 
exclusive  of  the  cost  of  the  coals,  was  first  taken  at 
5*.  9d.  per  1,000  bricks ;  which  was  afterwards  raised 
to  65.  9d.,  owing  to  the  distance  of  the  clay  from  the 
machine.  To  this  had  to  be  added  6d.  per  1,000  royalty, 
and  the  wages  of  the  engine-driver  at  Gd.  per  1,000, 
raising  the  expenses  to  7s.  9d.  per  1,000  bricks.  The 
quantity  of  coals  required  for  burning  the  bricks,  and 
for  the  engine  driving,  might  safely  be  taken  at  ^  ton 
per  1,000 ;  and  the  price  of  coal  at  that  place  being  25*. 
per  ton,  the  total  cost  of  making  the  bricks  by  the  ma- 
chine amounted  to  20^.  per  1,000,  including  the  burning. 

The  following  particulars  respecting  drain-pipe  mak- 
ing machines,  and  hollow  bricks,  ai'e  also  from  Mi. 
Tomlinson's  "  Cyclopaedia.^' 

ART    or    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES. 


The  large  and  increasing  demand  for  draining  tiles 
and  pipes  has  led  to  great  economy  in  their  manufac- 
ture. Some  are  moulded  flat^  and  afterwards  bent 
round  a  wooden  core  to  the 
proper  shape :  others  are  made  at 
once  of  a  curved  form  by  forcing 
the  clay  through  a  dod  or  mould, 
fig.  4,  by  mechanical  pressure. 
The  action  will  be  readily  under- 
stood from  fig.  5,  which  repre- 
sents a  section  of  a  strong  iron 
cylinder,  containing  a  quantity  of 
clay  in  the  act  of  being  pressed 
down  Avith  enormous  force  by  a 
solid  piston  or  plunger.  The 
clay,  as  it  escapes  through  the 
dod,  is  evidently  moulded  into 
the  form  of  the  pipe  (also  shown 
in  section),  which  is  cut  ofi:'  in 
lengths,  by  means  of  a  wire,  and 
these,  after  a  preliminary  drying,  ^'9-  S- 

are  ready  for  firing.     By  using  dods  of  different  sizes, 
pipes  of  various  magnitudes  arc  formed. 

Fig.  6  is  an  elevation  of  a  drain-pipe  making 
machine,  which  we  have  copied  from  ]\Ir.  Green's  Avorks 
at  Lambeth.  The  cylinder  contains  a  second  cylinder, 
capable  of  holding  a  given  weight  of  clay,  adapted  to 
the  moulding  of  a  certain  number  of  pipes  at  one 
charge.  Thus,  one  box-full  will  furnish  five  9-in.  pipes, 
six  6-in.  pipes,  seven  4-in.  pipes,  and  so  on.  By  the 
action  of  the  rack  the  piston  forces  the  clay  through 
the  dod  or  die  upon  a  table,  so  balanced  by  Aveights 
that  the  lengthening  pipe  is  sufficient  by  its  weight  to 
force  doAvn  the  table,  and  when  a  certain  ^engtli  of  pipe 



is  formed,  the  boy  stops  the  machine  by  shifting  the 
strap  "vrhich  drives  the  rack-screw  from  the  fast  to  the 
loose  pullevj  and  then  cuts  off  the  length  of  pipe  with 

Fig.  0. 

a  wire,  removes  the  pipe  so  formed,  raises  up  the  table, 
sets  the  machine  in  action,  and  receives  a  pipe  upon  the 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND    TILES.  207 

table  as  before.  When  all  the  clay  is  thus  forced  out 
of  the  cylinder^  the  action  of  the  rack  is  reversed, 
whereby  the  plunger  is  drawn  up  out  of  the  cylinder. 
The  cylinder,  which  moves  on  a  kind  of  hinge,  is  then 
tilted  on  one  side  to  receive  its  charge  of  clay,  and  being 
restored  to  its  vertical  position,  the  action  proceeds  as 
before.  By  an  ingenious  contrivance,  the  fork  which 
shifts  the  strap  from  the  fast  to  the  loose  pulley,  is 
weighted  in  such  a  manner  that,  when  the  boy  raises 
his  foot  from  a  treadle,  the  strap  is  at  once  moved  on 
to  the  loose  pulley,  and  vice  versa,  thus  giving  the 
attendant  a  third  hand,  and  diminishing  the  chances  of 
danger  from  the  strap.  Mr.  Green  has  a  machine 
worked  by  a  screw,  in  which  the  process  is  continuous. 
These  pipes  are  washed  with  glaze  before  the  firing,  as 
will  be  explained  hereafter. 

^  yV  means  of  a  tile  machine,  the  holloiv  bricks  are 
formed,  which  are  so  much  recommended  by  the  "  So- 
ciety for  Improving  the  Condition  of  the  Labouring 
Classes,'^  and  introduced  by  them  in  the  construction 
of  dwelling-houses  for  the  poor.  The  idea  of  tubular 
bricks  is  not  new,  for  such  articles  were  used  by  the 
Romans  in  large  vaultings,  where  lightness  of  construc- 
tion was  required,  and  they  are  said  to  be  in  common 
use  in  Tunis  at  the  present  time.  The  size  of  the  bricks 
is  12  in,  long,  and  three  courses  rise  1  ft.  in  height. 
Nine  hollow  bricks  will  do  as  much  walling  as  sixteen  of 
the  common  sort,  with  only  a  slight  increase  in  weight. 
In  passing  through  the  tile  machine,  or  in  the  process  of 
drying,  the  bricks  can  be  splayed  at  the  ends  for  gables, 
or  marked  for  closures,  and  broken  off  as  required  in 
use,  or  they  may  be  perforated  for  the  purpose  of  venti- 
lation. If  nicked  with  a  sharp-pointed  hammer,  they 
will  break  off  at  any  desired  line ;  and  the  angles  may 



be  taken  off  with  a  trowel  as  in  the  common  brick. 
The  bricks  for  the  quoins  and  jambs  may  be  made  solid 
or  perforated,  and  with  perpendicular  holes,  either  cir- 
cular, square,  or  octagonal :  those  in  the  quoins  may 
be  so  arranged  as  to  serve  for  ventilating  shafts.  The 
hollow  bricks,  from  their  mode  of  manufacture,  are 
more  compressed  than  common  bricks,  require  less 
drying,  and  are  better  burned  with  less  fuel . 

The  following  figures  represent  some  of  the  forms  of 
hollow  bricks  in  common  use.  a,  fig.  7,  is  an  extei'nal 
brick,  llf  in.  long,  which  with  the  quoin  brick  e, 
and  the  jamb  brick  b,  are  sufficient  for  building  9-iu. 
walls,  e  is  10^  in.  long,  with  one  splayed  corner  for 
forming  external  angles,  reveals,  and  jambs  of  doors 
and  windows,  either  square  or  splayed.  The  internal 
jamb  and  chimney  brick,   b,  is  8|  in.  long;    c  is  an 


internal  brick,  adapted  to  any  thickness  of  wall  beyond 
9  in.  :  d  is  for  5|-in.  partitions,  or  internal  walls,  and 
arch  bricks,  and  is  used  for  floor  and  roof  arches  of 
7  to  10  ft.  span.    /  is  used  for  the  same  purpose,  with 



a  webb  to  give  extra  strength,  and  to  adapt  them  for 
using  on  edges  in  partitions,  3f  in.  thick  to  rise  in 
6-in.  courses. 

Fig.  8  represents  a  specimen  of  hollow  brick  work 
in  6-in.  courses,  with  square 
rebated  joints  for  extra  strength. 
These  bricks  are  adapted  to  the 
lining  of  flint  or  concrete  walls. 
Fig.  9  is  a  section  illustrative 
of  the  construction  adopted  in 
H.  E,.  H.  Prince  A.lbert's  model 
houses.  The  span  of  the  arches 
is  increased  over  the  living 
rooms  to  10  ft.  4  in.,  with  a 
proportionate  addition  to  their 
rise.  The  external  springers 
are  of  cast-iron,  connected  by 
wrought-iron  tie  rods. 
It  is  stated  that  there  is  an  advantage  of  29  per  cent. 
in  favour  of  the  patent  bonded  hollow  bricks  over  ordi- 


nary  bricks,  in  addition  to  a  considerable  diminution  in 
the  cost  of  carriage  or  transport,  and  of  25  per  cent,  on 
the  mortar  and  the  labour. 

210  RUriMENTS   OI    TUB 



It  is  proposed  here  to  supplement  the  previous  chapter, 
written  by  Professor  Tomlinson  in  1863,  by  giving 
full  descriptions  of  some  of  the  most  remarkable,  or 
most  used,  of  the  very  many  brickmaking  machines 
now  before  the  public.  The  trade  in  producing  brick 
machinery  itself  has  come  to  be  a  very  large  one,  in 
which  great  intelligence,  energy,  and  capital  have  been 
invested,  and  from  which  have  emanated  an  immense 
number  of  inventions,  chiefly  the  subjects  of  patents. 
The  results  have  naturally  been  much  rivalry  and  com- 
petition, so  that,  perhaps,  there  is  no  one  of  the  trains 
of  machinery  for  making  brick,  which  has  had  a  success 
enough  to  make  it  worth  notice,  which  has  not  been  ex- 
posed to  partial  advocacy,  and  to  equally  interested  and 
frequently  more  mijust  depreciation. 

It  would  be  highly  out  of  place  that  "an  outline"  such 
as  this  volume  can  alone  pretend  to,  within  its  limits, 
should  undertake  to  appraise  the  relative  merits  or 
demerits  of  the  various  machines  we  are  about  to  notice 
— the  rather,  as  we  are  imable  to  treat  the  whole  sub- 
ject in  the  exhaustive  manner  that  alone  would  justify 
8uch  criticism.  The  following  notices,  therefore,  must 
be  viewed  as  merely  collecting  before  the  reader,  with 
sufficient  illustrations,  a  few  of  the  more  prominent 
brick  and  tile  machines,  or  those  most  in  use  in  Great 

ART   OF    MAKING    BRICKS   ,VND    TILES.  211 

Britain,  sufficient  to  serve  as  an  index  to  those  specially 
interested,  whereby  more  complete  information  may  be 
obtained  through  the  respective  makers  or  otherwise. 

As  has  been  sufficiently  shown  in  the  preceding 
parts  of  this  volume,  the  natural  clays  from  which 
bricks  are  to  be  made,  though  they  may  occasionally  be 
found  in  a  state  capable  of  being  at  once  made  into 
brick,  must  most  usually  be  subjected,  after  having 
been  dug  out,  to  more  or  less  disintegration,  grinding, 
and  mixing  into  perfect  plasticity,  before  being  em- 
ployed. For  these  purposes,  the  screen  sometimes 
being  used  beforehand,  the  crushing  rollers  and 
the  pug-mill  are  employed.  Other  methods  of  pro- 
ducing perfect  freedom  from  adventitious  matter  and 
perfect  plasticity  are  occasionally  employed,  when 
special  qualities  of  extra  fine  bricks  are  sought  for, 
but  with  those  we  need  not  trouble  the  reader  here. 

The  above  machines  are  employed  in  combination, 
i.e.,  as  parts  of  one  compoimd  machine,  as  produced  by 
some  makers,  separately  as  turned  out  by  others.  The 
clay-mill,  with  crushing  rollers  working  on  edge  in  a 
circular  pan,  is  also  in  use.  Brick  machinery  itsell*, 
since  the  invention  of  Prosser,  many  years  since,  is 
divisible  into  two  great  classes,  wet  and  dry  clay  ma- 
chines, i.e.,  machines  which  form  the  brick,  by  moderate 
pressure  in  moulds,  from  ah'eady  tempered  and  plastic 
clay,  and  those  which,  under  a  far  more  severe  com- 
pression, mould  the  bricks  from  clay  perfectly  commi- 
nuted, but  either  dry,  or  at  most  only  very  slightly 
moistened.  One  of  the  most  salient  advantages  of  the 
dry  method  is,  that  it  produces  a  denser  brick,  and  one 
that  shrinks  less  both  in  drying  and  in  baking  than 
do  those  made  wet ;  and  that  a  certain  amount,  though 
not  a  very  great  one,  of  the  labour  and  cost  of  the 



pelimmary  preparation  of  the  clay  is  saved.  The 
disadvantages,  or  some  of  them,  are,  that  miless  the 
clay  in  the  dry  or  merely  damp  state  be  scrupulously 
well  prepared,  and  unless  a  degree  of  pressure  be 
employed  which  demands  a  good  deal  of  power,  the 
brick  may  be  deficient  in  tenacity  and  in  uniform 
solidity,  or  even  in  perfect  fairness  of  face.  On  the 
other  hand,  with  certain  clays,  and  pressures  beyond  a 
given  point,  bricks  are  thus  produced,  which,  though 
dense  and  resistant,  have  so  ?/;«porous  a  surface  as 
hardly  to  take  bond  with  either  cement  or  mortar. 
Fig.  1  represents  Whitehead's  Improved  Clay  Crush- 

ing  and  Grinding  Roller  Mill,  consisting  of  two  pairs  of 
large  iron  rollers,  fitted  in  a  massive  cast-iron  frame. 
The  dimensions  of  the  top  rollers  (which  revolve  at  equal 
speed)  are  2  ft.  6  in.  long  by  1  ft.  8  in.  diameter.  The 
lower  pair  (running  as  two  to  one,  fur  more  thoroughly 
incorporating  the  clay)  are  2  ft.  6  in.  long  by  1  ft.  6  in. 



diameter.  The  above  mill  is  constructed  for  the  pur- 
pose of  reducing  rough  strong  clays  or  hard  marls  not 
disintegrable  by  water,  into  a  state  to  be  rendered  plastic 
by  future  operations  in  the  pug-mill,  of  which  two  dif- 


feront  examples  are  given  in  figs.  2  and  3  by  the  same 

Fig.  2  is  a  large  and  powerfid  pug-mill.  The  cylinder 
is  one  strong  loam  casting  made  perfectly  true ;  it  is 
erected  upon  a  massive  iron  basement,  and  provided 
with  two  cast  mouth-pieces  for  the  discharge  of  the 
pugged  clay,  one  situate  on  each  side  at  bottom.  These 
mouth-pieces  may  have  sliding  doors  fitted,  to  increase 
or  diminish  the  area  of  the  orifice,  so  as  to  cause  the 
clay  to  be  more  or  less  finely  groimd.  This  is  valuable 
in  admitting  the  adaptation  of  the  mill  to  the  pressing 
out  of  large  and  small  pipes,  &c. 

This  mill  makes  about  three  revolutions  per  minute, 
Vjrorked  by  the  power  of  one  horse,    The  cylinder  is  24  in. 



diameter  inside,  and  54  in.  liigli ;  the  total  height  to  top 
of  vertical  shaft  is  87  in. 

Fig.  3  represents  TVhitehead's  Perforated  Pug-mill. 
The  advantage  of  this  mill  is,  that  during  the  opera- 
tion of  pugging  the  clay  is  forced   out   through   the 

'm^-  iiii 

perforations  at  the  sides  in  the  plastic  state,  leaving 
behind  the  stones,  which  are  carried,  by  means  of  the 
internal  arrangement  of  the  knives  on  the  vertical  shaft, 
through  an  aperture  at  the  bottom ;  thus  combining 
the  process  of  pugging  and  screening  in  one  op<»ration. 

We  entertain  some  doubts  of  the  advantages  of  this 
machine,  however  ingenious ;  for  screening  as  a  pre- 
liminary operation  should,  whenever  practicable,  never 
be  omitted. 

Fig.  4  shows  a  very  good  form  of  nearly  portable 



clay-milL  Mills  in  this  fonn  may  be  used  for  grinding 
wet  or  plastic  clay,  but  are  more  suitable  for  indurated 
dry  clays,  wbich  are  to  be  used  with,  one  or  other  of  the 
dry-clay  brick  machines.     The  pan,  as  is  evident  from 

the  figure,  revolves,  and  the  runners  are  carried  round 
by  it,  being  free  to  move  within  a  certain  range  verti- 
cally. The  pan  is  provided  with  curved  blades,  so  fixed 
as  to  keep  the  stuff  constantly  beneath  the  runners. 

We  now  come  to  the  composite  machines,  in  which 
crushing  rollers  and  horizontal  pug-mill  are  combined, 
as  in  fig.  5. 

For  very  hard  clays,  such  as  fire-clays  for  fire-brick, 
two  or  even  more  pairs  of  crushing  rollers  may  be 
needed  above  each  other,  those  closest  set  being  at  bottom. 

216  A"RT   or   MAKING    BRICKS    AND   TILES. 

The  rollers  are  driven  at  different  speeds,  so  as  to 
produce  a  rub  as  well  as  a  mere  squeeze  between  the  sur- 

lig.  6, 

faces,  and  so  better  disintegrate  the  clay.  The  rollers 
are  usually  made  about  20  in.  diameter,  and  about  3  ft. 
long.  They  are  fed  by  hand,  through  a  hopper  at 

Haying  thus  described  the  machinery  generally  in 
use  for  the  pre}mrat\on  of  the  clay,  whether  plastic  or 
dry,  we  proceed  to  illustrate  a  few  of  the  brickmaking 
machines  themselves,  commencing  with  those  for  operat- 
ing on  moist  or  plastic  clays. 

Fig.  6  represents  a  large  machine  as  constructed  by 
Whitehead,  of  Preston,  in  which  the  rough  clay  thrown 
in  between  the  rollers  at  top  is  ground,  and  then  passes 



at  once  into  the  vertical  pug-mill,  and  is  thence  expressed 
in  two  continuous  prisms  of  the  size  in  section  of  a  brick 


on  flat,  and  which  are  at  intervals  cut  transversely 
into  bricks  by  the  wires  of  the  frames,  seen  in  the  front 
of  the  drawing.     These  are  moved  by  hand. 

Fig.  8  represents  another  form  of  machine,  in 
which  the  clay,  already  tempered,  is  drawn  in  and  con- 
tinuously expressed  by  a  pair  of  rollers,  the  prism 
being  cut  asunder  into  bricks  by  the  radial  wires 
forming  the  arms  of  the  wheel  C,  which  is  moved  auto- 

An  extremely  simply-contrived  and  most  efficient 
French  machine  of  this  class  was  exhibited  in  1862  in 
the  French  department.  It  was  an  invention  of  M. 
Jardin,  and  manufactured  by  Cazenave  &  Co.,  Paris. 
At  work  in  the  Exhibition,  it  made  at  the  rate  of 
twelve  thousand  per  day  of  ten  hours,  with  only  the 
attendance  of  two  men.  The  division  of  the  prism  of 
clay  was  effected  by  wires  attached  to  a  wheel  moved  by 



the  macliine,   but  differently  arranged  from  that  of 
fiff.  8. 

^^     '.' 

The  followmg  machine  belongs  to  this  same  class. 
It  is  Clayton  and  Co.'s  second-sized  horizontal  brick 




machine,  which  combines  the  crushing  rollers,  pug- 
mill,  and  brick-forming  in  one  machine. 

These  machines  are  largely  run  upon,  and  have  been 
employed  extensively  by  our  great  contractors,  and 
upon  many  public  works — facts  which  give  the  best 
assurance  that  they  answer  well. 

One  of  these  machines  weighs  about  3^  tons,  and  of 
this  second  size,  with  about  8  or  10  horse  power,  will 
turn  out  from  75,000  to  90,000  bricks  per  week. 

We  now  come  to  another  class  of  machines  working 

Fig.  10. 

with  plastic  clay,  though  capable  of  employing  clay 
nearly  dry,  or  at  least  very  stiffly  tempered.  The 
machine  shown  in  fig.  10  consists  of  a  vertical  pug-mill, 
into  the  upper  part  of  which  the  clay  is  fed,  and  in 
which  it  imdergocs   tempering   and   mixing,  and,  on 


reaching  tte  bottom  of  the  mill,  is  pressed  into  the 
moulds,  of  the  form  and  size  of  brick  required,  which 
are  arranged  in  the  form  of  a  circular  revolving  table. 
As  this  table  revolves,  the  piston-rods  of  the  moulds 
ascend  an  inclined  spiral  plane,  and  so  gradually  lift  the 
bricks  out  of  the  moiilds,  whence  they  are  taken  from  the 
machine  by  a  boy,  and  placed  on  an  endless  band  which 
carries  the  bricks  direct  to  the  "waller."  The  speed  of  the 
several  parts  is  so  arranged,  that  the  operations  of 
pugging,  moulding,  and  delivery  proceed  simultane- 
ously in  due  order,  the  whole  being  easily  driven  by  a 
steam  engine  of  about  6-horse  power,  which,  at  the 
ordinary  rate  of  working,  will  make  12,000  bricks  per 
day ;  or  with  8-horse  power  from  15,000  to  18,000. 
In  consequence  of  the  great  pressure  to  which  the  clay 
is  subjected  in  the  moulds,  the  bricks  produced  by  this 
machine  may  be  made  from  stiffer  clay,  so  that  less 
H-ater  has  to  be  evaporated  in  the  drying,  thus  saving 
much  of  the  time  required  for  hand-made  bricks,  and 
n voiding  the  risk  of  loss  from  bad  weather. 

One  poiut  of  importance  to  remark  as  respects  this 
last  class  of  machines,  compared  with  the  previous  one, 
is  this — wire-cut  bricks  are  smooth  and  perfect  in  form, 
provided  the  clay  be  not  only  perfectly  plastic,  but  per- 
fectly uniform  and  free  from  adventitious  particles. 
If,  however,  the  plastic  clay  contains  gravelly  par- 
ticles, or  be  of  such  a  quality  that  it  is  necessary  to 
mix  it  with  ashes  or  '•'  breeze,"  then  the  section  made 
by  the  passage  of  the  wire  drags  out  and  after  it  more 
or  less  of  these  solid  particles,  and  the  faces  of  section 
are  rough  and  uneven ;  in  such  cases  resort  is  best  had 
tD  those  machines  of  pressure  only. 

In  the  following  brick-pressing  machine  also,  for 
plastic  clay,  the  moulded  bricks  are  delivered  by  the 


mactine  directly  on  to  tlie  horizontal  belt  that  carries 
them  away ;  so  that  the  labour  of  attendance  is  nearly 
limited  to  feeding  the  tempered  clay  into  the  top 
hopper.  We  are  not  aware  to  what  extent  as  yet  this 
ingenious  machine  has  been  employed. 

Figs.  11,  12,  13,  and  14  illustrate  a  brick-pressing 
machine  recently  patented  by  Mr.  W.  Longley,  of  Leeds. 
The  invention  relates  to  an  arrangement  of  brick- 
moulding  machinery,  whereby  bricks  are  produced  from 
"wet"  clay,  having  great  solidity,  with  a  smooth  ex- 
terior, and  containing  a  less  amount  of  moisture  than 
those  produced  by  hand,  or  by  machinery  at  present  in 

Fig  11  is  a  side  elevation  of  the  machine ;  fig.  12  is 
a  partial  end  elevation,  showing  in  longitudinal  section 
the  cylinder  which  carries  the  moulds,  and  presents  them 
successively  to  a  conical  hopper  to  be  fed  with  clay ;  fig. 
13  is  a  cross  section  of  the  mould-cylinder,  showing  its 
connection  with  the  hopper  ;  and  fig.  14  shows  the 
means  used  for  locking  the  cylinder,  so  as  to  keep  the 
moulds  stationary  while  being  filled  and  discharged. 

A  A  is  the  main  framing  of  the  machine,  upon  which 
is  mounted  in  suitable  bearings  a  horizontal  cylinder  B. 
This  cylinder  is  cast  with  open  ends,  and  it  is  fitted 
near  the  middle  of  its  length  with  a  series  of  four 
moulds,  C  C,  arranged  radially  around  it.  These  moulds 
are  formed  by  recesses  cut  through  the  periphery  of  a 
projecting  band  a  a,  that  surrounds  the  cylinder,  having 
their  ends  closed  by  the  rings  b  h  (bolted  to  the  cylin- 
der) :  a  series  of  close  chambers,  D  D,  are  formed  in  a 
similar  manner  between  the  moulds  for  receiving  steam 
for  heating  the  latter.  Immediately  above  this  con- 
centric projection  of  the  cylinder  B,  and  in  close  prox- 
imity thereto,  is  situate  the  hopper  E,  in  which  a  screw 

ART   OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND   TILES.  225 

is  mounted  for  forcing  down  the  clay  into  the  moulds 
as  they  arc  presented  to  the  former.  Fitted  into  the 
moulds  are  plungers,  F,  the  stems  of  "which  project 
through  the  inner  periphery  of  the  cylinder  B,  and  are 
intended  for  discharging  the  bricks  from  the  moulds  ; 
the  inner  periphery  of  the  cylinder  B  is  also  pierced  to 
receive  the  ends  of  a  cruciform  arrangement  of  steam 
pipes,  G  (fig.  18),  for  supplying  steam  from  a  central 
pipe  running  in  the  direction  of  the  axis  of  the  cylin- 
der to  the  chambers  D  ;  an  intermittent  axial  motion  is 
given  to  the  cylinder,  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  the 
moulds  severally  imder  the  hopper  to  be  filled,  and 
subsequently  under  the  action  of  a  plunger  the  clay  thus 
filled  into  the  mould  presented  to  it  is  compressed 
therein.  "When  this  is  efiected,  and  the  cam  in  its 
revolution  has  passed  out  of  action,  the  weighted  crank 
lever  draws  back  the  plunger  N  out  of  the  mould.  An- 
other movement  of  the  cylinder  B  now  takes  place,  and 
the  compressed  brick  is  brought  down  to  the  position 
for  being  discharged  on  to  an  endless  apron  0.  This  is 
efiected  by  the  stem  of  the  plunger,  F,  of  the  mould, 
being  pressed  upon  at  its  rear  end  by  the  rocking  lever  H. 
This  rocking  lever  is  mounted  on  a  bent  bracket  arm 
attached  to  the  main  framing,  and  it  is  provided  with  a 
roller,  which  bears  upon  a  rocking  cam  having  a  stud 
pin  on  the  framing  for  its  fulcrum.  This  rocking  cam  is 
jointed  to  a  rod,  which  connects  it  with  a  rocking  arm, 
pendent  from  a  bracket  on  the  framing.  The  arm 
carries  a  roller  which  bears  against  a  cam  on  the  cam 
shaft ;  the  revolution  therefore  of  the  cam  shaft  gives 
a  reciprocating  motion  to  the  cam  H,  thus  causing 
it  to  rock  the  lever  H,  and  depress  the  plunger  that  has 
been  brought  beneath  its  inner  end.  This  depression 
of  the  plunger  efiects  the  discharge  of  the  brick,  which 


226  TltT)DJEXTS   OF   THE 

is  facilitated  by  the  heating  of  the  moulds  through  the 
admission  of  steam  as  before  explained.  To  prevent 
the  adherence  of  the  clay  to  the  compressing  plunger, 
that  is  made  hollow,  and  steam  is  convered  into  it  by 
an  arrangement  of  jointed  steam  pipes,  as  shown  at  fig. 
1 1 .  The  discharged  brick  is  received  on  to  an  endless 
apron,  0,  which  receives  motion  from  the  spur  wheel 
on  the  cylinder  B,  gearing  into  a  spur  wheel  on 
the  axle  of  one  of  the  carrying  rollers  of  the  apron. 
The  cylinder  B  is  also  furnished  with  a  ring,  in  the 
periphery  of  which  are  four  notches,  corresponding 
with  the  moulds.  These  notches  (see  fig,  14)  are  for 
the  purpose  of  receiving  the  taper  end  of  a  locking  bar 
P,  which,  when  it  is  desired  temporarily  to  lock  the 
cylinder  (as  at  the  moment  of  filling,  pressing,  and 
discharging  the  moulds),  is  thrust  forward  by  a  cam  on 
the  cam  shaft  pressing  upon  a  roller,  mounted  on  the 
end  of  the  locking  bar,  which  slides  in  guides  provided 
to  receive  it.  The  release  of  the  cylinder  is  efiected 
by  throwing  back  the  locking  bar  by  means  of  a 
weighted  crank  arm,  as  in  the  case  of  the  compressing 

This  machine  (fig.  15),  the  subject  of  a  patent,  is 
made  by  Whitehead,  of  Preston ;  it  works  upon  tem- 
pered clay  also.  The  merits  claimed  for  it  consist  in 
simplicity  of  construction  and  eflUcient  performance. 
The  junk  of  clay  or  brick  may  be  previously  moulded 
as  for  other  pressing  machines,  but  with  this  machine  it 
is  not  absolutely  necessary  to  previously  mould  the  lump, 
if  only  sufficient  clay  be  supplied  to  make  a  brick,  and 
be  simply  placed  in  front  of  the  piston  ;  it  then  is  forced 
into  the  mould  or  die  (of  which  there  are  four  on  a 
revolving  shaft)  of  the  desired  size,  and  any  superfluous 
bulk  of  the  clay  is  cut  ofi",  thus  making  all  the  bricks 



perfectly  true  and  of  uniform  dimensions.  During  the 
return  of  the  piston  the  box  of  dies  or  moulds  revolves 
one-fourth  of  the  way  round,  thus  bringing  another 
empty  mould,  which  has  already  been  oiled  and  cleaned 
by  a  self-acting  lubricator,  directly  opposite  the  piston, 

Fig.  15. 

to  receive  the  next  brick.  In  the  meantime,  a  self- 
acting  push-plate  forces  the  brick,  already  pressed,  out 
of  the  die  upon  a  self-acting  table  prepared  for  carry- 
ing it  away. 

The  following  well-arranged  machine  belongs  to  the 
class  which  can  operate  upon  either  plastic  or  dry  clay, 
but  which  is,  in  our  opinion,  best  adapted  to  the  former. 
The  makers  and  patentees,  Messrs.  Bradley  and  Craven, 
of  Wakefield,  have  had  a  large  experience  in  machinery 
of  this  sort. 

Simplicity  of  parts  and  strength  are  the  main  cha- 
racteristics of  this  machine. 

If  the  material  be  coarse  or  strong,  it  must  be  crushed 


RrDiHEirrs  of  the 

before  being  passed  into  the  hopper,  into  which  it  may 
be  delivered  either  with  or  without  water. 

Two  moulds  receive   the  charge  of  clay  at  once. 
^Vhile  these  are  being  filled,  the  two  that  had  been 

Fig.  16. 

just  before  filled  are  being  subjected  to  a  considerable 
pressure,  and  the  two  bricks  that  had  just  previously  to 
that  been  so  pressed  are  in  process  of  delivery,  out  of 
the  moulds  and  on  to  a  flat  belt  which  takes  them 

For  the  production  of  smooth,  well-squared  facing 
bricks  this  machine  works  extremely  well. 

We  now  arrive  at  the  last  class,  namely,  of  ma- 
chines intended  specially  to  operate  upon  dry  clay,  or 
nearly  dry  clay. 

Amongst  these  we  may  notice  the  patent  machine  of 
Hersey  and  Walsh,  which  has  been  recommended  by  a 

ART    OF    MAKING    BRICKS   AND   TILES.  229 

competent  authority — Mr.  Humphrey  Chamberlain, 
Consulting  Pottery  Engineer,  formerly  of  Kempsey, 
near  Worcester. 

This  machine  is  stated  to  have  been  an  American 
invention,  which  attracted  attention  from  the  simplicity 
of  its  movements  and  the  enormous  power  it  was  capa- 
ble of  exerting  with  a  small  amount  of  friction.  It 
was  found  working  successfully  in  the  United  States, 
and  arrangements  made  for  its  introduction  in  this 
coxmtry.  It  produces  an  excellent  article,  and  works 
satisfactorily  here  also. 

Some  few  alterations  had  to  be  made  to  adapt  it 
to  English-sized  bricks,  as  American  bricks  are  little 
more  than  one-third  the  cubical  contents  of  the  English. 
The  weight  of  these  machines  is  about  25  tons,  which 
is  necessary  to  withstand  the  enormous  pressure  they  are 
capable  of  exerting.  They  are  made  with  any  number 
of  moulds  from  2  to  8.  "With  6  moulds,  and  driven  by 
a  6-horse  engine,  to  deliver  24  bricks  per  minute,  one 
machine  is  capable  of  giving  330  tons  pressure  on  the  6 
bricks ;  and  if  worked  by  a  more  powerful  engine,  the 
pressure  can  be  increased,  only  limited  by  the  strength 
of  the  machine.  As  few  clays  require  more  than  20  or 
30  tons  on  a  brick,  from  4  to  5  horse  power  is  ample. 
The  motions  of  this  machine  are  performed  by  a  pair 
of  cam  wheels,  the  pressure  being  communicated  by  a 
pair  of  rollers  running  on  the  cams,  with  the  mould 
pistons  fixed  on  the  shaft  between  them.  The  moidds 
are  raised  and  lowered  by  the  same  cams.  The  bricks 
are  delivered  and  the  moulds  re-fed  with  dry  clay  from 
the  hopper  by  a  feeder  worked  by  friction.  The  ma- 
chine, after  pressing  6  bricks,  delivers  them  on  a  board 
ready  for  removal,  so  that  they  go  dii-ect  to  the  kilns 
without  being  handled  or  injured.     The  whole  machine 



is  fixed  on  one  bed-plate,  and  is  made  of  such  strength 
as  not  to  be  likely  to  get  out  of  order. 

The  following  machine  will  afibrd  a  sufficiently  clear 
notion  of  the  construction,  or  at  least  the  general  prin- 
ciples of  construction,  of  the  great  majority  of  dry- 
clay  brick-machines  which  have  been  brought  into 
successful  action. 

Fig.  17  represents  the  di-y-clay  brickmaking  ma- 

nj.  17. 

chine,  of  which  Messrs.  Bradley  and  Craven,  of  "Wake- 
field, are  the  inventors  and  patentees. 

One  of  the  disadvantages  or  difficulties  of  making  per- 
fectly sound  and  solid  bricks  from  completely  dry  clay, 
however  finely  pulverised,  is  that  the  air  lodged  in  the 
interstices  of  the  clay  dust  is  sometimes  not  easily  and 
completely  expelled  by  a  single  compression,  but  lodges 
in  one  or  more  irregular  cavities  into  which  it  has  col- 
lected, and  so  leaves  the  brick  hollow.  One  of  the 
main  objects  of  this  machine  is  to  obviate  that  evil, 


which  is  proposed  being  accomplished  by  its  possessing 
the  power  of  relieving  each  brick  from  pressure,  and 
again  applying  it,  so  as  gradually  to  force  out  the  air, 
and  finally  consolidate  the  brick,  and  that  to  an  extent 
that  a  single  pressure,  though  greater,  and  hence 
exerting  a  greater  strain  on  the  machine,  might  not 

The  patentees  state  :  "  By  this  machine  two  or  three 
distinct  pressures  can  be  given  to  each  brick.  If  two 
pressures  (that  is,  upward  and  downward)  are  sufficient 
to  produce  a  good  article  from  the  clay,  then  the  ma- 
chine makes  two  bricks  at  a  stroke,  or  for  every  revolu- 
tion one  brick  by  each  eccentric.  If  the  clay  is  of  such 
a  character  that  the  whole  of  the  air  cannot  be  expelled, 
or  the  dust  sufiiciently  condensed  to  make  a  perfect 
brick  by  two  pressures,  then  a  third  is  given  by  carry- 
ing the  brick  round  under  the  second  eccentric.  With 
most  clays  two  pressures  will  be  found  sufficient.  It  is 
only  necessary  to  test  a  little  of  the  clay  to  be  worked 
so  that  the  machine  may  be  adjusted  to  mould  and 
press  from  any  kind  of  earth  equally  good  bricks.  The 
only  change  for  giving  three  pressures  is,  to  adjust 
the  machine  to  run  faster,  and  change  the  inclined 
plane  for  giving  the  upward  or  first  pressure,  and 
delivering  the  bricks.  The  action  of  the  machine  is 
easily  imderstood.  The  clay  being  delivered  by  an 
elevator  from  the  crushing  rollers  into  the  hopjDcr  of 
the  machine  in  motion,  the  tappet  wheel  turns  the 
mould  table  the  length  of  one  mould.  This  action 
delivers  two  empty  moulds  under  the  hoppers  to  receive 
clay,  delivers  two  bricks  to  the  attendant,  and  gives  a 
powerful  upward  pressure  to  the  clay  received  in  the 
moulds  that  have  just  left  the  hoppers.  The  table  is  then 
for  a  moment  stationary,  while  the  two  eccentrics  give 


the  final  strain  on  two  bricks.  When  the  eccentric 
pistons  are  clear  of  the  moulds  the  tappet  again  turns 
the  table  one  brick's  length,  and  the  same  action  is 
renewed.  During  the  time  the  eccentrics  are  giving 
pressure,  the  table  is  held  firmly  by  a  stop,  which  if 
then  released." 

The  last  of  this  class  which  we  shall  notice  is  the 
dry-clay  machine  of  Wilson,  of  Campbellfield  Brick- 
works, Glasgow,  which  was  exhibited  in  action  at  the 
Exhibition  of  1862. 

The  peculiarity  of  working  of  this  machine  is,  that 
the  dry  and  pulverised  clay  prepared  for  being  made 
into  brick  is  carried  along  automatically  to  the  hopper, 
and,  just  before  being  delivered  into  it,  is  subjected  to 
being  blown  upon  by  the  waste  steam  discharged  from 
the  non-condensing  engine  which  drives  the  machine. 
The  result  is  a  slight  condensation  of  steam  on  and  in 
tive  pores  of  the  clay,  and  a  slight  Karming  of  the  clay 
itself.  From  this  arises  a  much-increased  tendency  to 
rapid  and  perfect  agglutination  in  the  clay  when  sub- 
mitted to  pressure  in  this  state,  between  wet  and  dry, 
and  a  much  readier  expulsion  of  the  air  involved  in 
the  mass.  There  is  not  the  slightest  doubt  of  the 
great  advantage  derived  from  this  very  simple  mode 
of  treating  the  dry  clay  prior  to  compression. 

There  are  several  contrivances  in  Mr.  Wilson's  ma- 
chine, as  to  details,  also  of  value,  especially  one  by 
which  the  maximum  pressure  possible  is  so  regu- 
lated that  the  destruction  of  the  machine  is  guarded 

One  great  improvement  yet  remains  to  be  made  to 
render  perfect  dry-clay  brickmaking  machines,  namely, 
to  adapt  to  them  the  same  method  that  was  employed 
by  Mr.  Brockedon,  in  his  patent  for  compressing  dry 



powder  of  plumbago  into  a  dense  and  solid  block  to  be 
sawed  into  pencils,  namely,  the  operatiJig  the  compres- 
sion in  a  vacuum,  so  that  the  air  involved  between  the 
particles  of  dry  clay  (or  dust,  if  quite  dry)  being  thus 
extracted,  the  mechanical  pressure  is  free  to  act  fully 
and  solely  in  producing  condensation  and  agglutination 
of  the  clay  particles. 

Any  one  of  the  brick  machines  of  the  first  class, 
down  to  fig.  8,  inclusive,  may,  by  a  suitable  alteration 
of  the  discharging  dies  and  receiving  tables,  be  made 
to  express  and  form  perforated  bricks,  moulded  bricks, 
drain  or  other  pipes,  or  tiles  of  any  sort,  as  in 
Fig.  7. 

"We  shall  therefore  confine  our  illustrations  of  tile- 
making  machinery,  specially  so  designed,  to  two  exam- 
ples, viz.,  to  fig.  18,  the  large  drain-pipe  machine  of 

Fig.  18. 

Page  and  Co.,  of  Bedford,  which  forces  out  a  con- 
tinuous hollow  cylinder  from  the  plastic  clay  (as  at  A, 
fig.  19),  and  fig.  19. 



The  macliine  by  "Whitehead,  of  Preston,  for  pressing 
one  end  of  the  cylinder  so  cut  off  to  a  given  length,  as 

at  A,  into  the  socket  form,  as  at  B,  fig.  10,  so  that  the 

lengths  shall  go  together  with  spigot  and  faucet  joints. 

Dies  of  Tarious  forms,  prepared  to  adapt  to  any  of 

the  brick  or  tile  machinery,  are  supplied  by  the  makers, 


by  w'hicli  almost  any  form  (solid  or  hollow,  tubular  or 
multitubular,  i.e.,  perforated  like  "perforated  brick"), 
that  can  be  produced  by  the  advance  of  a  given  section 
parallel  to  itself,  may  be  formed.  The  figures  in  Fig  7 
show  a  few  of  the  more  usually  employed  sections — 
those  at  the  right  being  drain-pipes,  those  in  the  middle 
for  building  purposes,  and  the  left-hand  ones  for  roof- 
ing use. 

In  addition  to  the  machines  for  brick  and  tile  making, 
which  we  have  thus  pretty  copiously  illustrated,  there 
are  other  machines  almost  innumerable  for  making 
special  forms  in  plastic  or  in  dry  clay,  referable  to  the 
great  family  of  bricks  and  tiles.  A  great  tribe  of 
these  machines,  to  which  our  space  forbids  our  making 
any  allusion,  is  employed  in  Great  Britain  and  abroad 
in  the  manufacture  of  encaustic,  or  inlaid,  or  intaglio 
tiles  for  flooring  and  other  architectiu'al  purposes. 
Those  who  desire  still  more  complete  or  enlarged  infor- 
mation on  the  subject  of  this  class  of  machinery  shoidd 
consult  the  Practical  Mechanic's  Journal  Record  of  the 
Exhibition  of  1862,  Mr.  D.  K.  Clarke's  "Exhibited 
Machinery  of  1862,"  the  Reports  of  the  Juries  of 
Exhibition,  1862,  and  the  volimie  of  Abridgments  of 
Patents,  relating  to  drain  tiles  and  pipes,  bricks,  tiles, 
and  pottery,  issued  by  the  Patent  Office,  extending  from 
1619  to  1861.  There  have  been  many  patents  since 
that  date,  and  many  descriptions  of  machines  of  more 
or  less  value  are  also  to  be  found  scattered  through  the 
British  and  foreign  mechanical  journals,  in  encyclop?edia 
articles,  &c.  Though  not  important  for  those  employ- 
ing brick  machinery  at  home,  it  may  be  desirable,  for 
the  information  of  British  colonists,  that  we  should  in- 
dicate the  form  of  portable  high-pressure  steam  engine 
most  usually  employed  for  actuating  such.     It  is  that 

236  RUDIMENTS  OF  Tire 

shown  in  fig.  20,  being  one  of  this  class  of  engines 
manufactured  by  Cla3rton  and  Shuttle  worth.  When 
bricks,  &c.,  are  required  for  a  special  contract  or  some 
private  work  presenting  but  a  terminable  demand,  such 

Fi^.  20. 

portable  engines  are  the  best  and  cheapest  in  ever^ 
way ;  but,  for  a  great  and  permanent  brickmakiug 
establishment,  engines  upon  fixed  bed-plates  or  foimda- 
tions  are  to  be  preferred. 

In  concluding  these  notices  of  the  apparatus  of  the 
mechanical  brick  and  tile  maker,  we  must  not  omit  to 
call  the  reader's  attention  to  probably  the  greatest  im- 
provement that  has  ever  been  made  in  the  constructioD 



of  kilns,  for  at  once  drying  and  burning  brick,  viz., 
the  patent  brick-kiln  of  Hoffmann. 
This  kiln  is,  in  fact,  an  admirable  adaptation  to  brick 

FUj.  21. 

drying  and  burning  of  Siemens's  regenerative  principle 
of  furnace,  as  will   be   apparent   from   the   following 

Tig.  22. 

account,  abridged  chiefly  from  a  paper  by  Professor 
James  Thomson,  of  Belfast.  Fig.  21  is  a  half-plan  on 
top  of  the  kiln,  the  other  being  a  horizontal  section  at 



the  level  of  the  flues,  leading  into  the  central  chimney- 
stalk,  as  seen  in  the  vertical  section,  fig.  23.  Fig.  22 
is  a  diagram  of  the  whole  to  a  reduced  scale,  which  is 

referred  to  in  illustrating  the  description  of  the  mode 
of  working  of  the  kiln. 

The  accompanying  engravings  illustrate  this  remark- 
able form  of  kiln,  invented  by  M.  Hoffinann,  of  Berlin, 
but  patented  in  England  by  Mr.  H.  Chamberlain,  who 
supplies  designs  ibr  their  construction,  &c.  Some  sixty 
of  these  kilns  are  already  at  work  on  the  Continent  and 
in  Great  Britain.  The  furnace  or  oven  consists  of  a 
circular  channel,  0,  of  any  section,  which  receives  the 
objects  to  be  fired,  introduced  through  doors  in  the 
outside  wall ;  the  fuel  is  fed  in  by  apertures  formed  in 
the  top  of  the  arch.     Flues  lead  from  the  bed  of  the 


furnace  to  the  smoke-chamber  R,  whicli  surroimds 
the  base  of  the  central  chimney,  the  commimication 
with  which  can  be  cut  off  when  required  by  means 
of  cast-iron  bell-shaped  covers.  An  intercepting 
damper  can  be  lowered  or  placed  in  grooves  built 
into  the  walls  of  the  furnace  immediately  behind  each 
flue,  so  as  to  separate  it  at  any  distinct  or  equidistant 
compartment.  The  fuel  passes  through  apertures  which 
are  constructed  in  the  arch,  and  falls  through  channels 
formed  by  the  objects  to  be  burnt  to  a  chamber  in  the 
bed  of  the  furnace,  from  which  a  certain  number  of 
small  flues  radiate  to  produce  a  free  current  from  fire 
to  fire.  In  practice  it  is  found  barter  to  divide  the 
kiln  into  twelve  chambers,  to  which  there  are  twelve 
entries  or  doorways,  and  the  same  number  of  flues 
communicating  with  the  smoke-chamber,  and  just  as 
many  openings  in  the  arch  for  the  reception  of  the 
large  intercepting  dampers — thus  the  furpace  can  be 
divided  at  any  one  of  the  twelve  parts.  For  clearer 
distinction,  these  compartments  may  be  numbered,  as 
in  fig.  22,  from  1  to  12,  of  which  two,  ISTos.  12  and 
1,  we  will  suppose  are  separated  by  the  intercepting 
damper.  The  objects  to  be  burned  may  be  bricks  or 
tiles,  &c.  Suppose  the  fire  in  full  operation — the  doors 
leading  to  the  compartments  1  and  2  being  open,  No.  1 
for  filling  it  with  fresh  goods,  and  No.  2  for  taking 
out  those  already  burnt.  The  chambers  Nos.  3,  4,  5, 
and  6,  which  arc  all  filled  with  burned  goods,  are 
gradually  cooling  by  the  air  entering  through  the  doors 
of  Nos.  1  and  2,  and  as  it  passes  on  through  warmer 
and  at  last  glowing  ware,  it  will  result  that  the  kiln 
fires  are  supplied  with  atmospheric  air  almost  as  hot  as 
the  furnace  itself.  In  chamber  No.  7  the  fire  is  burn- 
ing, and  when  its  contents  have  reached  the  desired 


temperature,  No.  8  will  have  arrired  at  such  a  degree 
from  the  absorption  of  the  waste  heat,  that  the  fuel 
introduced  from  the  top  is  instantly  inflamed. 

The  compartments  Nos.  9,  10,  11,  and  12,  will  be 
dried  ofi",  and  heated  one  after  another  by  the  waste 
heat  which  passes  through  and  expends  itself  on  the 
contents  of  these  chambers,  and  on  its  arrival  in  No.  12, 
meeting  with  the  obstruction  of  the  large  damper, 
it  is  conducted  by  the  small  flue  to  the  chimney,  with 
its  temperature  again  so  lowered  that  it  will  only  just 
support  the  draught.  No.  1  being  now  filled  again, 
the  damper  between  12  and  1  is  lifted  and  lowered  be- 
tween 1  and  2.  The  bell  damper  above  the  mouth  of 
the  flue  No.  12  is  lowered,  and  that  of  No.  1  lifted. 
The  doorway  of  No.  12  is  then  closed,  and  that  of 
the  compartment  No.  3  opened,  the  contents  of  which 
wiU  be  sufficiently  cooled  to  be  taken  out,  while  No.  2, 
which  is  empty,  can  be  fiUed  again. 

On  the  5th  of  January,  1864,  Professor  J.  Thomson, 
of  Belfast,  read  a  paper  on  the  manufacture  of  bricks, 
before  the  Chemico- Agricultural  Society  of  Ulster,  in 
which  he  referred  at  considerable  length  to  the  Hofl&nann 
oven.  The  foUonNnng  is  an  abstract  of  his  paper : — 
Having  explained  the  chief  methods  in  use  for  working 
the  clay  and  forming  it  into  bricks  ready  for  the  kiln, 
he  then  turned  attention  to  the  great  loss  of  heat  which 
occurs  in  the  ordinary  modes  of  burning  bricks  in  com- 
mon kilns.  This  loss  is  twofold.  First,  during  the 
burning  of  the  bricks  the  air  which  has  passed  through 
the  fuel,  or  among  the  heated  bricks,  and  the  smoke, 
including  the  gaseous  products  generally,  passes  away 
from  the  kiln  to  waste  at  a  very  high  temperature,  even 
at  a  red  heat,  during  a  considerable  part  of  the  process. 
Secondly,  when  the  bricks  are  raised  to  the  high  tern- 

ART   OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND   TILES.  241 

peratnre  I'equired  to  burn  them,  and  render  them  pei-^ 
manently  hard,  the  great  store  of  heat  which  they 
contain  is  entirely  thrown  to  waste  while  they  are 
left  to  cool.  In  this  new  kiln  a  remarkable  economy 
of  fuel  is  effected,  by  saving  the  twofold  loss  of  heat 
uli'eady  mentioned :  first,  it  saves  the  heat  of  the 
gaseous  products  of  combustion  and  imconsimied  air 
passing  through  and  away  from  the  burning  bricks,  by 
applying  this  heat  effectively  in  drying  the  new  fresh 
bricks  about  to  be  burnt,  and  raisiiig  them  up  to  an 
incandescent  temperatui'e,  so  that  oiliy  a  very  slight 
addition  of-heat  ffbm  ignited  fuel  directly  is  required  to 
complete  their  burning;  and,  secondly,  it  saves  the 
heat  of  the  cooling  bi'icks,  after  their  having  been 
sufficiently  fired,  by  appl^^ing  it  all  again  in  warming 
the  air  which  goes  forwaM  io  supply  the  fires;  so  that 
the  fuel  is  bufnt  with  air  already  at  nearly  an  incan- 
descent temperature,  instead  of  requiring,  as  usual,  to 
heat  the  air  for  its  own  combustion.  Professor  Thom- 
son explained,  as  an  example,  the  large  kiln  which 
Mr.  Moore  was  then  constructing  at  his  brick- works  at 
IIayfieldPark,in  the  neighbourhood  of  Belfast.  Thekiln, 
as  will  be  seen,  is  built  in  the  form  of  a  large  arched 
passage,  like  a  railway  tunnel,  bending  round  in  going 
forward  on  the  ground  till  it  closes  with  itself  to  form  a 
great  circular  ring-chamber,  within  which  the  burning 
of  the  bricks  is  carried  on.  This  ring-chamber  maybe 
of  any  convenient  dimensions,  160  ft.  diameter  being 
a  suitable  size.  Round  its  circumference  there  are 
twenty-four  entrance  doorways,  admitting  of  being 
closed  with  temporarily-built  bricks  and  clay,  so  as  to 
retain  the  heat  and  exclude  all  entrance  of  air  by  the 
doorways  so  built  up.  The  great  ring- chamber  may  now 
be  conceived  as  consisting  of  twenty-foui*  compartments 



or  spaces,  with  one  of  these  doorways  to  each.  In  the 
centre  of  the  ring  a  high  chimney  is  erected,  and  from 
each  of  the  twenty-four  compartments  of  the  annular 
chamber  an  underground  flue  leads  into  the  chimney. 
There  are,  then,  twenty-four  of  these  flues  converging 
towards  the  centre  like  the  spokes  of  a  wheel,  and  each 
flue  has  a  valve,  by  which  its  communication  with  the 
chimney  can  be  cut  off.  Arrangements  are  made  by 
which  a  partition  like  a  damper  can  be  let  down  at  plea- 
sure, or  otherwise  placed,  so  as  to  cut  off  all  communi- 
cation between  any  of  the  twenty-four  compartments  of 
the  ring- kiln  and  the  next  one.  Let  us  now  suppose  the 
working  of  the  kiln  to  have  been  already  fairly  esta- 
blished ;  for,  after  being  once  kindled,  the  fire  is  never 
extinguished,  but  the  burning  of  new  bricks  and  the 
removal  of  the  finished  produce  are  carried  on  by  a  con- 
tinuous and  regular  process  from  day  to  day.  Two 
adjacent  compartments  have  this  day  their  entrance 
doors  open,  all  the  rest  being  perfectly  closed.  By 
the  arrangement  of  the  valves  in  the  flues,  and  the 
large  partition,  the  air  which  gets  admittance  alone 
by  the  two  open  doors  has  to  go  round  the  whole 
circuit  of  the  ring-kiln  in  order  to  be  drawn  into  the 
chimney.  From  one  of  the  two  open  compartments 
men  are  taking  out  the  finished  and  cooled  bricks,  and 
in  the  other  one  they  are  building  up  newly-formed 
uubumt  bricks  which  are  not  yet  quite  dry.  The  air, 
entering  by  these  two  compartments,  passes  first  among 
bricks  almost  cold  and  takes  up  their  heat,  and  then 
goes  forward  to  warmer  bricks,  and  then  to  hotter 
and  hotter,  always  carrying  the  heat  of  the  cooling 
bricks  forward  with  it  till  it  reaches  the  part  of  the 
ring  diametrically  opposite  to  the  two  open  and  cold 
compartments.     At  this  place  it  gets  a  final  accession 


of  heat  ftom  the  burning  of  a  very  small  quantity  of 
small  coal,  which  is  dropped  in  among  the  bricks  from 
time  to  time  by  numerous  small  openings  furnished 
with  air-tight  movable  lids.  Thus  at  this  part  of  the 
kiln  there  is  generated  the  full  intensity  of  heat  which 
is  required  for  the  burning  of  the  bricks.  The  hot  air, 
including  the  products  of  combustion,  which,  for  brevity, 
we  may  call  the  smoke,  though  it  is  really  perfectly 
gaseous  and  free  from  sooty  particles,  then  passes  for- 
ward to  the  bricks,  which,  by  its  continuous  current, 
are  being  heated ;  and  it  passes  on  among  them  from 
hot  bricks  to  those  which  are  less  and  less  hot,  heating 
them  as  it  goes,  and  then  passes  on  to  those  which  are 
still  damp,  drying  them  as  it  goes ;  and  then  it  passes 
to  the  chimney,  in  a  state  almost  cold,  and  saturated 
with  the  moisture,  in  the  form  of  steam  or  vapour, 
which  it  has  taken  from  the  damp  bricks.  On  the 
following  day  to  that  on  which  the  operations  just 
described  have  been  going  on,  the  partition  is  shifted 
forwards  by  the  space  of  one  compartment,  and  a 
corresponding  change  is  made  as  to  the  flue  which  is 
to  communicate  with  the  chimney,  and  as  to  the  pair  of 
compartments  open  for  the  admission  of  air  and  for  the 
removal  of  finished  cold  bricks,  and  the  building  in  of 
fresh  damp  bricks ;  and  so  the  air,  including  the  products 
of  combustion,  at  the  end  of  its  circuit  in  the  annular 
chamber,  just  before  passing  ofi"  to  the  chimney,  now 
passes  among  the  fresh  bricks  which  were  described  as 
built  in  on  the  yesterday  of  this  new  day.  The  place 
where  the  small-coal  fuel  is  thrown  in  is  also  advanced 
roimd  the  circle  by  the  stage  of  one  compartment ;  and 
so  now  the  whole  process  goes  on  just  as  it  did  yesterday. 
The  fire  thus  makes  a  complete  circuit  of  the  annvJar 
chamber  in   twenty-four   working  days.      The   whole 

M  2 

244  VRT    OF    MAKING    BRICKS    AND   TILES. 

process  may  be  left  dormant  on  Sundays,  merely  by  this 
closing  of  all  apertures  for  the  admission  of  the  current 
of  air.  The  same  kind  of  kiln,  with  the  same  process 
of  working,  is  applicable  in  the  burning  of  lime  ;  and 
both  for  the  brick-burning  and  the  lime-burning,  the 
saving  of  fuel,  relatively  to  what  is  consiimed  by  the 
ordinary  methods,  is  such  as  to  appear  at  first  sight 
almost  incredible. 

The  Hoffimann  or  Chamberlain  kiln  is  not  so  easily 
applicable  to  burning  lime  as  it  is  to  brick,  nor  will  it 
answer  without  considerable  modification  for  burning 


thin  and  light  tiles  or  pottery.  There  must  be  mass 
enough  in  the  goods  to  be  fired  to  afibrd  the  requisite 
magazine  of  absorbed  heat  to  be  afterwards  used  up, 
and  the  draught  must  not  be  impeded  as  by  the  breaking 
down  of  limestone  when  burnt  into  lime. 

Those  kilns  are  not  necessarily  made  circular.  They 
are,  indeed,  now  more  usually  rectangular,  with 
or  without  rounded  ends,  in  plan.  'V\T?en  originally 
writing  the  preceding,  the  author  of  this  chapter  had 
not  himself  seen  those  kilns  at  work,  and  hence  quoted 
from  others  as  to  their  properties,  &c.  He  has  since, 
however,  had  occasion,  professionally,  to  make  himself 
fully  acquainted  with  their  construction  and  perform- 
ance, and  can  indorse  fully  all  that  has  been  stated, 
and,  indeed,  might  say  much  more  in  their  com- 

Many  structural  improvements  and  simplifications 
have  latterly  been  made  in  those  kilns ;  but  as  the 
patentee,  Mr.  H.  Chamberlain,  as  a  Pottery  Engineer, 
is  professionally  engaged  in  providing  designs  for  those 
who  employ  these  kilns,  it  would  not  be  fair  that  the 
writer  shoiild  here  enter  into  further  details. 


The  following  pajier  was  read  by  Mr.  Tomlinsoii  at  a  meeting  of  the 
Geologists'  Association,  ou  February  3,  1862 : — 

On  the  Plasticity  and  Odouk  of  Clay. 

It  is  a  happy  result  of  Bacon's  method  of  inquiry  that  science  is 
not  required  to  explain  the  causes  of  things,  but  to  state  the  laws  of 
phenomena.  Nevertheless,  while  these  laws  are  obscure,  and  facts 
are  scattered,  theory  may  often  do  good  service  by  collecting  and 
marshalling  them  :  for,  as  our  great  master  of  induction  well  observes, 
"Facts  are  the  soldiers,  but  theory  is  the  general."  And  again, 
"  Truth  is  more  easily  evolved  from  error  than  from  confusion."  That 
is,  a  bad  theory  is  better  than  none  at  all,  for  it  serves  to  collect  and 
arrange  the  facts,  and  thus  makes  them  more  easy  to  handle. 

In  these  remarks  must  be  found  my  excuse  to-night  for  endeavour- 
ing to  bind  together  some  of  the  facts  respecting  a  property  of  a 
very  common  substance ;  namely,  the  Plasticity  of  Clay. 

The  more  I  consider  this  property  the  more  wonderful  and  inex- 
plicable does  it  appear.  Take  a  mass  of  dry  clay ;  it  cracks  easily, 
and  crumbles  readily  :  add  to  it  a  certain  proportion  of  water,  and  it 
becomes  jtlasiic — it  obeys  the  will  of  the  artist  or  the  artizan,  who 
can,  out  of  this  yielding  mass,  create  new  forms,  or  perpetuate  old 
ones.  Drive  off  the  water  at  a  red  heat,  and  plasticity  is  for  ever 
lost ;  rigiditi/  takes  its  place :  the  clay  is  no  longer  clay,  but  some- 
thing else.  It  may  be  reduced  to  powder,  and  ground  up  with  water; 
but  no  art  or  science  can  again  confer  upon  it  its  plasticity. 

All  this  is  very  wonderful.  There  is  another  fact  that  is  equally 
.-0  :  if  we  combine  the  constituents  of  clay  in  the  proportions  indi- 
cated by  the  analysis  of  some  pure  type  of  that  substance,  we  fail  to 
produce  plasticity.  I  have  on  the  table  specimens  of  Dorset  clay3 
dry  and  crumbling  ;  the  same  wet  and  plastic ;  and  the  same  in  the 
forma  of  casts  of  fossils,  which  have  been  passed  through  the-  five, 


and  have  exchanged  plasticity  for  rigidity.     Tiiey  are,  in  fact,  in  the 
form  of  biscuit. 

With  respect  to  the  temperature  at  which  clay  becomes  rigid,  we 
have  no  accurate  information.  It  is  much  lower  than  is  generally 
supposed,  as  will  appear  from  the  following  experiment : — I  pounded 
and  sifted  some  dry  Dorset  clay,  and  exposed  it  to  a  sand-bath  heat 
in  three  portions  varying  from  about  300°  to  600°.  Specimens  were 
taken  out  from  time  to  time,  and  rubbed  up  with  water,  but  they  did 
not  lose  their  plasticity.  Some  clay  was  put  into  a  test  tube  with  a 
small  quantity  of  mercury,  and  heated  until  the  mercury  began  to 
boil.  At  this  temperature  (viz.  650°)  the  clay  did  not  cease  to  be 
plastic.  The  flame  of  a  spirit-lamp  was  applied,  and  the  tube  was 
heated  below  redness ;  after  which  the  clay,  on  being  mixed  with  water, 
showed  no  sign  of  plasticity. 

In  experiments  of  this  kind,  the  first  action  of  the  heat  is  to  drive 
off  the  hygrometric  water.  The  clay  then  becomes  dry,  but  is  not 
chemically  changed ;  it  does  not  cease  to  be  plastic.  On  continuing 
to  raise  the  temperature,  the  chemically  combined  water  is  separated, 
and  the  clay  undergoes  a  molecular  change,  which  prevents  it  from 
taking  up  water  again,  except  mechanically.  With  the  loss  of  this 
chemically  combined  water,  clay  ceases  to  be  plastic. 

It  was,  I  believe,  first  noticed  by  Brongniart,*  that  we  cannot  pro- 
duce plasticity  by  the  synthesis  of  clay.  The  fire  clay  of  Stourbridge, 
for  example,  is  a  hydrated  silicate  of  alumina,  represented  by  the  for- 
mula Alo  O3,  2  Si  O2  +  2  Aq.  If  we  mix  one  atom  of  the  sesqui- 
oxide  of  alumina  with  2  atoms  of  silica  and  2  of  water,  we  get  a 
compound  which  cannot  be  called  clay,  since  it  is  wanting  in  plasticity. 

It  is  quite  easy  to  obtain  either  alumina  or  silica  in  the  gelatinous 
state ;  but  we  cannot  obtain  them  in  the  plastic  state. 

Clay  is  almost  the  only  substance  in  the  mineral  kingdom  that  pos- 
sesses plasticity.  In  loam,  if  the  sand  be  in  large  proportion,  and  in 
marl,  if  calcareous  matters  abound,  so  as  to  deprive  either  material 
of  plasticity,  it  ceases  to  be  clay.  There  are  also  certain  silicates  of 
alumina  which  are  not  plastic  ;  such  as  bole,  lithomarge,  and  fuUers'- 
earth.  Bole  consists  chiefly  of  a  hydrated  bisilicate  of  alumina,  in 
which  a  portion  of  the  alumina  is  replaced  by  sesquioxide  of  iron. 
Lithomarge  also  contains  iron,  and  is  sometimes  so  compact  as  to  be 
used  for  slate-pencils.  FuUers'-earth  contains  lime,  magnesia,  and 
iron,  in  addition  to  its  principal  ingredients. 

■  '■  Tiai'4  Jes  Arts  C^ramiques."    Parij,  18M.    Vol.  1.  p.  83. 


There  is  probably  no  substance  so  indeterminate  in  its  composition 
as  clay.  Regarding  it,  as  Lyell  does,*  as  "  nothing  more  than  mud 
derived  from  the  decomposition  of  wearing  down  of  rocks,"  it  must 
necessarily  contain  a  variety  of  substances ;  such  as  oxide  of  iron, 
lime,  magnesia,  potash,  silica,  bitumen,  fragments  of  uudecomposed 
rock,  &c.  These  substances  impair  the  plasticity  of  the  clay,  and 
impress  upon  it  certain  characters  which  are  of  more  importance  to 
the  manufacturer  than  to  the  chemist,  or  the  geologist.  Bronguiartf 
enumerates,  and  gives  the  analyses  of  no  fewer  than  167  clays  and 
28  kaolins,  all  of  which  are  in  use  in  the  arts  in  different  parts  of  the 
world.  They  probably  all  differ  in  plasticity,  but  they  all  possess  it ; 
and  at  a  high  temperature  exchange  it  for  rigidity.  A  rough  method 
of  measuring  the  plasticity  of  different  clays  is  to  note  the  length  to 
which  a  cylinder  of  each  can  be  drawn  out  in  a  vertical  direction 
without  breaking.  In  such  a  comparison,  the  clays  must,  of  course, 
be  worked  equally  fine,  and  contain  the  same  proportion  of  water. 

It  is  commonly  stated  that  the  ingredient  that  confers  plasticity 
on  clay  is  its  alumina ;  and  yet,  strange  to  say,  pure  alumina  alone 
whether  gelatinous,  or  after  having  been  dried  and  ground  up  with 
water  for  a  long  time,  never  gives  a  plastic  paste.  Indeed,  nothing 
can  be  conceived  less  plastic  than  gelatinous  alumina,  as  may  be  seen 
from  the  specimens  on  the  table.  We  may  drive  off  most  of  the  water 
from  this  gelatinous  hydrate,  but  it  will  not  become  plastic.  Or  we 
may  form  clay  by  mingling  solutions  of  the  silicate  of  alumina  and  the 
aluminate  of  potash.  You  see  they  are  perfectly  fluid.  I  apply  the 
heat  of  a  spirit-lamp,  and  we  get  an  opalescent  gelatinous  mass,  but 
still  no  plasticity.     We  have,  indeed,  formed  a  gelatinous  clay. 

We  cannot  say  that  the  gelatinous  state  of  alumina  is  the  cause  of 
plasticity  in  clay ;  for  silica  may  be  made  as  gelatinous  as  alumina, 
and  silica  is  certainly  not  the  cause  of  plasticity.  It  may  be  that  the 
strong  affinity  of  alumina  for  water  (retaining  a  portion  of  it  even 
when  near  a  red  heat)  may  be  the  cause  of  this  property — ^just  as 
turpentine  renders  wax  plastic;  and  water  and  gluten  confer  the 
same  property  on  starch. 

We  have  seen  that  clay  ceases  to  be  plastic  when  its  chemically 
combined  water  has  been  driven  off.  Still,  however,  water  cannot  be 
said  to  be  the  cause  of  plasticity,  as  a  general  property,  since  we 
have,  in  melted  glass,  a  more  perfect  example  of  plasticity  even  than 

»  "Manual  of  Elementary  Geology"  (1855),  p.  11. 
i  *'  Des  Arts  C^ramiques,"  Atlas  of  Plates. 

•248  APPENDIX. 

in  clay ;  and  few  substances  are  more  plastic  than  sealing-wax  at  a 
certain  temperature. 

A  clear  idea  of  plasticity,  and  of  some  of  the  other  mechanical 
properties  of  matter,  may  probably  be  gained  by  considering  them  as 
variations  of  the  forces  of  cohesion  and  adhesion,  and  by  bringing 
these,  in  their  turn,  under  Newton's  great  law  of  attraction,  which, 
whether  exerted  between  atoms  or  masses,  is  directly  as  the  mass, 
and  inversely  as  the  squares  of  the  distances. 

Now,  if  we  suppose  the  distances  between  the  molecules  of  matter 
to  be  1-millionth  or  billionth,  or  2,  3,  i,  5,  6,  &c.,  millionths  or  bil- 
lionths  of  an  inch  asunder,  the  intensity  of  their  attractions  will  be  1, 
^^th,  -g^th,  iV^h,  &c.,  or,  to  represent  it  in  a  tabular  form  : — 

Distances  1   2  3  4     5    6    7    8     9     10,  &c. 

Intensities  of  attraction  1  i  i  iV  -rs  -sV  "iV  "CT  -gV  tdij.  &c- 
Suppose  the  molecules  to  be  of  the  same  density,  but  at  different 
distances  apart,  as  represented  in  the  upper  line.  At  the  distance  of 
1-millioath  of  an  inch  we  get  an  intensity  of  attraction  represented 
by  1.  At  2-milliouths  of  an  inch  the  force  of  attraction  is  only  one- 
fourth.  Now,  the  idea  is  this,  that  the  mechanical  properties  of 
matter, — such  as  porosity,  tenacity,  hardness,  brittleness,  plasticity, 
elasticity,  &c.,  depend  upon  variations  in  the  attractive  force  of  the 
molecules  according  to  the  distances  apart  of  such  molecules.  Thus, 
if  the  molecules  of  clay  require  to  be  5-millionths  of  an  inch  apart 
iu  order  to  produce  plasticity,  the  intensity  of  attraction  between 
them  will  be  represented  by  ^Vth  ;  but  if  such  clay  be  passed  through 
the  fire,  and  the  molecules,  in  consequence  of  the  escape  of  water, 
be  brought  nearer  together,  and  rigidly  fixed  at  4-millionths  of  an 
inch  asunder,  the  force  of  attraction  will  then  be  iVth. 

Now,  the  method  of  arranging  the  particles  of  clay  at  that  precise 
distance  that  shall  impart  plasticity,  is  one  of  Nature's  secrets  that 
we  have  not  yet  succeeded  in  penetrating.  It  may  be  that  the  circum- 
stances under  which  clay  is  formed  and  deposited,  or  the  time  that 
has  elapsed  since  its  formation,  or  the  pressure  of  the  superposed 
layers,  may  have  so  arranged  the  particles  as  to  enable  them  to 
become  plastic  when  the  proper  proportion  of  water  is  added.  It 
may  be  that  a  certain  state  of  disintegration  is  required  on  the  part 
of  the  alumina  and  the  silica,  so  that  their  proximate  elements  shall 
be  neither  too  fine  nor  too  coarse ;  or  it  may  be  that  the  silica,  in 
combining  with  the  alumina,  separates  the  atoms  of  the  latter  to  pre- 
cisely those  dis*anccs  required  for  the  development  cf  the  property  ; 


or,  lastly,  the  presence  of  a  small  portion  of  animal  or  other  organic 
matter  in  clay  may  have  something  to  do  with  this  remarkable  pro- 

An  extensive  series  of  experiments,  by  Delesse,*  show  the  presence 
of  animal  matter  in  quartz  and  various  rocks,  where  its  presence  had 
not  previously  been  suspected  ;  and  this  may  have  as  important  an 
effect  in  modifying  the  properties  of  a  mineral  as  the  presence  of 
minute  portions  of  bodies,  formerly  entered  as  impurities,  has  in 
producing  pseudo  morphous  crystals. 

Still,  the  question  recurs,  "VYhy  is  not  a  clay  artificially  formed 
from  pure  materials  plastic  ?  The  answer  is,  that  we  do  not  know  all 
the  conditions  of  plasticity.  We  do  know  the  conditions  under  which 
some  mechanical  properties  exist — such  as  the  hardness  of  steel,  the 
brittleness  of  unannealed  glass — and  can  confer  or  remove  such  pro- 
perties at  pleasure.  Eut  with  respect  to  plasticity,  we  can  only  confer 
a  factitious  property  of  this  kind  on  mineral  substances  by  taking 
advantage  of  another  property  which  it  somewhat  resembles,  namely, 
viscosity  or  viscidity.  Viscosity  differs  in  plasticity  in  this,  that  the 
viscous  body  does  not  retain  the  form  impressed  upon  it  when  the 
force  is  removed,  as  a  plastic  body  does.  The  materials  of  the  old 
soft  porcelain  of  Sevres  had  no  plasticity ;  but  this  property  was  con- 
ferred by  means  of  soft  soap  and  parchment  size.f 

TYithout  speculating  further  on  the  nature  of  plasticity,  I  may 
remark  that  in  the  ancient  pliilosopliy  the  word  was  one  of  power. 
Derived  from  the  Greek  -KXaocuv,  or  -KXarrnv,  "  to  form,"  or  "  to 
create,"  it  not  only  included  the  arts  of  modelling  in  clay,  but  also 
sculpture  and  painting,  and,  by  a  refinement  of  language,  poetry  and 
music.  Plato  and  Aristotle  even  supposed  that  a  plastic  virtue 
resided  in  the  earth,  or  did  so  originally,  by  virtue  of  which  it  put; 
forth  plants,  «S:c. ;  and  that  animals  and  men  were  but  effects  of  this 
plastic  power.  They  did  not  suppose  the  world  to  have  been  made 
with  labour  and  difficulty,  as  an  architect  builds  a  house ;  but  that  a 
certain  "efficient  nature"  {natura  effectrix)  inherent  and  residing  in 
matter  itself,  disposed  and  tempered  it,  and  from  it  constructed  the 

*  "  De  I'azote  et  des  matiferes  organiqnes  dans  I'ecorce  terrestre."— jlnn<i7«  dei 
iiines,  xviii.,  1860. 

t  Brongniart  ("  Des  Arts  Cferamiqiies  ")  says  that  the  old  porcelames  tendret  were 
formed  of  22  per  cent,  of  fused  nitre,  60  of  Fontainebleau  sand,  7-2  of  salt,  36  of  alum, 
8*6  of  soda,  and  3-6  of  gypsum.  These  materials  were  fritted  and  ground,  and  75 
parts  taken,  to  which  were  added  white  chalk  17  parts,  marl  8.  This  mixture  was 
ground,  sifted  very  fine,  and  made  up  Into  a  paste  with  l-8th  soft  soap  and  size,  or,  at 
« later  period,  with  gum  tragacautb. 



whole  world.  Aristotle  distinctly  recognises  mind  as  the  principal 
and  directing  cause,  and  nuiura  as  a  subservient  or  executive  instru- 
ment. Even  in  later  times  men  have  contended  for  the  existence  of 
a  plastic  nature,  or  incorporeal  substance  endowed  with  a  vegetative 
life ;  but  not  with  sensation  or  thought,  penetrating  the  whole  uni- 
verse, and  producing  those  phenomena  of  matter  which  could  not  be 
solved  by  mechanical  laws.  The  learned  Cudworth  supports  this 
view,*  and  the  discussions  into  which  it  led  him  and  other  metaphy- 
sicians form  a  curious  chapter  in  the  history  of  the  human  mind.  In 
England  we  do  not  now  retain  the  term  pbsiici/y,  except  as  a  phy- 
sical property  of  matter ;  f  but  in  Germany  it  has  still  an  extensive 
Cgurative  meaning.  The  word  plastisch  still  means  bild^nd  or 
schopferitch  (i.e.  "  creative") ;  and  it  is  still  applied  not  only  to  sculp- 
ture, but  adso  to  painting,  poetry,  and  music.  A  German  well  under- 
stands the  expression  "  plastische  Gedsmken,"  or  "  plastic  thoughts." 

Before  concluding,  I  would  refer  to  another  property  of  clay,  which 
seems  to  me  as  wonderful  as  its  plasticity ;  namely,  its  odour  when 
breathed  on,  or  when  a  shower  of  rain  first  begins  to  wet  a  dry  clayey 
aoil.  This  odour  b  commonly  referred  to  alumina,  and  yet,  strange 
to  say,  pure  alumina  gives  off  no  odour  when  breathed  on  or  wetted. 
The  fact  is,  the  peculiar  odour  referred  to  belongs  only  to  impure 
clavs,  and  chiefly  to  those  that  contain  oxide  of  iron.  This  was 
pointed  out  by  Brongniart  as  far  back  as  ]816,J  who  also  remarked 
that  minerals  which  do  not  contain  alumina,  such  as  pulverised  chal- 
cedony, possess  this  remarkable  property. 

I  have  found  that  a  pure  kaolin,  ground  up  in  a  mortar  with  a 
small  quantity  of  water,  emits  a  slight  odour,  which,  however, 
becomes  much  more  sensible  if  a  little  sesquioxide  of  iron  be 

Smooth  quartz  pebbles  when  rubbed  together  give  an  electric  spark, 
and  a  fetid  odour.  It  is  commonly  supposed  that  sea-side  pebbles 
aJonc  i>osses5  this  property  ;  but  the  odour  belongs  equally  to  those 
found  among  gravel  overlying  the  chalk,  and  in  ploughed  lands  where 
the  surface  is  exposed  to  all  the  vicissitudes  of  the  weather.  It  is  quite 
possible  that  the  odour  of  these  pebbles  may  hereafter  be  traced  to 
the  presence  of  oi^nic  matter ;  but  I  cannot  resist  the  reproduction 
here  of  a  suggestive  hint  given  me  by  my  friend  Professor  Bloxam, 

•  See  "  The  True  Intellectn»l  System  of  the  Universe,"  by  RAlph  Cadworth,  D.D., 
167*.    A  reprint  hM  been  pnblUhed  by  Tege,  in  which  see  Vol.  I..  P.  22S,  el  «f. 
i  Dr.  Johnic>n  dtfioeiptarfie  as  "  having  the  power  to  give  form. 
J  "  DictionnaJre  del  Sciences  >'atttrelles,"  art.  ArgiU. 


who  is  reminded  by  the  spark  aud  odour  from  these  pebbles  of  the 
presence  of  ozone. 

What,  again,  is  the  cause  of  the  odour  in  the  narrow  parts  of  stone 
buildings,  not  of  new  buildings  alone,  but  of  old  ones,  as  in  the  stair- 
cases of  old  cathedrals  ? 

I  do  not  attempt  to  reply  to  these  questions.  It  requires  some 
amount  of  knowledge  and  experience  to  put  them — but  how  much 
more  to  answer  them ! 

On  Drying  Bricks. 
^Extracted  pom  Noble  s  ''Professional  Practice  of  ArcJiitects"  p.  143.) 
"  The  observations  by  Richard  Neve,  above  a  century  since,  upon 
itock  bricks,  will  illustrate  tlie  subject :  '  When  the  hack  is  as  high  as 
they  think  fit,  they  cover  them  with  straw  till  they  are  dry  enough  to 
burn, '  &e.,  &c.  He  proceeds  :  '  A  brickmaker  being  sent  to  Rum- 
ford,  in  Essex,  went  to  work  unadvisedly,  aud  laid  them  abroad  in  a 
place  to  dry ;  but  the  sun,  about  ten  o'clock,  began  to  shine  very  hot, 
and  the  whole  quantity  of  bricks  burst  to  pieces,  so  that  he  was  forced 
to  go  to  work  again :  and  then,  before  the  sun  shone  too  hot,  he 
thatched  or  covered  them  over  with  straw  till  the  next  morning, 
when  removing  it,  they  did  very  well  when  set  on  the  hack ;  and 
when  burnt,  were  curious  red  bricks,  which  would  ring  when  hit  with 
any  hard  thing.' " 

On  the  use  of  Coal  Dust  in  making  Clamp  Bricks. 

{Extracted from  Noble's  "  Professional  Practice  of  Architects"  p.  153.) 

"  Natives  should  be  employed  {in  making  bricks  in  Wales)  in  the 
manufacture,  in  preference  to  London  hands,  as  the  former  use  coal 
dust  in  preparing  the  earth,  and  not  breeze  (ashes),  as  about  London ; 
and  provided  an  undue  portion  of  coal  is  used,  a  whole  clamp  would 
be  destroyed,  of  which  there  was  an  instance  at  Lampeter  (Cardigan- 
shire). An  Islington  brickmaker  was  sent  to  Wales,  and  as  he  was 
too  conceited  to  make  inquiries,  or  to  receive  information,  set  light 
to  a  clamp  he  had  prepared  with  coal,  being  70,700 ;  and  in  a  very 
short  time  the  whole  kiln  was  in  one  general  blaze.  The  man  being 
alarmed,  took  to  his  heels,  and,  unlike  Lot's  wife,  he  turned  not 
back,  neither  looked  behind  him.  Even  from  the  heights  leading  to 
Landovery  the  rejlectioii  was  quite  enough  for  him ;  nor  did  he  stop 


till  he  reached  London,  being,  as  he  said,  ' afeared'  tbey  xvould  catch 
him  and  put  him  in  prison !  " 

Bkicksiaking  at  Great  Gkimsbt,  Likcolnsuibe. 

Large  quantities  of  bricks  have  been  made  during  the  last  few 
years  at  Great  Grimsby,  for  the  Dock  Company,  from  the  Humber 
silt.  These  bricks  are  remarkable  for  their  colour,  which  varies  in 
the  same  brick  from  dark  purple  to  dirty  white,  passing  through 
various  shades  of  blue,  red,  and  yellow,  in  the  space  ol  two  or  three 
inches.  The  silt,  when  first  dug  out  of  the  bed  of  the  Humber,  is  of 
a  dark  blue  colour,  which  soon,  from  exposure  to  the  air,  changes  to 
a  brown. 

The  bricks  made  for  the  Dock  Company  were  burnt  in  close 
clamps — fired  with  layers  of  small  coal,  but  without  coal-dust  or 
ashes  being  mixed  with  the  clay  as  in  London  brickmaking.  With 
the  first  clamps  there  was  much  waste,  the  quantity  of  fuel  being 
excessive,  and  the  bricks  were  cracked  and  made  brittle  in  conse- 
quence ;  but  the  experience  obtained  by  the  first  trials  has  led  to  the 
production  of  a  sound  well-burnt  brick,  with,  however,  the  peculiar 
colour  above  mentioned. 

Considerable  quantities  of  bricks  have  been  lately  made  for  sale  at 
Great  Grimsby,  and  burnt  in  clamps  with  Hues,  as  in  kiln  burning, 
which  method  appears  to  be  attended  with  less  waste  than  close 

The  slack  or  small  coal  used  for  fuel  may  cost  from  25.  G(/.  to  \s. 
per  1,000  bricks.  The  cost  of  clay  getting,  tempering,  moulding, 
and  drying,  is  about  S*.  G(/.  per  1,000.  The  moulds  used  are  of 
wood,  plated  with  iron.  The  process  employed  is  that  known  as 

Kilns  as  well  as  clamps  arc  used  in  this  part  of  Lincolnshire,  their 
construction  being  similar  to  that  of  the  kilns  in  general  use  in  the 
Midland  Counties. 


Two  kinds  of  bricks  are  made  in  Suffolk,  viz.,  reds  and  whites.  The 
latter  are  much  esteemed  for  their  shape  and  colour,  and  large  quan- 
tities arc  annually  sent  to  Loudon,  for  facing  buildings  of  a  superior 



Clay. — The  supplies  of  brick-earth  are  chiefly  derived  from  the  plasvio 
clays  lyiug  above  the  chalk,  although  the  blue  clay  is  occasion- 
ally used. 

The  clays  in  most  parts  are  too  strong  to  be  used  as  they  rise, 
and  have  consequently  to  be  mixed  with  a  white  loam  or  a 
milder  earth. 
Tempering. — The  clay  is  turned  over  in  February  and  March,  and  in 
some  parts  of  Suffolk  it  is  passed  through  the  wash-mill,  but 
this  is  not  generally  the  case. 

Tempering  is  generally  performed  by  spade  labour,  but  the 
pug-mill  is  sometimes  used,  although  not  commonly,  for  white 
bricks ;  it  is,  however,  used  for  all  oilier  white  ware. 
Moulding. — The  brick  mould  is  of  wood,  shod  with  iron ;  the  dimen- 
sions vary  slightly  according  to  the  nature  of  the  clay,  but  are 
usually  as  follows :  9|ths  long  by  4yf  ths  wide  and  2>\  deep. 
There  is  no  hollow  formed  in  the  bottom  of  the  brick  for  the 
mortar  joint.     Brass  moulds  are  unknown. 

Sea  sand  is  used  in  the  process  of  moulding,  for  sanding  the 
mould  and  the  table. 

The  strike  is  used  for  taking  off  the  superfluous  clay  from  the 
mould.  The  use  of  the  plane  is  not  known. 
Dri/ing. — The  bricks  are  not  dried  on  flats  as  in  the  Midland  Coun- 
ties, but  are  taken  directly  from  the  moulding  stool  to  the  hacks. 
Sheds  are  used  in  some  yards,  and  drying  houses  with  flued 
floors  are  used  in  winter  for  pantiles  and  kiln  tiles,  but  not  for 

The  length  of  a  hack  is  about  70  yards,  and  each  moulder 
will  keep  four  hacks  going. 

The  time  required  for  drying  in  the  hacks  of  course  varies 
according  to  the  weather,  but  may  be  stated  on  an  average  at 
about  eighteen  days  for  red  bricks.  White  bricks  dry  somewhat 

The  contraction  of  the  clay  in  drying  amounts  to  about  |  in.  in 
the  length  of  a  brick,  and,  if  properly  burnt,  the  shrinkage  iu 
the  kiln  is  imperceptible. 

The  weight  of  a  brick,  when  first  moulded,  is  about  8  lbs. ; 

when  dried,  about  7  lbs. ;  and  when  burnt,  about  6  lbs. ;  but 

much  depends  upon  the  nature  of  the  earth. 

Bvrning.—The  construction  of  the  kiln  is  quite  difi'erent  from  that  of 

the  kilns  used  in  other  parts  of  England,  having  two  arched 


furnaces  runninjr  its  whole  length  underneath  the  floor,  which  ij 
formed  of  a  kind  of  lattice  work,  througli  the  openings  of  which 
the  heat  ascends  from  the  furnaces  below. 

The  cost  of  erecting  a  kiln  to  burn  50,000  whites  is  about 
£1  -15.     A  kiln  to  burn  35,000  reds  costs  about  £100. 

The  bricks  are  commonly  set  in  the  kiln  in  bolts  two  bricks 
long  by  ten  on ;  but  some  brickmakers  prefer  to  cross  them  in 
the  alternate  courses,  in  order  to  admit  the  heat  more  freely. 

The  fuel  used  is  coal,  and  the  quantity  consumed  is  about 
half  a  ton  per  1,000  for  white,  and  7  cwt.  per  1,000  for  red, 

The  iime  of  burning  is  about  GO  hours  for  white,  and  40 
hours  for  red,  bricks ;  white  bricks  requiring  a  greater  heat  than 
the  red  ones  to  bring  them  to  their  proper  colour.  The  coal 
costs  from  15s.  to  16*.  per  ton. 

Cost  of  Manufacture* 
The  selling  prices  vary  from  £1  10*.  to  £2  per  1,000  for  reds,  and 
Trom  £2  2«.  to  £3  per  1,000  for  whites. 

Of  red  bricks  two  qualities  only  are  distinguished,  viz.,  out- 
side and  inside ;  of  white,  four  qualities  are  distinguished,  viz., 
best,  2nd,  3rd,  and  murrays. 
The  price  of  the  ordinary  red  brick  is  about  £1  lO*.  per  1,000, 
uud  the  cost  may  be  thus  divided  :— 

Clay  digging,  per  1,000    .... 

Tempering,  ditto 

Moulding,  ditto 

Drying,  ditto 

Barrowing  from  hacks  and  setting  kiln  ditto 

Burning,  ditto 

Drawing  kiln,  ditto  . 

Stacking,  ditto 

Cost  of  labour  per  1,000  £0  12    2 

Coals,  about  , 0    6     0 

Duty 0    6     U 

Rent,  tools,  contingencies,  and  profit         .        .058^ 




























Selling  price  at  the  yard,  about  £1  10     0 
These  ostimates  l^long  to  the  date  of  the  First  £<liUoa  of  this  work. 


White  bricks  are  made  in  many  parts  of  England,  but  the  Suffolk 
whites  have  the  pre-eminence  over  all  others. 

The  white  bricks  made  near  Lincoln  are  remarkable  for  swelling 
when  laid  in  work,  which  causes  them  to  throw  off  the  mortar  joints, 
and  renders  it  impossible  to  make  use  of  them  in  good  work. 

The  clay  from  which  these  bricks  are  made  extends  from  the 
VVitham  northwards  as  far  as  the  Humber,  and,  so  far  as  we  are 
aware,  possesses  the  same  property  throughout  this  distance,  the 
bricks  made  from  it  at  various  points  between  the  Witham  and  the 
Humber  having  the  common  defect  of  swelling  after  burning.  A 
curious  specimen  of  this  may  be  seen  in  a  large  chimney  at  Saxilby, 
which  has  a  complete  twist,  from  the  irregular  swelling  of  the  brick- 

The  peculiar  property  of  swelling  after  burning  is  not  confined  to 
the  Lincolnshire  white  clay.  The  author  was  informed  some  years 
ago,  by  Mr.  Vignoles,  C.E.,  that  some  of  the  bricks  made  on  the 
^lidland  Counties  Line  of  Railway,  between  Rugby  and  Derby,  had 
the  same  defect. 

For  the  above  particulars  respecting  the  Lincolnshire  white  bricks 
we  arc  indebted  to  Mr.  William  Kirk,  of  Sleaford. 

On  the  Making  and  Buening  of  Dbain  Tiles. 

Extracts  from  a  communication  by  Mr.  Law  Hodges,  published  in 
the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Agricultural  Society  of  England,  Vol.  V. 
Part  II.  :— 

"  Reflecting  on  these  obstacles  to  universal  drainage,  where 
required,  I  conferred  with  Mr.  John  Hatcher  (brick  and  tile  maker 
and  potter,  Benenden,  Kent),  on  the  possibility  of  erecting  a  kiln 
of  common  clay  that  would  be  effectual  for  burning  these  tiles,  and 
of  cheap  construction— and  the  result  was  the  building  one  in  my 
brickyard  in  July  last,  and  the  constant  use  of  it  until  the  wet 
weather  at  the  commencement  of  this  winter  compelled  its  discon- 
tinuance, but  not  until  it  had  burnt  nearly  80,000  excellent  tiles ; 
and  in  the  ensuing  spring  it  will  be  again  in  regular  use. 

"  I  shall  now  proceed  to  take  in  order  the  six  points  enumerated 
under  the  9th  head  of  the  Prize  Essays  for  lSi5,  as  printed  in  th* 
last  volume  of  the  Royal  Agricultural  Society's  Journal,  viz. : — 

2j6  ArrtNDix. 

•■  ]i)(.  Mode  of  vrorkinj^  clav  according  to  its  qaaiitj. 

"  iad.  Machine  for  making  tiles. 

"  3rd.  Sheds  for  drying  tiles. 

"  4th.  Construction  of  kilns. 

"  5th.  Cost  of  forming  the  esfablishmcn*. 

"  Cth.  Cost  of  tiles  when  ready  for  sale. 

"  1st  Point.     Working  the  clay. 

"  All  clay  intended  for  •working  next  season  must  be  dug  in  the 
winter,  and  the  earlier  the  better,  so  as  to  expose  it  as  much  as  pos- 
sible to  frost  and  snow.  Care  must  be  taken,  if  there  are  small 
stones  in  it,  to  dig  it  in  small  pits,  and  cast  out  the  stones  as  much 
as  possible,  and  also  to  well  mix  the  top  and  bottom  of  the  bed  of 
clay  together.  It  is  almost  impossible  to  give  minute  directions  as 
to  mixing  clay  with  loam,  or  with  marl  when  necessary,  for  the  better 
working  it  afterwards,  as  the  difference  of  the  clays  in  purity  and 
tenacity  is  such  as  to  require  distinct  management  in  this  respect  in 
various  localities ;  but  all  the  clay  dug  for  tile-making  will  require  to 
be  wheeled  to  the  place  where  the  pug-mill  is  to  work  it ;  it  must  be 
there  well  turned  and  mixed  in  the  spring,  and  properly  wetted,  and 
finally  spatted  down  and  smoothed  by  the  spade,  and  the  whole  heap 
well  covered  with  litter  to  keep  it  moist  and  fit  for  use  through  the 
ensuing  season  of  tile-making. 

"  2nd  Point.     Machine  for  making  tiles. 

"  For  the  reasons  already  alluded  to,  I  prefer  Hatcher's  machine- 
Its  simplicity  of  construction,  and  the  small  amount  of  hand  labour 
required  to  work  it,  would  alone  recommend  it ;  for  one  man  and 
three  boys  will  turn  out  nearly  11,000  pipe  tiles  of  1  in.  bore  in  a  day 
of  ten  hours,  and  so  in  proportion  for  pipes  of  a  larger  diameter ;  but  it 
has  the  great  advantage  of  being  movable,  and  those  who  work  it  draw 
it  along  the  shed  in  which  the  tiles  are  deposited  for  drying,  previously 
to  their  being  burnt :  thus  each  tile  is  handled  only  once,  for  it  is 
taken  off  the  machine  by  the  little  boys  who  stand  on  each  side,  and 
at  once  placed  in  the  rows  on  either  side  of  the  drying  shed,  thus 
rendering  the  use  of  shelves  in  the  sheds  wholly  unnecessary,  for  the 
tiles  soon  acquire  a  solidity  to  bear  row  upon  row  of  tiles,  till  they 
reach  the  roof  of  the  sheds  on  either  side;  and  they  dry  without 
warping  or  losing  their  shape  in  any  way. 

"The  price  of  this  machine  is  £25,  and  it  may  be  proper  to  add, 
that  the  machine  makes  the  very  best  roofing  tiles  that  can  be  made, 
and  at  less  than  half  the  price  of  those  made  by  hand,  as  well  as 


hvjing  much  ligbter,  and  closer,  and  straighter,  in  consequence  of  the 
pressure  through  the  die. 

"  It  is  necessary,  in  order  to  ensure  the  due  mixing  of  the  clay,  as 
well  as  to  form  it  into  the  exact  shape  to  fill  the  cylinders  of  the 
machine,  to  have  a  pug-mill,  Messrs.  Cottam  and  Hallen  make  these 
also,  and  charge  £10  for  them.  This  mill  must  be  worked  by  a 
horse  ;  in  general  one  day's  work  at  the  mill  will  furnish  rather  more 
prepared  clay  than  the  machine  will  turn  into  tiles  in  two  days 

"  3rd  Point.     Sheds  for  drying. 

"The  sheds  necessary  for  this  system  of  tUe-making  wUl  be  of  a 
temporary  kind :  strong  hurdles  pitched  firmly  in  the  ground  in  two 
parallel  straight  lines,  7  ft.  apart,  will  form  the  sides  of  the  sheds, 
and  the  roof  will  be  formed  also  of  hurdles  placed  endways  and  tied 
together  at  the  top,  as  well  as  to  the  upper  slit  of  the  hurdle,  with 
strong  tarred  twine,  forming  the  ridge  of  the  roof  exactly  over  the 
middle  of  the  shed.  They  must  then  be  lightly  thatched  with  straw 
or  heath,  and  the  sharpness  of  this  roof  will  effectually  protect  the 
tiles  from  rain.  Two  of  these  sheds,  each  110  ft.  long,  will  keep 
one  of  the  kilns  hereafter  described  in  fuU  work. 

"  N.B. — These  sheds  should  be  so  buQt  as  to  have  one  end  close 
to  the  pug-mill  and  the  clay-heap,  only  leaving  just  room  for  the 
horse  to  work  the  mill,  and  the  other  end  near  the  kiln.  Attention 
to  this  matter  saves  future  labour,  and  therefore  money. 

"  4th  Point.     Construction  of  kilns. 

"  The  form  of  the  clay  kiln  is  circular,  11  ft.  in  diameter,  and 
7  ft.  high.  It  is  wholly  built  of  damp  earth,  rammed  firmly  together, 
and  plastered  inside  and  out  with  loam.  The  earth  to  form  the  walls 
■s  dug  out  round  the  base,  leaving  a  circular  trench  about  4  ft.  wide 
and  as  many  deep,  into  which  the  fire-holes  of  the  kiln  open.  If  wood 
be  the  fuel  used,  three  fire-holes  are  sufficient ;  if  coal,  four  will  be 
needed.  About  1,200  common  bricks  are  wanted  to  build  these 
fire-holes  and  flues ;  if  coal  is  used,  rather  fewer  bricks  will  be 
wanted,  but  then  some  iron  bars  are  necessary — six  bars  to  each  fire- 

"The  earthen  walls  are  4  ft.  thick  at  the  floor  of  the  kiln,  are 
7  ft.  high,  and  tapering  to  the  thickness  of  2  ft.  at  the  top ;  this 
will  determine  the  slope  of  the  exterior  face  of  the  kiln.  The  inside 
of  the  wall  is  carried  up  perpendicularly,  and  the  loam  plastering 
inside  becomes,  after  the  first  burning,  like  a  brick  wall.  The  kiln 
may  be  safelj  erected  in  March,  or  whenever  the  danger  of  injury 



F'kj.  2.  I'ian  of  Top  of  Kiliu 



Fig.  3. 

Trom  frost  is  over.    After  the  summer  use  of  it,  it  must  be  protected 
by  faggots  or  litter  against  the  wet  and  the  frost  of  winter. 
"  A  kiln  of  these  dimensions  will  contain — 

47,000  1-in.  bore  pipe  tiles. 
32,500  \\ 
20,000  If 
12,000  2i 

and  the  last-mentioned  size  will  hold  the  same  number  of  the  inch 
pipes  inside  of  them,  making  therefore  2i,000  of  both  sizes.  In  good 



weather  this  kiln  can  be  filled,  burnt,  and  discharged  once  every  fort- 
night ;  and  fifteen  kilns  maj  be  obtained  in  a  good  season,  producing — 

705,000  1-iu.  pipe  tiles. 
Or  isr.oOO  H      „      „ 
Or  300,000  If      „      „ 

and  so  on  in  proportion  for  other  sizes. 

"  N.B. — If  a  kiln  of  larger  diameter  be  built,  there  must  be  more 
fire-holes,  and  additional  shed  room. 


"  5th  Point.    Cost  of  forming  the  establishment. 

The  price  chared  by  Messrs.  CotUm  and  Hallen  for  the  machine, 

with  its  complement  of  dies, ;» £25 

Price  of  pug-mill 10 

Cost  of  erecting  kiln 5 

Cost  of  sheds,  straw 10 


(The  latter  item  presumes  that  the  farmer  has  hurdles  of  his  own.) 

"  6th  Point.     Cost  of  tiles  when  ready  for  sale. 

"  As  this  must  necessarily  vary  with  the  cost  of  the  fuel,  rate  of 
wages,  easy  or  difficult  clay  for  working,  or  other  local  peculiarities, 
1  can  only  give  the  cost  of  tiles  as  I  have  ascertained  it  here  accord- 
ing to  our  charges  for  fuel,  wages,  &c.,  &c.  Our  clay  is  strong,  and 
has  a  mixture  of  stones  in  it,  but  the  machine  is  adapted  for  working 
any  clay  when  properly  prepared. 

"  It  requires  2  tons  5  cwt.  of  good  coals  to  bum  the  above  kiln 
full  of  tiles.  Coals  are  charged  here  at  £1  8*.  per  ton,  or  1,000  brush 
faggots  will  effect  the  same  purpose,  and  cost  the  same  money ;  of 
course  some  clays  require  more  burning  than  others ;  the  stronger 
the  clay  the  less  fuel  required. 

"  The  cost  of  making,  the  sale  prices,  and  number  of  each  sort  that 
a  waggon  with  four  horses  will  carry,  are  as  follows : — 

Cost.  Sale  Price.       Waggon 

*.    d.  s.  holds — 

l-in.  pipe  tiles 4    9    per  1,000    12 

li  „  6    0  „  14 

1}  „  8     0  „  16 

2}  „  10     0 

,  20 

2}  „  12    0  „  2t 

Elliptical  tiles 





"  AU  these  tiles  exceed  a  foot  in  length  when  burnt. 

"  The  cost  price  alone  of  making  draining  tiles  will  be  the  charge 
to  every  person  making  his  oicn  tiles  for  his  otcn  use.  If  he  sell  them, 
a  higher  price  must,  of  course,  be  demanded  to  allow  for  some  profit, 
for  credit  more  or  less  long,  for  bad  debts,  goods  unsold,  &c.  &c. ; 
but  he  who  makes  his  own  saves  all  expense  of  carriage,  and,  as  his 
outlay  will  not  exceed  £50,  the  interest  on  that  sum  is  too  trifling  to 
be  regarded,  and  he  has  no  additional  rent  to  pay;  and  after  he  has 
made  as  many  tiles  as  he  wants,  his  machine  and  pug-mill  will  be 
as  good  AS  ever,  with  reasonable  care,  and  will  fetch  their  value  " 


The  Sciekce  op  BsicKscAKiyG. 

It  has  been  said  by  the  author  of  this  volume,  in  his  preface,  *.hat 
the  science  of  brickmaking  has  yet  to  be  formed  and  written. 

This  is  no  doubt  in  one  sense  true,  though  it  must  be  remarked 
that,  inasmuch  as  the  art  of  the  brickmaker  is  to  be  viewed  iu  its 
chemical  and  physical  relations  as  only  the  humblest  branch  of  that 
of  the  potter  or  porcelain  manufacturer,  the  saymg  so  is  not  to  dis- 
credit the  vast  and  wide-spread  importance  of  exact  knowledge  to 
the  brickmaker,  nor  of  the  value  of  his  universally-diffused  and  indis- 
pensable art. 

The  manufacture  of  pottery,  in  all  its  branches,  having  been  the 
subject  of  lengthened  and  important  scientific  labours  at  the  hands 
of  successive  able  men  of  science,  amongst  whom  are  Reaumur, 
Bottcher,  Brongniart,  Malaguti,  and  Salvetat,  as  well  as  of  the 
tentative  and  technological  labours  of  innumerable  manufacturers, 
amongst  whom  Cookworthy,  Chaffers,  Wall,  Wedgwood,  Minton, 
and  others  stand  pre-eminent,  in  England  alone,  it  cannot  be  said 
that  pottery  in  general  is  devoid  of  a  formed  and  established  science, 
though  very  much  remains  to  be  discovered  over  its  wide  domain  of 
theory  and  practice.  This  being  so,  and  very  much  of  the  science  of 
the  porcelain  manufactory  being  directly  applicable  and  available  in 
the  brick-field  (if  indeed  the  brickmaker  himself  possess  the  requisite 
foundation  in  general  scientific  education,  especially  in  chemistry  and 
physics),  it  is  only  true  in  one  sense  that  no  science  of  brickmaking 
yet  exists,  namely,  in  the  sense  that  the  knowledge  we  already  possess 
of  the  science  of  the  ceramic  arts  has  not  yet  been  systematised 
and  applied  in  a  special  manner  to  the  brickmaker's  art.  To  attempt 
to  supply  this  want  in  the  present  little  volume  is  impossible. 
Three  such  volumes  would  scarcely  afford  sufficient  space  to  treat  of 
the  science  of  brickmaking  in  a  systematic  and  complete  manner. 


SI  ill  it  seems  undesirable  that  in  an  elementary  outline  of  this  art 
so  little  should  have  been  given  in  the  original  text,  even  as  a  sketch, 
of  some  salient  points  which  such  science  presents.  We  shall  attempt 
iliis,  however  incompletely. 

The  brickmaker  deals  with  natural  clays  only,  the  constitution  of 
which,  when  more  or  less  ascertained  in  respect  to  his  object,  he  may 
modify  by  the  addition  of  other  mineral  bodies,  such  as  sand,  ashes, 
&c.,  or  by  the  mechanical  extraction  of  naturally-mixed  matter,  as 
sand,  pebbles,  pyrites,  &c.,  and  whose  physical  qualities  he  may  alter 
by  mechanical  means— grinding,  "slip-washing,"  Sec. 

The  choice  of  a  clay  that  shall  answer  well  for  the  brickmaker's  use 
cannot  be  made  before  trial,  by  any  amount  of  examination,  unless 
we  also  possess  a  chemical  analysis  of  the  natural  material.  Aided 
by  that,  it  is  quite  possible  upon  tempering  a  ball  of  the  clay,  observ- 
ing its  plasticity  and  body,  and  then  wetting  further  a  little  bit,  and 
rubbing  it  between  the  thumb  and  the  forefinger,  to  tell  with  a  great 
degree  of  certainty  whether  it  will  make  good  brick  or  not ;  either 
alone  or,  as  is  almost  always  the  case,  mixed  (and  so  altered)  either 
with  more  sand  or  more  tough  clay,  and  occasionally  with  coarsely- 
ground  coal,  or  breeze,  or  ashes,  &c. 

Clays  are  essentially  chemical  compounds,  and  this  is  true,  whether 
they  be  or  be  not  always  mere  mud  from  disintegrated  rocks,  as 
some  geologists  have  probably  erroneously  supposed.  They  are  in  fact 
true  hydrates,  and  have  the  general  constitution  (S  0  +  Al,  O3)  + 
H  O  ±  R  0 ;  tiie  last  or  accidental  base  or  bases  being  usually  cal- 
cium, magnesium,  manganese,  or  iron,  or  more  than  one  of  these ; 
and  they  may  be  divided  into  four  great  classes.  Pure  aluminous 
clays  and  pure  magnesian  clays,  both  hydrated  :  these  are  rare,  the 
latter  especially  so— when  indurated,  constituting  meerschaum  ;  and 
we  may  pass  them  without  further  notice  here.  They  belong,  not 
to  the  brickmaker,  but  to  the  porcelain-maker. 

More  widely  spread  for  our  use,  we  Iiave  the  ferruginous  clays, 
which  have  generally  this  combination  (Si  0  +  (Al.,  Os  -f  Fe«  0  ) 
±  Fe  0  -f  N  0  +  K  0)  +  H  0 ;  and  the  calcareous  clays  (Si  0 
+  (AU  O3  +  Fe.,  O3)  +  (Ca  0  -f  C  0,  +  lilg  0  +  C  0,)  ±  Fe  + 
N  0  +  K  0)  +  H  0.  Either  of  these  may  be  mixed  with  more  or 
less  siliceous  sand,  and  when  this  is  in  considerable  proportion  the 
clay  is  a  loam. 

At  a  red  heat  they  lose  most  of  their  combined  water,  losing  more 
nr  less  hygroscopic  water  at  212°;  and  at  a  bright  yellow  or  white 


heat,  or  rather  below  it,  they  bake  into  pottery  or  brick.  And 
while  many  of  the  clays  rich  in  alumina,  silica,  and  iron  do  not  fuse, 
or  but  very  slowly,  at  the  melting-point  of  cast-iron,  most  of  the  cal- 
careous clays  melt  at  or  below  this  temperature,  or  at  least  agglu- 
tinate, assuming  the  vitreous  texture  if  rhe  heat  be  long  contina^. 

The  following  table  contains   the  analysb  of  ten  natural  clays, 
which  gives  a  pretty  clear  notion  of  their  usual  range  of  constitu- 
tion : — 
No.  1  is  a  fuller's  earth,  analysed  by  Dr.  Thomas  Thomson. 
No.  2.  A  sandy  clay,  known  as  the  "  ball-clay  "  of  the  Potteries, 

and  used  for  salt-glazed  ware ;  analysed  by  Cowper. 
No.  3.  An  ash-white  pipe-clay. 
No.  4.  A  grey-blue  clay. 
No.  5.  A  red-brown  Glasgow  clay. 

No.  6.  A  yellow  midland  counties  clay,  used  for  brick  and  for 
Kockinghaii  pottery. 

(Ail  these  analysed  by  Cowper,  Phil.  iJag.  xxii.  p.  435.) 
No.  7.  A  marly  English  clay ;  analysed,  with  the  following,  by 

No.  8.  A  marl  from  Yitry,  Department  of  Mama ;  used  in  Paris 

No.  9.  A  German  clay  {Loeu  of  the  Rhine),  used  at  Bonn;  analysed 

by  Kjenulf. 
No.  10.  A  loam,  analysed  by  'Jr.  Ure. 








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a:       C3       O       o       o        ■* 






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""      o 



2G6  ArPEXDix. 

Most  of  these  clays,  as  found  in  nature,  contain  some  organic  matters 
and  pebbles  of  foreign  bodies.  Unless  these  are  of  hard  pyrites  or 
limestone,  they  are  unimportant.  Flinty  pebbles  can  generally  be 
crushed  in  the  clay-mill,  or  taken  out  by  the  screen  or  sieve. 

Clays  should,  if  possible,  be  delivered  into  the  brick-yard  in  their 
moist  natural  state;  for  when  they  have  been  permitted  to  dry  up 
under  a  scorching  sun  or  drying  wind,  they  shrink  and  harden 
greatly,  and  the  labour  of  mixing  into  good  brick  "stuff"  is  greater, 
and  the  plastic  mixture  not  as  free  and  nice  as  before. 

Whether  a  natural  clay  contains  much  or  little  «a?icZ  naturally  is 
not  important.  Every  clay  requires  more  or  less  grinding  and  mix- 
ing; and  when  sand  in  a  separate  form  is  at  hand,  it  is  easiest  and 
best  mixed  in  such  proportions  as  we  may  require  in  the  pug- 
mill.  Clays  naturally  very  rich  in  lime  or  in  the  alkalies  (derived 
from  felspar)  are  the  worst,  and  in  fact  a  clay  that  contains  more 
than  about  5  per  cent,  of  lime,  at  the  utmost,  is  scarcely  fitted  for 
good  brickmaking. 

If  the  lime  be  in  the  state  of  carbonate,  it  is  so  much  the  worse; 
and  if  it  exist  in  the  state  of  ditfused  limestone  or  chiUk-pehhles, 
it  is  worst  of  all ;  for  these  burn  into  caustic  lime  in  the  brick-kiln, 
and  then  as  in  after-time  the  brick  absorbs  moisture  and  carbonic  acid, 
the  contained  nodules  of  lime  "slack,"  and  swell  in  their  places, 
and  so  burst  the  brick  to  pieces.  This  is  oue  of  the  most  prevalent 
evils  of  the  ill-made  bricks  which  are  almost  universal  in  Ireland, 
arising  from  the  wide  diffusion  of  limestone  gravel  in  that  country, 
and  the  total  neglect  of  grinding  or  efficient  sifting  of  the  clay. 

Iron  pyrites  also  is  a  not  uncommon  accidental  product  present  in 
clays,  and  unless  separated,  durable,  to  say  nothing  of  well-coloured, 
brick  can  never  be  made  of  the  clay.  The  pyrites  in  the  kiln  is  but 
partially  decomposed:  oxide  of  iron  and  basic  sulphides  of  iron 
remain.  When  at  an  after-period  these  are  exposed  to  air  and  moisture, 
which  are  absorbed  to  all  depths  in  brick,  oxidation  takes  place, 
sulphate  of  iron,  and  frequently  also  sulphates  of  lime  or  alums 
(sulphates  with  double  bases),  are  formed,  and,  crystallising  within  the 
mass  of  the  brick,  split  it  to  pieces. 

Common  salt  is  nearly  always  present  in  minute  quantity  in  clays; 
but  when  these  are  taken  from  the  sea-shore,  or  without  or  beneath  tiie 
sea-washes,  or  from  localities  in  and  about  the  salt-formations  (trias), 
liicy  freq\iently,  though  in  all  other  respects  excellent  clays,  are 
unfit  for  burning  into  good  brick.     Chloride  of  sodium  is  not  only  a 


powerful  flux  when  mixed  even  in  very  small  proportion  in  clays,  but 
possesses  tlie  property  of  being  volatilized  by  the  heat  of  the  brick- 
kiln, and  in  that  condition  it  carries  with  it,  in  a  volatile  state, 
various  metallic  compounds,  as  those  of  iron,  which  exist  in  nearly  all 
clays,  and  also  act  as  fluxes.  The  result  is  that  bricks  made  of  such 
clays  tend  to  fuse,  to  warp,  twist,  and  agglutinate  together  upon  the 
surfaces  long  before  they  have  been  exposed  to  a  sufficient  or  sufii- 
ciently  prolonged  heat  to  burn  them  to  the  core  into  good  hard  brick. 
"  Place  bricks  "  can  be  made  of  such  clay,  but  nothing  more ;  and  these 
are  always  bad,  because  never  afterwards  free  from  hygrometric  moisture. 

Much  carbonaceous  matter  naturally  mixed  in  clays  is  also  in 
certain  states  objectionable,  for  when  not  burnt  completely  and  in  the 
kiln,  which  is  sometimes  with  the  denser  clays  difficult,  the  bricks 
are  of  a  different  colour  in  the  interior  and  exterior,  and  will  not  bear 
cutting  for  face-work,  without  spoiling  the  appearance  of  the  brick- 
work. But,  worse  than  this,  such  bricks  when  wetted  in  the  wall 
occasionally  pass  out  soluble  compounds  like  those  absorbed  from 
soot  by  the  bricks  of  the  flue,  and,  like  those  (when  used  again  in  new 
workj,  discolour  plastering  or  stucco-work. 

The  normal  constituents  of  brick  clays,  then,  may  be  said  to  be 
oxides  of  the  earthy  metals,  and  of  a  few  others,  hydrated  or  not, 
with  silicic  acid,  and  with  small  amounts  of  the  alkalies,  potash  and 
soda,  also  present,  together  with  several  other  chemical  elements 
occasionally,  but  uncertainly,  present  in  minute  proportions,  with  which 
we  need  not  concern  ourselves.  Silicic  acid,  the  (jreat  electro-nega- 
tive element  of  clays  when  combined  with  the  oxides  of  the  eartliy 
bases,  singly  or  in  combination,  and  exposed  to  high  temperatures 
in  certain  proportions,  forms  glass  or  enamel  (i.e.,  opaque  glasses). 
Alumina,  though  in  a  less  degree,  also  plays  the  part  of  acid  towards 
the  earthy  bases,  though  itself  a  base  with  respect  to  silicic  acid. 
As  regards  the  oxides  of  the  earthy  metals,  alumina,  lime,  magnesia, 
&c.,  these,  in  accordance  with  the  general  law  of  chemistry,  that 
bodies  in  the  same  range  combine,  oxides  with  oxides,  &c.,  also 
combine  at  high  temperatures.  The  most  powerful  bases,  such  as 
the  alkalies  or  oxides  of  potassium  and  of  sodium,  and  the  oxides  of 
iron,  combine  more  readily  with  silicic  acid  than  do  the  earthy  oxides. 
These  combinations  usually  take  the  form  of  glass  at  once,  the  chief 
characteristic  of  which  is  the  vitreous  fracture.  When  such  glasses 
are  formed  with  oxides  of  earthy  bases  also  present,  they  may  assume 
wystaiiine  or  porcellaneous  textures  when  cooled. 


Porcelain,  earthenware,  and  hard  brick  (such  as  the  Staffordshire 
or  Flintshire  blue  bricks)  coniist  in  substance  of  such  compound 
glasses,  diffuied  throughout  their  substance  uniformly,  and  binding 
together  the  finely-diffused  particles  of  the  excess  of  earthy  oxides 
which  are  present,  or  binding  together  fragmentary  bits  of  uniformly- 
diffused  silicic  acid  (sand,  ground  flint,  &c.).  The  degree  of  fusi- 
bility, or  of  partial  fusibility  (agglutination),  of  any  hard-baked  brick 
depends,  then,  not  only  upon  the  chemical  nature  of  the  constituents 
of  the  clay,  but  upon  the  proportions  in  which  these  are  present. 

The  laws,  so  far  as  they  have  been  ascertained,  upon  which  depends 
the  induration  or  agglutination  by  heat  of  silicic  and  earthy  compounds, 
with  or  without  other  metallic  oxides  present,  have  been  elicited 
from  innumerable  experiments  made  by  ceramic  chemists  upon  very 
varied  compounds.  The  phenomena  are  complex,  and  in  great  part 
as  yet  in  results  only  empirical.  "We  must  refer  for  these  to  the 
works  of  Kirwan  ("  ^Mineralogy"),  who  made  very  many  experiments 
upon  known  combinations  of  earths  when  exposed  to  heat — which 
have  not  in  England  attracted  the  attention  they  deserved — of  Achard, 
Brongniart,  Berthier,  Lampadius,  and  various  systematic  chemical 
writers.  Silica,  alumina,  lime,  magnesia,  are  all  infusible,  per  te,  at 
the  highest  temperature  of  the  porcelain  furnace  or  brick-kiln. 

Silicic  acid  combined  with  any  one  earth  is  less  fusible  than  when 
combined  with  two  or  more — a  proof  that  not  only  the  silicic  acid 
combines  with  each  earth,  but  ihat  these  in  its  presence  combine 
with  each  other.  Binary  compounds  of  silicic  acid  and  of  earths,  or 
of  earths  with  earths,  are  most  usually  infusible  except  at  still  higher 
temperatures.  Compounds  of  silicic  acid  with  alumina  are  less 
fuiible  than  with  lime,  and  these  less  so  than  with  the  alkalies. 

With  oxides  of  iron,  silicic  acid  forms  fusible  compounds  in  certain 
proportions.  Magnesia,  present  in  large  proportions  with  either  of 
the  other  earths,  produces  a  very  difficultly-fusible  compound. 
Where  the  silicic  acid  constitutes  the  largest  proportion  of  the  mass, 
it  is  much  more  fusible,  the  bases  being  iwo  others  combined,  with  or 
without  alkalies ;  but  if  the  silicic  be  in  great  excess  (as  in  Dinas 
fire-brick),  or  if  one  or  other  of  the  earthy  bases  be  in  great  excess, 
more  especially  alumina  or  magnesia,  the  mass  is  infusible  in  the 

All  difficultly-fusible  and  pulverulent  oxides,  as  when  obtained  by 
precipitation  or  by  levigation,  when  exposed  for  some  time  to  a  high 
temperature,  Wcome  hard  in  grain,  i.e.,  indurated  more  or  less,  and 


frequently  compacted.  This  is  true  eveu  of  some  pure  earths,  such 
as  alumina  aud  magnesia,  and  of  nearly  all  the  oxides  of  the  com- 
mon metals.  Compound  oxides,  when  so  exposed  to  heat,  become 
still  more  indurated  and  compact,  though  presenting  no  traces  of 
agglutination  or  of  fusion.  Thus  alumina  and  sesquioxide  of  iron 
become  compact.  This  induration,  which  is  probably  rather  a  change 
in  the  state  of  molecular  aggregation  than  a  chemical  combination, 
but  which  may  be  both,  is  much  concerned  in  the  production  oi 
certain  qualities  of  brick ;  for  example,  the  fine,  soft,  scarlet  cutting 
brick — that  which  was  so  much  employed  for  fine  facing-brick  in  the 
reign  of  William  III.,  down  to  George  II. — presents  no  sign  of 
agglutination;  its  constituents  have  merely  become  partially  indurated 
and  compacted  by  the  fire.  The  same  is  true  of  many  of  tlic  light- 
coloured  bricks  now  in  use. 

Two  sets  of  forces,  then,  are,  or  may  be,  in  play  in  the  burning 
of  brick — chemical,  and  physical  or  molecular — and  must  be  held 
in  view  by  the  scientific  brickmaker.  To  the  latter  belongs  the  con- 
traction that  takes  place  in  the  process  of  firing  of  all  porcelain  aud 
brick.  This  is  greatest  with  those  which  contain  most  alumina,  aud 
with  any  given  specimen,  is  great  not  only  in  proportion  to  the  eleva- 
tion of  tlie  temperature  to  which  it  is  exposed,  but  with  the  duration 
of  the  time  of  exposure.  It  is  least  in  compounds  in  which  the  silicic 
acid  predominates  ;  and  if  these  pass  partially  from  the  ci'ystalline  to 
the  vitreous  state  of  aggregation  in  the  firing,  the  specific  gravity  is 
reduced,  and  the  increase  of  volume  may  more  than  equal  the  contrac- 
tion. This  is  said  to  be  the  case  with  Dinas  fire-brick,  which,  when 
liighly  heated  in  furnaces  built  of  it,  is  said  to  expand. 

Were  brick  constituted  of  silicic  acid  and  pure  clays  only,  it  would 
be  perfectly  white.  Bricks,  like  porcelain,  owe  their  oolour  to  admixed 
metallic  oxides — iron  in  various  states  of  oxidation,  from  prot. 
oxide  to  sesquioxide,  or  true  chemical  combinations  of  those  with 
each  other,  or  with  the  earths  themselves,  and  present  in  the  most 
varied  proportions,  give  the  wliole  range  of  colouring  to  bricks,  from 
the  liglitest  tawny  yellow,  through  full  yellow,  orange,  and  to  the 
rich  scarlet  of  red  facing-brick,  almost  as  bright  as  red-lead.  Where 
the  proportion  of  oxide  of  iron  present  is  very  large,  and  it  com- 
bines with  silicic  acid  to  form  silicates  of  iron  in  or  on  the  brick, 
its  colour  may  be  dark  purple  or  nearly  black,  as  is  the  Staffordshire 
blue  brick ;  and  when  a  small  quantity  of  oxide  of  manganese  is 
present  also,  the  colour  is  still  darkened,  and  may  become  quite  black. 

N   3 

270  ArrENDix. 

For  light- coloured  bricks  ilie  clays  must  be  almost  free  from  iron, 
and  the  latter  must  not  be  peroiidised,  if  possible,  in  the  burning. 

For  tbe  production  of  fine  red  brick,  on  the  contrary,  the  clajs 
must  be  pure,  silicic  acid  not  present  in  excess,  oxide  of  iron 
present  in  abundant  proportion,  and  be  fully  peroxidised,  but  must 
not  be  fused  into  a  silicate  of  peroxide  of  iron,  which  is  fatal  then 
both  to  the  texture  and  colour. 

With  a  given  constitution  of  brick  clay,  the  final  colour  of  the 
burnt  brick  depends  upon  a  large  number  of  conditions  in  the  pro- 
cess of  firing,  but  mainly  upon  two — viz.,  what  proportion  of  air  be 
admitted  to  the  combustion  of  the  fuel  in  the  kiln — i.e.,  whether  the 
brick  be  finally  burnt  with  an  oxidising  or  a  deoxidising  fiame ;  and 
whether  or  not,  or  in  what  proportion,  steam  or  water  be  present  in 
the  brick,  or  be  brought  in  the  state  of  vapour  in  contact  with  it, 
when  at  elevated  temperatures. 

Upon  an  exact  knowledge  of  the  effects  producible  by  the  play 
of  these  conditions  (chiefly)  upon  the  brick  in  burning  rests  the 
power  of  the  brickmaker  to  vary  or  maintain  with  certainty  the  good 
colour  of  his  ware,  or  to  effect  any  desirable  changes  of  colour  of 
which  his  material  may  be  susceptible. 

From  this  very  incomplete  sketch  it  will  be  seen  that  brickmaking 
is  one  of  the  chemico-mechanical  arts.  Being  so,  we  ne«d  scarcely 
say  that  the  foundation  of  all  accurate  and  predictive  knowledge  of  it 
must  be  based  upon  a  sound  knowledge  of  chemistry,  and  of  the  laws 
of  physics,  and  of  heat  especially,  which  is  but  a  branch  of  the  latter. 

CoLorRED  Bricks. 

Quite  a  new  branch  of  trade  remains  to  be  opened  in  the  manufac- 
ture  of  coloured  and  intagUo  bricks,  so  treated  upon  the  one  face- 
side  only,  for  both  external  and  internal  decorative  building. 

"What  may  be  done  in  this  way  may  be  seen  in  the  Romanesque 
domes  of  the  interior  covering  of  the  great  centre  hall  of  the 
museum  building  of  Trmity  College,  Dublin,  erected,  a  few  years 
iince,  by  Messrs.  Deane  and  Woodward,  architects,  in  which  ordinary 
bricks  arc  enamelled  in  brilliant  glazed  coloms,  arranged  in  desigiis, 
upon  the  exposed  face  only. 

The  German  architects  are  generally  in  advance  of  us  in  (he  art 


of  ornamental  polyclircme  brickwork,  avoiding  those  hideous  discords 
of  colour  that  so  otFend  the  eye  in  many  of  our  London  buildings. 
See  especially  for  this  "Les  Constructions  en  Briques,  par  Louis 
Degen,  Ingenieur  de  la  Commission  Speciale  d' Architecture  de  la 
Ville  de  Munich,"  published  in  ]S65,  at  Paris.  It  is  marvellous 
how  much  beauty  the  German  brick  architects  contrive  to  extract 
out  of  tlie  judiciously-arranged  patterns  producible  from  mere  common 
brick,  combined  with  delicate  and  beautiful  harmonies  of  tint  and 

Infusoeial  Siliceous  Matebiais,  p.  22. 

The  bricks  with  which  the  arching  of  the  floor  of  the  Museum  at 
Berlin  was  built,  were  made  from  tl\is  infusorial  siliceous  and  micro- 
scopically porous  material,  mixed  with  a  certain  proportion  of  clay 
"  slip."  Many  of  the  floor  arches  of  the  Pinnacotheca,  however, 
■were  constructed  of  hollow  bricks,  in  the  form  of  frustra  of  cones, 
like  flower-pots  without  bottoms,  laid  into  place  with  plaster  or 

Materials  exist  in  Southern  Italy  in  abundance,  as  also  in  many 
other  places,  from  which  brick  of  considerable  strength  and  of  great 
lightness  might  be  readily  and  cheaply  made,  viz.,  either  from  certain 
varieties  of  volcanic  tufa  or  from  pumice-stone  detritus.  Of  the 
former  there  are  suitable  beds  close  to  Naples,  and  elsewhere  ;  of  the 
latter,  inexhaustible  supplies  exist  in  the  islands  of  Lipari,  Ischia, 
and  the  Ponza  Isles,  from  which  it  might  be  brought  wuth  facility. 

Plasticity  and  Odour  of  Clay,  p.  210. 

It  is  certainly  not  a  general  fact  that  no  chemically  pure  preci- 
pitates are  cliaracterised  by  pla-^ticity.  Precipitated  carbonate  of 
hme  and  white-lead  are  iu^tances  to  the  contrary ;  but  nearly  all 
precipitates  (especially  when  rapidly  made),  though  to  the  eye 
amorplious,  are  in  fact  crystalline,  as  Stokes  long  ago  proved  micro- 
scopically {Ditllin  Phil.  Mag.)  \  and  crystalUsed  bodies  are  often  not 

Water  Chemically  Combined  on  Mechanically  Present,  p.  212. 

Water  mechanically  present  is  one  thing,  but  water  chemically 
combined  is  another.  Hydrate  of  alumina,  in  wliich  the  water  plays 
the  part  of  base,  is  a  different  body  chemically  from  the  alumina 
dehydrated  and  separated  from  its  base  by  heat.    The  former  may 


possess  plasticity,  the  latter  not,  simply  because  the  former  has  the 
power  to  retain,  intimately  diffused  throughout  its  divided  mass 
water  in  mechanical  mixture,  while  the  latter  has  not.  This  diffused 
water  seems  to  be  the  real  cause  of  the  plasticity  of  clay  and  of  all 
plastic  precipitates ;  the  mmute,  solid,  and  rigid  particles  slip  over 
each  other,  as  it  were  upon  liquid  rollers,  just  as  two  plates  of  glass 
or  metal  slip  over  each  other  when  a  film  of  water  is  iutcrposed. 


Ainslie's  tile  machine,  109. 
Alumina,  use  of,  in  brick-earth,  14. 

Blue  brlck-i,  21. 

Breeze  detcribed,  19  n, ;  use  of,  by 
London  brickmakers,  122;  quan- 
tity required  for  100,000  bricks, 

Brick  buildings,  list  of  early,  4. 

Brick-earth,  composition  of,  14 ;  pre- 
paration of,  12. 

Brick-kilns,  Dutch,  described,  48. 

Brick-kilns,  Hoffmann's,  described, 

Brickmaking,  introduction  into  Eng- 
land by  the  Eomans,  4  ;  perfection 
of,  in  time  of  Henn'  VIU.,  4 ;  the 
science  of,  262—270. 

Brickmaking  machines  described — 
Oates's,  197  ;  Whitehead's,  216  ; 
Clayton's,  219 ;  dry-clay  machines 
— Bradley  and  Craven's,  230; 
"Wilson's,  232. 

Brick-mould  described,  28. 

Brick-pressing  machines  described  — 
Longley's,223  ;  Whitehead's,  226 ; 
Bradley  and  Craven's,  227  ;  Her- 
sev  and  Walsh's,  228. 

Bricks,  coloured,  21,  270. 

Bricks,  lirst  use  of,  1 ;  early  use  of, 
by  the  Dutch,  3 ;  application  of, 
by  the  Dutch,  47  ;  Roman  use  of, 
3 ;  repeal  of  the  duties  on,  8 ; 
schedule  of  duties  on,  7  ;  strength 
of  bricks,  9;  comparison  of  the 
strength  of  hand  and  machine- 
made  bricks,  11 ;  use  as  a  build- 
ing material  after  the  fire  of  Lon- 
don, 5. 

Bricks,  manufacture  of,  12;  various 
modes  of  manufacturing  described, 
9;  colour  of,  20  ;  influence  of  the 
chemical  composition  of  clay  on 

the  colour  of  bricks,  20 ;  variation 

in  the  weight  of,  10 ;  drying,  251 ; 

usual  form  of,  34 ;  warping  of,  33 ; 

weekly  produce  of  a  London  yard, 

37 ;    annual   manufacture   of,   in 

Great  Britain,  8. 
Bricks,  manufacture   of,  by   machi- 

nerj-,  195  ;  list  of  patents  for,  196  ; 

macliines  described,  197  ;  strength 

of  machine-made  bricks,  203. 
Bricks,  Egyptian,  2 ;  two  classes  of, 

19  ;    with   hollow   beds,  34 ;    for 

railway  work,  26. 
Burning,  process  of,  38. 

Chalk,  use  of,  in  brickmaking,  18, 

Cheshunt,  brickmaking  at,  157. 

Clamp-burning  described,  38. 

Clay,  analysis  of,  12,  115, 265  ;  com- 
position of,  13  ;  properties  of,  245 ; 
cannot  be  produced  artificially, 
246;  its  plasticity,  248—271"; 
odour  of,  250 ;  digging,  22  ;  pro- 
cess of  preparing,  24 ;  tables  of 
colour,  order  of  fusibilitv,  ic, 

Clay,  dry,  machines  for  working,  230, 

Clay,  machines  for  preparing,  212— 
215 ;  clay  crushing  and  grinding 
mill,  212  ;  pug-mill,  27,  2l3  ;  per- 
forated pug-mill,  214 ;  portable 
clay-mill,  215 ;  composite  machines 
for  crushing  and  tempering,  215. 

Clayton's  horizontal  brick  machine, 

Coal,  analysis  of,  117. 

Coal-dust,  use  of,  for  making  clamp 
bricks,  251. 

Compound  for  brick-earth,  14. 

Copper  moulds,  method  of  using,  SO 

Cupola,  40. 

Cutters,  19. 



Dense  bricks,  disadvantages  of,  3 J. 

Dinas  fire-bricks,  16 ;  manufacture 
of,  16. 

Drain-pipes,  machine  for  the  manu- 
facture of,  205 ;  manufacture  of, 
by  machinery,  195. 

Drain-tiles,  manufacture  of,  43  ; 
making  and  burning,  255  ;  cost  of, 
201 ;  machine  for  making,  256  ; 
cost  of,  256 ;  sheds  for  drying,  257 ; 
working  the  clay,  221. 

Drying,  process  of,  described,  35. 

Dutch,  their  early  use  of  bricks,  3. 

Dutch  bricks,  size  of,  43. 

Dutch  method  of  burning  bricks 
described,  50. 

Dutch  tile  kilns  described,  53;  me- 
thod of  filling  the  kilns,  53,  49 ; 
fuel  used  for,  43. 

Dutch  tiles,  method  of  making,  52  ; 
method  of  glazing,  54 ;  mode  of 
burning,  53. 

Encaustic  tiles,  manufacture  of, 
1S9  ;  colours,  production  of,  191  ; 
colouring  the  tiles,  192 ;  glazing, 
1;'3 ;  moulding,  192  ;  plain  tiles, 
193 ;  slip  described,  192. 

Fire-bricks,  15 ;  value  of,  18. 
Fire-clays,  composition  of,  15  ;  where 

found,  17. 
Floating  bricks,  21. 
Fuel  for  brickburning,  41. 
Fusible  earllis,  19. 

Cn'nding  described,  23. 

Holland,  manufacture  of  bricks  and 

tiles  in,  47. 
Hollow  bricks,  form  of,  207 ;  method 

of  asing,  illustrated,  209  ;  machine 

made,  207 ;  Roman  use  of,  207 ; 

use  of,  in  Tunis,  207. 

Kiln  described,  38 ;  circular,  40  ; 
burning  described,  39,  40. 

Lincolnshire,  brickmaking  in,  252 ; 
cost  of  production,  252. 

Tx)am«,  14. 

lyondon-made  bricks,  superiority  of, 

London,  brickmaking  in,  119  ;  pro- 
cess, 138 ;  cost,  1-39  ;  arrangement 
of  a  brickwork,  123 ;  cost  of  ma- 
terials, 1.59;  breeze,  155;  cost  of 
breeze,    159;    brick-earth,    119; 

cost  of  chalk,  159 ;  chalk  mill, 
164  ;  cLiuip  described,  144;  clamp- 
ing, 144;  foundations  of  the  clamp, 
149 ;  upright  of  ditto,  150 ;  paving, 
154;  necks,  152;  clay  described, 
120 ;  cost  of  the  clay,  159 ;  digging 
the  clay,  138 ;  quantity  of  clay 
required  for  1,000  bricks,  139 ;  clay 
washing  mill,  165  ;  use  of  chuck- 
hold,  125  ;  process  of  firing,  152 ; 
cost  of  fuel,  1-59 ;  hacking  de- 
scribed, 142;  hack  barrow,  136; 
hack  ground,  136 ;  cost  of  labour, 
162  ;  cost  of  machinery,  161 ;  pro- 
cess of  maiming,  139  ;  malm,  120; 
hand  method  of  preparing  malm, 
120;  chalk  miU  described,  123,164; 
clay  mill,  123  ;  brick  mould,  135 ; 
moulding,  141  ;  moulding-stool, 
125  ;  pallets,  136 ;  pug-mill,  123 ; 
pugging,  141 ;  cost  of  sand,  159  ; 
scintles,  154 ;  scintling,  143, 149 ; 
process  of  soiling,  140 ;  use  of  soil, 
122 ;  cost  of  soil,  159  ;  use  of  stock- 
board,  135 ;  use  of  the  strike,  136  ; 
tempering  described,  141 ;  cost  *t 
tools,  161 ;  cost  of  water,  159 ; 
cost  of  wood,  159  ;  illustrations  of 
London  brickmaking,  164. 

London  brickm.iking :  bats,  156 ; 
place  bricks,  156  ;  burnovers,  153 ; 
burrs,  156;  clinkers,  153;  cutters, 
155  ;  grizzeles,  156 ;  malms,  155 ; 
paviours,  156 ;  pickings,  156  ; 
second?,  156 ;  shufTs,  156 ;  grey 
stocks,  156 ;  rough  stocks,  156. 

London  tile  making  described,  167 ; 
block  board  described,  175 ;  build- 
ings, 170;  cby  getting,  183;  kiln, 
1S3;  kilning,  186;  illustrations 
to,  described,  1S6  ;  moulding,  184 ; 
moulding-shed,  173 ;  pantile  table, 
174;  place  grounds,  167;  plant, 
170;  roll  described,  177;  sling, 
description  of,  1 70  ;  slinging,  184 ; 
splayer,  180;  tempering,  184; 
thwacker,  183;  thwacking,  185; 
thwacking  frame,  180;  thwacking 
knife,  183;  thwacking  stool,  183; 
washing-off  frame,  178  ;  wash- 
ing-off  table,  177  ;  wealliering, 

Marls,  14. 

.Minton's  encaustic  tile  manufactory 

described,  191. 
>roulding,  process  of,  28. 
Moulding  table,  29.  • 



Norton  coal,  analysis  of,  117. 

Nottingham,  brickmaking  at,  55  ; 
process  of,  80 ;  illastrations  of, 
described,  92 ;  batting,  82 ;  cost  of 
buildings,  88;  burning  described, 
84 ;  colour,  58 ;  brick-earth,  57  ; 
cost  of  ditto,  87 ;  brick-moulds, 
70 ;  bricks,  number  made  per  day, 
84  ;  size  of  bricks,  84;  brick-yard, 
general  arrangements,  59;  clapper 
described,  73 ;  clay  digging,  80  ; 
clay  mill  described,  62 ;  dressing- 
bench,  73  ;  dressing  described, 
82 ;  dr}-ing  process,  81  ;  fiats 
described,  71;  fuel  for  the  kilns, 
86 ;  hovel  described,  61,  72 ;  kiln, 
75  ;  setting  the  kiln,  84  ;  cost 
of  setting  and  drawing  kiln,  86  ; 
cost  of  labour,  90 ;  cost  of  land, 
87  ;  machinery  for  pressing  bricks, 
74;  cost  of  machinery,  88;  cost 
of  manufacture,  87  ;  moulding  de- 
scribed, SO  ;  moulding  sand,  68  ; 
moulding  table,  68  ;  plane  de- 
scribed, 71;  polished  bricks,  83; 
pressed  bricks,  83  ;  tempering  de- 
scribed, 07,  80 ;  cost  of  tools,  90 ; 
wash  mill  described,  66. 

Oates's  brickmaking  machines,  196  ; 

cost  of,  204 ;   rate  of  production, 

Ornamental  brickwork,  examples  of, 


I'allet  moulding  described,  29. 
Paving  tiles,  42. 
Pressed  bricks,  defects  of,  33. 
Prosser's  method  of   making  bricks, 

Pug-mill  described,  27. 

Red  bricks,  21. 

Refractory  clays,  composition  of,  15. 

Roofing  tiles,  42. 

Sand,  object  of  using,  li:2. 

.'^ilica,  use  of,  in  brickmaking,  14. 

Slip  kiln,  32  n. 

Slop  moulding  described,  28. 

Soil,  term  described,  27  ». 

Staffordshire  brickmaking  described, 
95,  97  ;  buildings  described,  97  ; 
burning,  99;  clay,  described,  95; 
cost  of  manufacture,  101 ;  drying, 
99 ;  firing,  109  ;  illustrations, 
102;    moulding,  98,   103;    oven 

described,  100 ;  plant  described, 
97  ;  rate  of  production,  97  ;  rental, 
101 ;  specific  gravity  of  the  bricks, 
when  raw,  dried,  and  burned, 
99  ;  tempering,  97  ;  weight  of  the 
bricks,  99 ;  arrangements  of  yard, 

Staffordshire  tile  making,  105 ;  class 
of  tiles  made,  95 ;  drain  tiles, 
108  ;  drying,  107  ;  manner  of 
drying.  111;  firing,  113;  illustra- 
tions to,  described.  111 ;  machines 
for  making,  108  ;  moulding,  107  ; 
moulding  bench  described.  111; 
pug-mill  described,  106 ;  setting 
described,  108;  tempering,  106; 
weathering,  106. 

Stourbridge  clay,  151, 

Striking  tlie  clay,  28. 

Suffolk,  brickmaking  in,  252;  burn- 
ing, 253  ;  clay,  253 ;  drying,  253  ; 
cost  of  manufacture,  254  ;  mould- 
ing, 253 ;  cost  of  plant,  254 ;  tem- 
pering, 253. 

Table  of  analysis  of  different  kinds 
of  clay,  13  n. ;  of  analysis  of 
Norton  coal,  117;  of  analysis  of 
Staffordshire  clays,  115;  of  the 
colour  of  Staffordshire  clays,  116  ; 
of  the  cost  of  1,000  bricks,  London 
make,  162  ;  of  the  cost  of  London- 
made  pantiles  per  1,000,  187;  of 
the  cost  and  profit  on  1,000  Not- 
tingham-made bricks,  91 ;  of  the 
cost  and  selling  price  of  Stafford 
quarries,  dust  bricks,  and  roof 
tiles.  111  ;  of  the  fusibilitv  of 
Staffordshire  clays,  116;  of  the 
price  of  fire-bricks  of  various 
manufactures,  18 ;  showing  the 
proportion  of  bases  contained  in 
Staffordshire  clays,  ]16;  of  llie 
relative  value  of  different  quilities 
of  bricks  Nottingham  make,  91  ; 
of  the  selling  price  of  London- 
made  tiles,  187;  of  space  required 
for  each  moulding-stool  by  eitlicr 
process,  37  ;  of  loss  of  weiglit  in 
drying  and  burning,  99;  of  the 
strength  of  hand  and  machine- 
made  bricks,  11. 
Taxes  upon  bricks,  6;  repeal  of  the, 

Tempering,  25 ;    process  described, 

I       27. 

]   Terra-cotta,  early  use  of,  5. 

I   TessMse,    Clinton's,    193 ;     Roman 



process  described,  lOS  ,  modern 
process  described,  194. 

Tile-burning,  44,  255. 

Tile-kilns,  construction  of,  183, 189, 
257  ;  in  Holland,  C3. 

Tile-making  in  England,  42 ;  in 
Holland,  52 ;  in  Staffordshire, 
105  ;  in  London,  167. 

Tile-making  machines,  Ainslie's,  109; 
Hatcher's, 256;  Page's,233;  White- 
head's, 2'M. 

Tile-moulding,  184. 

Tileries,  London,  167  ;  Staffordshire, 

Tiles,  encaustic,  manufacture  of,  189. 

Tiles,  manufacture  of,  42  ;  schedule 
of  duties  on,  7  ;  cost  of  manufac- 
ture, 186 ;  manufacture  of,  in 
Holland,  52. 

Tower  of  Babel,  btirot  bricks  used  in 
building,  1. 

I'nsoiling,  22. 

Utrecht,  principal  seat  of  tile  mw.u- 
facture  in  Holland,  54. 

Ventilating  bricks,  35. 

Washing  described,  24. 
Weathering,  process  of.  22. 
White  bricks,  21. 
Whitehead's   brickmaking  machine, 

216  ;  brick-pressing  machine,  226 ; 

clay  crushing  and  grinding  mill, 

212  ;    perforated  pug-mill,    214  ; 

tile-making  machine,  234. 
Wilson's    drj-cla\'    brick    machine, 

Wooden  moulds,  method  of  usiag, 

30.  * 

Yellow  bricks,  21. 


LONUO.-.  :    ll.l.N'lLD   DV  J.  6.  VIUILK   .\.\U   CO.,  LIMITLU,   CllV    UOAU. 










crrnxG,  and  setting;  different  kinds  of 












The  object  of  this  little  work  is  to  assist  young 
beginners  and  others  who,  though  in  the  trade 
many  years,  have  not  had  the  opportunity  of 
seeing  so  much  of  the  higher  branches  of  practice 
as  they  might  desire.  I  also  trust  it  will  not  be 
thought  unworthy  the  notice  of  the  more  skilful 

The  language  I  have  used  is  as  simple  as  the 
subject  would  allow,  and  the  terms  used  are  those 
well  understood  in  the  trade ;  for  it  is  to  be 
regretted  that  the  greater  number  of  books  upon 
"  building  construction "  are  written  in  such 
terms  that  it  is  very  difficult  for  the  majority 
of  working  men  to  understand  their  meaning 
without  continually  referring  to  a  technical 

In  speaking  of  foundations,  I  have  said  nothing 
of  those  which  are  formed  in  soft  situations,  upon 
piles,  or  woodwork  of  any  description  ;  for  in  such 
cases  the  bricklayer  has  nothing  to  do  with  the 
work  until  the  foundation  is  made. 


I  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  tlie  methods 
here  employed  in  drawing  and  cutting  arches, 
also  in  mixing  the  materials  and  executing  the 
difFerent  sorts  of  pointing,  are  practically  the 
best,  and  those  generally  adopted  by  the  most 
experienced  workmen. 

For  the  sake  of  those  who  have  not  had  an 
opportunity  of  learning  Geometry  and  Mensura- 
tion, such  problems  are  given  as  are  generally 
required  in  bricklaying. 

The  tables,  and  also  the  quantities  of  materials, 
have  been  carefully  calculated  ;  and  during  the 
eighteen  years  I  have  been  in  practice  I  have 
proved  them  correct. 

Adam  Hammond. 


The  author  views  with  satisfaction  the  extensive 
sale  of  this  little  work,  and  also  the  favour  with 
which  it  is  generally  received,  having  already 
run  through  four  editions  since  its  publication. 

The  present  edition  has  undergone  a  thorough 
revision,  and  various  additions  and  corrections, 
thought  necessary  for  the  improvement  and 
utility  of  the  work,  have  been  made  throughout. 

A.   II. 

London,  August,  1884. 





Foundations 1 

Concrete  and  Concreting 3 

Drains       ......         ....  4 

Footings 4 

Bonding — 

Old  English 5 

Flemish  Bond G 

Broken  Bond 8 

Herringhone  Bonding        ......  8 

Douhle  Herringhone  Bonding 10 

Garden-wall  Bond     .         .         .  .         .         .10 

Damp  Courses 11 

Air  Bricks ,         ..11 

Wood  and  Iron  Bonding 11 

Joints ....  12 

Window  Sills 13 

Ruhhle  "Work 14 

Brick  and  Stone  combined 15 

Limes,  Cements,  &c. — 

Blue  Lias  Lime 16 

Dorking  and  Hailing  Limes 16 

Chalk  Lime 17 




Limes,  Cements,  Sec, 

Cements     . 


Portland  Cement 


AVood  Bricks    . 






Thick  and  Thin  Joints- 

-their  Evils . 


Profiles     . 


.       20 


.       21 



Plain  Arches 23 

Ased  Arches 24 

Gauge-work      .........  25 

Various  Arches  used  in  the  Building  Trades — 

The  Semi-circular 26 

The  Segment 26 

The  Camher .         .  26 

The  Gothic 26 

The  Elliptic  Gothic 27 

The  Scmi-ellip.«e 27 

Drawing  Arches — 

The  Semi-circular 29 

The  Segment 31 

The  Camber  Arch 32 

The  Gothic 35 

The  Reduced  or  Modified  Gothic       ....  36 

The  Ellipse  Gothic 37 

The  Semi-ellipMs 39 

The  Wheel  Arch,  or  Bull's  Eye         ....  41 

Moulding          .........  42 

Setting 44 

Axed  Work 46 





Stock  Work  with  the  "White  Joint 47 

Yellow  Stopping       ........  48 

White  Putty     .                           48 

Eed  Brickwork .51 

Red  Stopping   .         .                   ......  61 

AVhite  Brickwork 62 

Black  Putty 62 

Kcd  Putty 53 

Old  Brickwork 53 

Flat-joint  Pointing 54 



Paving — 

Brick  Paving 
Plain  Pa\'ing 
Tile  Paving 

Roofing  Tiles 
Plain  Tiling 


Relieving  Arches 

Bakera'  0\ens  . 

Smoky  Chimneys— their  Causes,  &c 

To  proporlion  Windows  to  Rooms 

Materials— their    Use,     &c.— Memoranda     and 

showing  the    Quantities     of    Materials    required    for 
various  Kinds   of  Work— their  Weight,  &c. 





o                  . 
















Description  of  Slater's  Work     .... 

Gauge,  "  Lap  "  Margin,  &c 

Table  of  Sizes  and  Gauges  of  Roofing  Slates 

Slater's  Scaffold 

Plasterer — 

Plasterer's  Work 

Lime  and  Hair,  or  Coarse  Stutf . 

Fine  Stuff,  or  Putty  .... 

The  Operations  of  Plastering    ... 

Bough  Stucco    .... 

Laid  Work        ... 

Cement  Floors 

Plaster  and  Welsh  Lime  Floors 

Memoranda  of  Materials  and  Quantities  required  for 
different  Kinds  of  Plastering 

Artificial  Stone 

Distempering  of  Ceilings,  Walls,  &c. 







Geometry  .........       84 

Problem     I. — From  a  given  point  in  a  straight  line  to 

erect  a  perpendicular  .        .        .87 

When    the  point  is   at  the  end  of  the 

line 88 

,,  II. — Fpon  a  given  right  line  to  describe  an 

equilateral  triangle         .         .         .         .       8S 



Problem  III. — To  describe  a  triangle,  having  tlie  length  of 

the  three  sides  given  ....  89 
„  rV. — To  find  the  centre  of  a  given  circle  .  .  89 
,.  V. — To  describe  a  regular  pentagon  upon   a 

given  line 89 

„        VI. — To  describe   a  regular  hexagon  upon   a 

given  line 90 

Table  of  Polygons  showing  an  easy  Method  of  di-awiug 
any  Polygon,  from  Five  to  Twelve  Sides,  the  Length  of 
the  Side  or  Diameter  of  circumscribing  Circle   being 

given 90 

Description  of  the  above  Table,  with  Examples         .         .       91 
Problem    VII. — To    describe    an    eUipsis,    ha\-ing    the 

longest  diameter  given       ...      92 
Another  method  of  describing  an  ellipse      93 
„         VIII. — To  describe  a  circle  about  any  triangle .       93 
.,  IX. — To  inscribe  a  circle  within  a  triangle     .       94 

..  X. — In  a  given  circle  to  inscribe  a  square     .       94 

■  I  XI. — In  a  given  circle,  to  inscribe  any  regular 

polygon ;  or,  to  divide  the  circumfer- 
ence of  a  given  circle  into  any  number 

of  equal  parts 94 

„  XTI. — To  draw  a   straight  line  equal  to  any 

given  arc  of  a  circle    ....       95 
„         XIII. — To  make  a  square  equal  in  area  to  a 

given  circle         .         .         ,         .         .       95 


Duodecimals .       96 

Decimal  Fractions  .97 

Subtraction  of  Decimals  .99 

Multiplication  of  DecimiUs  .99 

Division  of  Decimals 100 

Uow  Brickwork  is  measured — with  Examples  .         .  .101 

To  find  the  Contents  of  Chimneys  and  Chimney  Shafts  .     loa 




Cfaimiiej  Shafts  in  the  Form  of  a  Circle  . 

When  the  Shaft  is  in  the  Form  of  a  Bcgular  Polygon 

Table  for  measuring  PolygoHS  ..... 

Vaulting  .....  .         . 

Groins       ..... 

Bakers'  Ovens  ....  ... 

A  Table  of  Brickwork,  showing  an  Cds y  Method  of  flnding 
the  Quantity  of  l?eet  and   Bricks  contained  in  any 
Nimiber  of  Supeificial  Feet,  from  1  foot  to  10.000  Feet, 
by  Addition  only  ...  ...     106 

Explanation  of  Table        .  .         .     107 

Mensuration  of  G-auge-work     .        .  .114 

Old  and  new  Bricks  stacked  in  Bollfi  .114 

Short  and  useful  Table     ....  .114 

Tiling  and  Slating    ...  .114 

Paving 11.5 

Plastering ll.5 






The  Business  of  a  Bricklayer  not  only  consists  in 
the  execution  of  all  kinds  of  brickwork,  but  it 
also  includes  rough  stonework  or  "walling," 
paving,  and  tiling,  both  plain  and  ornamental ; 
and  (in  many  parts  of  the  country)  slating 
and  plastering  is  united  with  the  above-nam«i|^ 
business.  The  bricklayer  also  superintends  all 
excavations  and  concreting  for  ordinary  building 

In  preparing  for  the  erection  of  most  buildings 
the  first  things  required  are  the  plans,  elevations, 
sections,  &c.,  and  upon  these  too  much  care 
cannot  be  bestowed  so  that  the  foreman  may 
get  them  thoroughly  impressed  upon  his  mind, 
for  by  so  doing  very  many  mistakes  will  be 


The  ground  should  be  set  out  from  a  given 
line,  such  as  the  face-line  of  the  building,  and 
wood  stakes  driven  into  the  ground  on  which  to 



strain  the  different  lines.  Great  care  is  required 
in  squaring  out  the  foundation  trenches  so  that 
the  brickwork  (when  built)  shall  stand  in  the 
centre  of  them,  and  not  all  on  one  side  of  the 
trench  and  none  on  the  other,  which  is  but  too 
frequently  the  case,  for  the  greatest  care  is 
usually  taken  when  the  icaU  line  is  drawn. 

The  sides  of  the  trenches  ought  to  be  upright, 
so  that  there  is  not  a  less  area  for  the  concrete 
at  the  bottom  than  at  the  top :  for  upon  this 
depends  the  strength  of  the  superstructure. 

Should  the  ground  be  **  an  incline  plane,'^  or 
unlevcl,  it  is  much  better  to  bench  the  ground 
carefully  out — that  is,  cut  out  the  bottom  of  the 
trench  in  horizontal  steps.*  The  concrete  will 
then  be  of  a  more  uniform  thicknes?,  and  the 
settlement  of  the  building  will  be  more  regular, 
as  nearly  all  buildings  are  built  with  materials 
that  will  settle  little  or  much,  and  it  does  not  so 
much  matter  as  long  as  the  settlement  is  perfectly 
regular,  but  the  evil  effects  are  seen  when  it  is 
greater  in  one  part  than  in  another,  and,  in  con- 
crete as  well  as  brickwork,  the  greater  the  thick- 
ness the  more  will  be  the  settlement. 

It  is  usual  to  drive  stakes  in  the  bottom  of  the 

trenches   to    show   the   level   of  concrete ;    but 

perhaps  it  would  be  better,  if  possible,  to  drive 

these  stakes  in  the  sides  of  the  trenches,  leaving 

just  enough  projecting  out  to  level  them  with, 

for  very  often  by  shooting  the  concrete  into  the 

•  Taking  care  that  each  step  shall  be  3,  6,  9,  or  12  inches 
above  the  next  lower  one  if  the  work  above  is  to  be  built 
4  couTBee  to  the  foot. 


trench  the  stakes  are  knocked  further  into  the 
ground  and  the  concrete  levelled  to  them,  thereby 
causing  a  great  deal  of  trouble  when  the  brick- 
work is  begun. 


The  "  limes  "  generally  used  for  concreting  in 
this  country  are  obtained  from  Dorking  in 
Surrey,  and  Rochester  in  Kent,*  besides  other 
places  where  the  grey  limestone  is  to  be  obtained. 

This  lime  is  ground  and  mixed  with  ballast 
while  in  a  powdered  state  ;  it  is  then  wetted  and 
turned  over  twice,  to  mix  them  well  together ; 
this  is  then  wheeled  in  barrows  to  an  elevated 
position  and  thrown  into  the  trenches,  and  after- 
wards levelled  to  receive  the  brickwork.  This 
kind  of  concrete  is  mixed  in  the  proportions  of 
one  part  of  lime  to  six  or  seven  parts  of  gravel. 
Although  this  kind  of  concrete  is  very  much 
used  in  and  about  London,  it  is  considered  a  very- 
imperfect  method,  although  economical  as  regards 
the  labour :  it  proves  most  expensive  in  the 
material,  for  if  the  work  was  properly  executed 
it  would  not  require  nearly  so  much  of  the  latter. 

The  method  of  concreting  which  is  thought  by 
most  engiueers  to  be  the  best  is,  to  reduce  the 
lime  to  the  state  of  a  thick  paste,  and  tlien  it  is 
made  into  a  soft  mortar  by  mixing  about  an 
equal  quantity  of  sand  with  it  before  it  is  mixed 
with  the  gravel ;  and  instead  of  shooting  it  down 
from  a  height  and  leaving  it  to  settle  by  itself,  it 

•  This  ia  open  to  local  circumstances. 



ought  to  be  wheeled  in  upon  a  level  and  beaten 
with  a  rammer ;  for  it  is  thought  by  being 
thrown  from  a  height  the  materials  separate,  and 
by  so  doing  some  parts  get  more  lime  than  they 
ought  to  have,  while  others  get  but  very  little. 

Of  course  this  kind  of  artificial  foundations  is 
not  required  where  there  is  a  natural  one,  such 
as  a  bed  of  rock,  hard  gravel,  or  anything  that  is 
thought  sound  enough  to  sustain  the  weight  of 
the  building. 


As  soon  as  the  concreting  is  completed,  all 
levels  should  be  taken  for  the  drains,  &c.,  so  that 
the  brickwork  is  not  cut  about  afterwards  ;  and 
if  the  pipes  are  very  large  it  would  be  better  to 
leave  out  the  brickwork  so  that  they  may  be 
fixed  after  the  work  has  had  time  to  settle.  And 
if  a  small  arch  of  brick  is  turned  over  each  of 
these  pipes,  it  will  be  found  very  convenient 
should  they  want  repairing  or  cleaning  at  any 


In  all  buildings  of  any  importance  it  is  usual 
to  build  a  certain  number  of  courses  as  footings 
(as  shown  in  Fig.  1)  to  give  the 
walls  a  greater  bearing ;  and 
where  the  building  is  principally 
constructed  with  piers,  such  as 
a  great  many  warehouses,  &c., 
inverted  arches  are  turned  for 
the  purpose  of  distributing  the  weight  over  the 



1     1 


III      1 

1     1     1     J 


whole   length   of    the   foundation,  as   shown   in 
Fisr.   2.      Sometimes    these   are    formed   in   the 

Fig.  2. 

footing  courses,  but  generally  upon  the  top  of  the 



The  next  thing  of  importance  is  the  bonding 
of  the  brickwork,  of  which  a  great  deal  may  be 
said,  for  this  is  a  very  important  part  of  brick- 

Old  English  is  that  which  is  used  in  nearly  all 
buildings  where  strength  is  the  principal  object, 
as  it  is  the  strongest  of  any,  on  account  of  the 
greater  quantity  of  "  headers "  used,  and  also 
because  there  are  less  broken  bricks  required  to 
fill  in  with. 

But  the  appearance  is  not  considered  so  neat  as 
Flemish  bond. 

Figs.  3  and  4  show  two  successive  courses  of 
Old  English  bond  :  in  all  cases  the  inside  headers 
and  stretchers  should  be  opposite  those  of  the 
same  names  on  the  outside  {i.e.  a  is  opposite  b, 
Fig.  3).  If  this  rule  is  strictly  adhered  to,  there 
will  always  be  correct  quarter  bond  throughout 
the  whole  thickness  of  the  wall. 

Very   often   but   little   attention    is    paid     to 


the  middle  of  the  \call,  so   long  as  the  faces  are 







I     I     I     1 

ri?.  3. 

lip.  4. 

kept   right,    although    it   is    of    quite   as   much 

Figs.  5  and  6  show  the  bonding  of  the  face  and 

iig.  6. 

1  iL-.  6. 

end  of  what  is  called  an  18-inch,  or  two-brick 
wall,  in  Old  English  bond. 

Flemish  Bond  (Fig.  7)  is  very  much  used  for 
house  building,  owing  to  ita 
neater  appearance.  But  very 
often  the  inside  of  the  house 
is  Old  English ;  and  when  the 
walls  are  built  in  this  manner, 
the  heading  bricks  of  the  Fle- 
mish work  are  halved  ("  bats,"  as  they  are  more 
generally  called)  every  second  course ;  and  by  so 


I I 




doing  the  inside  of  the  wall  gets  a  half-brick  tie 
into  the  face  -work. 

In  Flemish  bond  the  headers  and  stretchers 
are  laid  in  turns  in  each  course,  as  shown  in 
Fig.  7. 

In  all  cases  where  quoins  are  to  be  got  up  at 
different  parts  of  the  building,  gauge-rods  should 
be  used  after  the  work  has  been  levelled,  and  a 
nail  or  something  of  the  kind  knocked  into  the 
work  at  the  level  of  which  it  is  intended  to  gauge 

If  this  is  not  done,  different  bricklayers  will 
raise  their  work  some  more  and  some  less  than 
the  others,  thereby  causing  the  work  to  get  out 
of  level. 

If  it  be  possible  every  man  ought  to  be  kept 
on  his  own  work  ;  then  he  is  more  likely  to  take 
an  interest  in  that  particular  part.  But  if  they 
are  not,  when  one  man  goes  on  to  another's  work 
there  is  often  a  great  deal  of  fault-finding,  and  if 
the  work  is  wrong  it  is  simply  impossible  to  15 nd 
out  who  it  was  that  did  it. 

Architects  are  generally  under  the  impression 
that  the  bricks  used  in  and  about  London  are 
something  under  9  inches  in  length,  4^  inches 
wide,  and  2^  inches  thick ;  the  thickness  may  be 
about  right,  but  the  other  dimensions  are  decidedly 
wrong.  This  causes  a  great  deal  of  trouble  to 
the  bricklayer  when  working  to  plans ;  because 
he  is  asked  to  build  a  wall  (for  instance)  eighteen 
inches  thick,  the  regular  bond  of  a  two-brick  wall, 
which  is  impossible  to  do  without   cutting   the 


bricks,  as  they  are  from  nine  inches  to  n>ne  inches 
and  a  quarter  in  length,  and  never  less  than  the 

Again,  as  regards  the  width  of  the  brick,  if  it 
were  4j  inches,  it  would  be  impossible  to  build, 
say,  a  9-uich  wall,  giving  it  the  proper  waU-joint,* 
without  sailing  the  stretching  course  over  ;  which, 
of  course,  is  against  all  rule. 

This  is  the  reason  (the  bricks  being  only  A\ 
inches  wide)  that  bricklayers  have  to  cut  so  many 
three-quarters,  or  long  bats,  in  face- work,  to  keep 
the  cross-joints'  quarter-bond  on  the  stretcLers. 

Broken  Bond. — A  great  deal  of  this  might  be 
done  away  with  if  the  plans  were  got  out  to  suit 
the  bricks  more  than  they  usually  are ;  for  very 
often  we  see  pairs  between  openings  sixteen, 
twenty,  and  thirty  inches  in  length,  without  the 
least  regard  to  what  the  bricks  will  work ;  thereby 
causing  a  great  quantity  of  brick  to  be  wasted, 
more  labour,  and  then  the  work  is  nothing  near 
so  strong  as  if  the  work  had  been  arranged  so 
that  the  bricks  would  work  without  cutting  them. 

It  is  very  necessary,  when  laying  the  first 
course  on  the  footings,  that  all  doorways,  windows, 
and  other  openings,  should  be  measured,  and  the 
bond  properly  set  out,  so  that  there  is  no  diffi- 
culty when  the  work  is  up,  ready  to  receive  them, 
and  the  perpends  t  are  kept  throughout  the 
height  of  the  building. 

Herringbone  Bonding,  as  shown  in  Fig.  7a,  is 

•  Three-eighths  of  an  inch  between  the  bricks, 
t  The  cross  joints  in  a  perpendicular  line. 



greatly  used  for  cores  of  arches  and  other  places 
where  something  different  to  the  regular  plain 
work  is  required  in  the  shape  of  ornamentation. 
But  it  has  but  very  little  tie  with  the  inside  work. 
This  work  should  be  begun   and  continued  with 

the  set  square  of  45  degrees ;  and  if  the  bricks 
are  all  of  one  length,  the  joints  will  all  cut 
straight  with  one  another,  showing  so  many 
oblique  lines  at  an  angle  of  45  degrees  with  the 
horizontal  from  where  the  herringbone  started; 
that  is,  place  the  set  square  upon  the  base-line 
A  B,  Fig.  7  A,  in  such  a  manner  that  the  right 
angle  of  the  square  shall  be  uppermost  and  the 
longest  side  upon  the  line,  and  as  it  is  drawn 
along  from  a  to  b,  or  from  b  to  a  (if  the  work 
is  right),  it  will  cut  in  a  line  with  the  joints  c  d, 
E  F,  &c.,  and  as  the  work  proceeds  it  will  be 
necessary  to  either  hold  up  a  levelled  straight- 
edge and  work  the  square  upon  it,  or  otherwise 
draw  a  line  perfectly  level,  and  so  hold  the 
square  to  it. 

But  to  do  this  kind  of  work   properly,  it  is 

really  necessary  that  every  hick  sJwuId  be  of  one 

length,  that  is,  what  three  courses  of  bricks  will 

measure  upright  when  laid  temporarily  with  joints 



the  same  thickness  as  those  required  for  the 
herringboning.  If  the  joints  are  to  be  small 
very  often  the  bricks  will  have  to  be  cut  short, 
and  this  gives  it  a  better  appearance  than 
having  thick  joints,  and,  beside,  it  is  much 
stronger  work  if  it  is  well  grouted  in  at  the 
back.  But  in  all  cases  let  the  grout  be  of  the 
same  kind  as  the  work  is  built  with. 

Fig.  8  represents  another  style  of  herringbone. 
This  is  called  "  Double  Herringbone"  on  account 

of  two  bricks  being 
worked  instead  of  one, 
as  shown  in  Fig.  7a. 
The  working  of  this  is 
much  the  ^ame  aa 
Fig.  7a,  but  perhaps  a 
little  more  difficult  in 
the  arrangement  of  the  bricks  ;  nevertheless  the 
joints  must  cut  one  with  another  just  the  same  as 
the  "  perpends "  of  plain  brickwork.  If  the 
bricks  are  cut  to  8|  inches  in  length  the  work 
will  show  a  neat  joint,  and  there  will  be  less 
trouble  in  keeping  the  work  right.  But  it  is  very 
frequently  done  without  any  care  being  taken  to 
get  the  bricks  to  suit  the  work,  or  to  keep  them 
in  their  proper  places  while  laying  them. 

Garden  Wall  Bond,  as  it  is  generally  called, 
is  that  which  is  in  practice  usually  when  build- 
ing 9-inch  walling,  which  requires  to  be  faced 
on  both  sides ;  and  as  the  headers  cause  an  un- 
sightly appearance  if  worked  through  too  often, 
on    account    of    their    different    lengths,    it    is 


usual  to  work  three   "  stretchers "  between  two 
**  headers,"  instead  of  one,  as  in  Flemish  bond. 

Damp  Courses. 

As  soon  as  the  work  is  above  ground  it  ought  to 
receive  a  course  of  something  to  prevent  the  damp 
from  rising  up  into  the  walls,  and  for  this  purpose 
asphalte  is  often  used  to  cover  the  walls.  But  where 
this  is  difficult  to  be  obtained  a  clouhle  course  oj 
slates  bedded  in  Portland  cement  will  generally 
answer  the  same  purpose ;  but  they  must  be  so 
bonded,  that  no  two  joints  shall  be  over  each 
other  to  allow  the  dampness  to  rise  between  them. 

Air  Bricks. 

"Where  the  ground-floors  of  the  building  are  to 
be  laid  with  boards,  air  bricks  should  be  built  in 
the  face  of  the  walls,  and  a  passage  left  through, 
so  that  the  air  can  freely  circulate  under  the 
floors,  and  by  leaving  two  or  three  bricks  out  in 
difierent  places  of  the  inside  or  parting  walls  to 
any  part  of  the  building  where  required. 

Wood  and  Iron  Bonding. 

In  addition  to  the  regular  bonding  of  brickwork, 
as  before  described,  a  further  security  is  sometimes 
provided  in  the  form  of  bond  timber  ;  that  is,  long 
lengths  of  wood  cut  to  the  form  of  a  4|-inch 
course  of  bricks,  and  so  laid  throughout  the  length 
of  the  walls  to  answer  as  a  longitudinal  tie,  and 
also  to  keep  the  pairs  between  openings  steady 
until  the  work  is  thoroughly  set. 


But  of  late  years  this  has  been  superseded  to 
a  great  extent  by  hoop-iron,  both  on  account  of 
the  wood  shrinking  when  it  gets  dry  and  so 
causing  the  work  to  settle,  also,  in  case  of  fire, 
to  have  material  in  the  building  as  little  inflam- 
mable as  possible. 

The  hoop-iron  is  laid  at  different  stages 
throughout  the  whole  building.  This  is  sometimes 
tarred  and  drawn  through  sand,  to  protect  the 
iron  from  contact  with  the  mortar  ;  but  it  is  more 
frequently  laid  between  courses  of  bricks,  and 
built  with  Portland  cement,  without  being  tarred. 


It  is  very  necessary  that  all  joints  should  be 
kept  of  one  thickness  ;  for  if  one  piece  of  brick- 
work is  raised  with  thick  bricks  and  another  with 
thin  (as  it  often  is  when  two  sorts  of  bricks  are 
used — one  for  outside  and  the  other  for  inside) 
the  work  done  with  the  thickest  joints  will  settle 
more  than  the  other,  thereby  causing  the  wall  to 
overhang  or  batter :  this  is  the  case  with  mortar 
joints.  Cement  acts  in  the  reverse  manner,  on 
account  of  its  sxcelling  properties ;  therefore  in 
both  cases  it  is  considered  very  unsound  work. 

Portland  cement  having  this  stceUing  property, 
it  is  well  adapted  for  underpinning  old  walls, 
where  the  ground  has  been  taken  out  for  cellars, 
&c.,  below  the  foundations ;  but  slate  ought  not 
to  be  driven  into  the  joint  between  the  old  and 
new  work  for  the  purpose  of  wedging  it  tight, 
for  the  cement  will  not   take  hold  of  the   slate 


to  any  great  extent;  besides,  if  the  joint  is  well 
filled  up  with  cement,  it  will  expand  sufficiently 
to  wedge  itself  perfectly  tight. 

Window  Sills. 

Where  these  are  of  stone,  it  is  much  better  to 
leave  the  brickwork  out  at  the  reveals  just  large 
enough  so  that  the  sill  can  be  fixed  after  the 
brickwork  is  up  and  settled ;  if  not,  the  weight 
of  the  brickwork  upon  each  end  of  it  will  very 
likely  break  the  sill,  owing  to  the  greater  settle- 
ment of  the  work  between  the  windows  (where 
there  are  the  greater  number  of  mortar  joints) 
than  there  is  directly  underneath  the  sill. 

Bricks  ought  to  be  well  wetted  in  summer  time, 
80  as  to  exclude  the  air  which  fills  up  the  pores ; 
but  be  careful  that  they  are  not  wet  if  there  is  any 
likelihood  of  frost,  as  it  takes  fast  hold  of  work  that 
is  damp,  not  only  causing  the  joints  to  burst  out, 
but  sometimes  greatly  disturbing  the  bricks. 

All  walls  ought  to  be  thoroughly  "flushed"  up 
every  successive  course  with  soft  mortar  or 
cement,  as  the  case  may  be.  This  is  sometimes 
preferred  to  "  grout,"  because  the  latter,  being  so 
much  thinner,  will  naturally  shrink  more  when 
setting ;  so,  if  there  is  the  proper  wall-joint,  there 
is  little  doubt  but  what  the  mortar- flushing  makes 
the  soundest  work.  There  is  a  common  but  very 
evil  practice  in  many  places  of  building  walls  with 
mortar  and  afteruards  grouting  them  in  tcith  Port- 
land cement  mixed  with  sand.  Where  this  is  the 
case,  the  weight  of  the  building  must  be  con- 


Bidered  as  standing  upon  the  grout  alone,  for  it  is 
well  known  "  that  cement  swells  and  mortar  shrinks;" 
therefore,  whenever  the  cement  grout  runs  under 
the  bricks,  it  will  surely  lift  them  off  the  mortar 
bed ;  and,  instead  of  strengthening  the  work, 
it  has  a  great  tendency  to  weaken  it.  Great 
care  should  be  taken,  in  building  walls  of  any 
considerable  length,  that  the  line  is  kept  perfectly 
straight  from  end  to  end  ;  because  if  the  line  is 
drawn  tight  one  course  and  another  loose,  there 
will  be  "  brick  and  brick  "  in  some  places,  and  a 
thick  joint  in  others,  which  gives  the  work  a  very 
bad  appearance.  In  fact  the  line  ought  to  be 
"  loohed  through  "  every  course. 

Rubble  "Work. 

In  many  parts  of  England  rubble  work  is  done 
to  a  great  extent  with  flint  and  other  stones  ; 
and  in  such  cases  it  is  usual  to  have  brick  quoins, 
and  these  are  generally  "  ashlarcd,"  as  shown  in 
Fig.  9.  In  London  this  name  is  applied  to 
stone- facing. 

Although  flint-stones  are  not  so  well 
adapted  for  works  requiring  great 
strength  as  bricks,  still  they  answer 
very  well  for  what  they  are  generally 
used,  that  is,  cottage  and  wall-building, 
&c.,  but  it  is  not  advisable  to  use  sea 
stones  for  house-building,  on  account  of 
the  salt  clinging  to  them  causing  the 
walls  to  turn  damp  in  wet  weather. 

Fig.  9. 

No  flint-stones  ought  to  be  used  in  wet  weather, 


or  if  they  are  at  all  wet ;  for  this  is  the  cause  of 
many  a  wall  falling  to  the  ground. 

Brick  and  Stone  Combined, 

When  the  building  is  composed  of  brick  and 
stone,  which  it  yery  often  is,  the  bricklayer  and 
mason  ought  to  be  careful  to  get  their  work 
arranged  to  suit  each  other,  as  brickwork  cannot 
be  built  to  the  specified  thickness  without  a  very 
great  deal  of  extra  labour  and  waste  of  material. 
For  instance,  a  wall  supposed  to  be  built  2  feet 
3  inches  in  thickness  very  often  cannot  be  worked 
under  2  feet  3f  inches  because  the  bricks  are  full 
9  inches  long,  and  a  wall  never  ought  to  be  built 
without  allowing  room  for  the  mortar  to  go  be- 
tween each  brick  in  the  middle  of  the  wall. 

And  so  by  the  stonemason  cutting  and  work- 
ing the  stone  that  has  to  pass  through  the  wall 
three-quarters  of  an  inch  longer,  it  would  save 
the  cutting  of  each  course  of  bricks  from  begin- 
ning to  end  of  the  wall. 

And  if  this  is  not  thought  of  in  the  founda- 
tions, it  will  very  likely  cause  a  vast  amount  of 
trouble  when  the  work  is  further  advanced. 
Again,  in  arch  work,  &c.,  where  drawing  is  re- 
quired, and  stone  and  brick  are  to  be  used,  it  is 
best  for  both  mason  and  bricklayer  to  work  to 
one  drawing ;  for  it  is  possible  for  two  separate 
drawings  to  be  difierent,  so  causing  confusion 
when  fixing  the  work  ;  and  it  very  often  happens 
when  anything  is  set  out  wrong  through  the 
oversight,  carelessness,  or  ignorance  of  the  fore- 


man,  the  blame  is  directly  thrown  on  to  the 
workman  for  the  purpose  of  clearing  himself. 
But  this  is  a  cowardly  way  of  doing  business,  and 
cannot  be  too  much  condemned. 

Limes,  Cements,  etc. 

Of  limes,  blue  lias  is  reckoned  the  best  in  this 
country,  because  it  is  equally  adapted  for  work 
below  water-level  or  for  moist  situations  as  for 
dry  ones.  But  it  is  not  generally  used  for  ordi- 
nary building  purposes,  principally  on  account  of 
its  taking  but  a  very  small  proportion  of  sand 
before  its  setting  properties  are  weakened  ;  so  it 
is  thought  best  only  to  use  little  more  sand  than 
lime  in  the  mixing. 

This  lime  must  not  be  made  into  mortar  a  long 
time  before  it  is  required  as  other  limes  often 
are,  or  else  it  will  get  so  hard  that  it  will  be  of 
very  little  use  for  the  purpose  of  laying  bricks. 

This  lime  will  take  less  water  than  the  other 
limes  usualty  do ;  and  it  ought  to  be  slacked 
several  hours  before  it  is  made  into  mortar,  as 
some  parts  will  take  much  longer  than  others. 

The  principal  supplies  of  lias  limestone  are 
obtained  from  Aberthaw,  near  Cardiff,  in  "Wales ; 
Barrow,  near  Mount  Sorrel,  in  Leicestershire ; 
and  "Watchet. 

Dorldng  and  HaUinrj  Limes.  —  These  may 
be  considered  the  principal  limes  used  in  and 
about  London  for  making  mortar,  owing  to  their 
taking  a  greater  quantity  of  sand  than  any  other 
before  their  setting  properties  are  weakened,  the 
usual  proportions   being   three  or  four  parts  of 


sand  to  one  of  lime.  But  it  must  be  remembered 
that  very  often  it  is  not  the  quantity  but  the 
quality  of  sand  that  destroys  the  lime ;  for  the 
cleaner  and  sharper  the  sand,  the  better  the 
mortar  will  be. 

These  limes  are  obtained  from  Dorking  in 
Surrey;  and  between  Rochester  and  Maidstone 
in  Kent. 

Chalk  Lime  is  seldom  used  in  London  for  out- 
side work,  because  it  sets  so  slowly,  and  in  damp 
places  never  sets  at  alL  But  it  is  used  to  a  great 
extent  for  plastering  the  inside  of  houses,  &c., 
where  there  is  no  dampness ;  and,  although  it  is 
not  used  in  London  for  outside  work,  it  is  very 
much  used  in  many  parts  of  the  country,  where  it 
is  very  cheap,  and  better  limes  are  not  so  easily 

Cements. — The  cements  used  by  the  builder 
are  of  various  kinds ;  such  as  Portland  and  Roman 
for  external,  and  Keen^s  and  Martinis  for  internal, 

Portland  Cement  is  considered  the  best  for 
general  use,  owing  to  its  fine  setting  properties 
and  its  cheapness  ;  for  it  takes  a  greater  quantity 
of  sand  than  any  other  before  it  is  much 
weakened.  This  is  made  in  different  parts  of  the 
coimtry,  principall^'^  from  the  cement-stone  found 
in  the  Ijondon  clay  at  Harwich  in  Essex,  and 
the  Isle  of  Sheppey  in  Kent ;  and  will  take 
two  or  three  parts  of  sand  to  one  of  cement  for 
ordinary  purposes. 

But  whenever  it  is  required  to  set  directly  oi 
for  water-work,  it  is  best  to  use  it  in  its  pure 


state.  For  although  sand  docs  not  prevent  its 
setting  very  hard  after  a  few  days,  it  stops  its 
setting  directly. 

All  sands  used  for  making  up  lime  and  cement 
into  mortar  should  be  as  free  from  clay  or  dirt  as 
possible,  and  the  sharper  the  better.  If  this  is  ne- 
glected, the  best  limes  or  cements  are  soon  ruined. 

Owing  to  the  great  demand  for  Portland 
cement,  a  great  many  manufacturers  have  been 
induced  to  bring  out  an  artificial  kind,  and  this  is 
as  much  used  as  that  made  from  the  cement- 
stone.  The  greater  part  of  this  is  made  with  clay 
obtained  from  the  sides  of  the  River  Medway  in 
Kent,  mixed  with  a  definite  proportion  of  chalk 
•from  the  pits  in  the  same  district,  and  so  manu- 
factured as  to  produce  a  cement  nearly  equal  to 
the  original. 

Roman  cement,  although  possessing  many  good 
qualities,  is  greatly  inferior  to  Portland,  and 
therefore  is  but  little  used  by  the  builder. 

Keen's  and  Martin's  cements  are  in  appearance 
a  great  deal  like  plaster  of  Paris,  but  they  set 
much  slower,  thereby  giving  the  workman  more 
time  to  add  finish  to  his  work  before  it  gets  hard. 
They  are  almost  always  used  for  work  which  re- 
quires a  hard  and  beautiful  finish.  But  in  no  case 
should  they  be  used  for  outside  work,  or  in  any 
place  where  they  are  exposed  to  the  action  of 
water,  as  they  are  like  all  pure  limes,  partly 
soluble  in  water. 

"Wood  Bricks. 
"Wherever  woodwork  is  to  be  fixed  to  the  walls 


(such  as  door  and  window  frames,  angle  beads, 
skirting  boards,  &c.)  wood  bricks,  or,  rather, 
wood  joints,  should  be  used — that  is,  pieces  of 
board  the  length  and  width  of  a  brick,  and  about 
three-eighths  of  an  inch  thick,  should  be  laid 
between  two  courses  of  bricks  instead  of  the 
mortar  joint.  These  will  be  found  far  better  than 
having  wood  bricks  the  fall  size  of  the  ordinary 
brick,  because  the  latter  generally  shrink,  and 
so  become  loose.  When  the  inside  is  to  be 
matched-lined  instead  of  plastered,  it  is  best  to  lay 
a  joint  of  this  sort  throughout  the  length  of  the 
wall  inside.  If  these  are  laid  about  three  feet 
apart  from  floor  to  ceiling,  there  will  be  no  plug- 
ging afterwards  in  fixing  the  matchboards. 


If  the  brickwork  is  carried  on  in  frosty  weather, 
all  walls  must  be  carefully  covered  up  with 
weatherboards,  straw,  or  something  that  will  pro- 
tect them ;  if  not,  the  frost  will  penetrate  into 
the  work,  and  greatly  destroy  the  strength  of  all 
that  which  is  damp. 

If  Portland  cement  is  mixed  with  mortal  the 
fi'ost  does  not  take  hold  of  it  so  much  as  it  does  if 
mortar  alone. 


"When  necessary  to  carry  one  part  of  the  build- 
ing up  without  the  other,  the  walls  where  they  join 
ought  to  be  "racked"  back,  if  possible;  if  not, 
they  ought  to  be  toothed,  as  shown  in  Fig.  10, 
so  as  to  avoid  as  much  as  possible  upright  toothings 
from  bottom  to  top  of  the  wall. 

1 1 

1       k 



1       1  . 


:    1 

1       1 


■    1    1      1       1      1      1 

.1             1             1 

■     i    1'     1       1      1      1 

1             1              1 

(    1      1       1      1       1 

1             1             1 

20  bricklaying. 

Thick  and  Thin  Joints. 

So  much   has  been  said  by  different    writers 
about   tJdck  joints,  that   it   is  quite  unnecessary 
for  me  to  say  that  they  are  a  very  great  evil, 
as  they  cause  settlements.     But 
perhaps  a  little  ought  to  be  said 
about  very  thin  ones,  for  it  is  well 
known  that  the  bricks  made  in 
most   yards  are  not  all  of  one 
thickness  ;  and  it  is  possible  to 
buy  a  quantity  of  bricks  all  made 
Fig.  10.  {j^  Qj^(,  yard,  and  to  find  two  or 

three  different  sizes — some  as  much  as  a  quarter 
of  an  inch  thicker  than  others.  Therefore,  when 
these  thick  bricks  are  laid,  it  is  found  impossible 
to  keep  down  to  the  gauge  to  which  the  thin 
ones  are  laid  with  a  joint  of  the  same  thickness. 

The  result  is,  the  bricklayer  does  not  spread 
out  a  bed  to  receive  the  brick,  as  he  usually  does, 
but  he  "butters"  it — that  is,  he  draws  a  little 
mortar,  as  fine  as  he  can  get,  upon  the  front  and 
back  edges  of  the  brick,  and  then  lays  it,  leaving 
an  air-passage  imdcr  every  one.  This  is  almost 
as  bad  as  thick  joints,  for  it  is  evidently  not 
bedded  at  all.  This  is  very  bad  work,  but  the 
bricklayer  cannot  be  blamed  for  it. 


In  building  retaining  walls,  either  upright  or 
battering,  or,  in  fact,  any  kind  of  work  that  is  to  be 
racked  back  to  receive  additional  work,  it  is  often 


found  convenient  to  erect  profiles  upright  or  batter- 
ing, as  the  case  may  be,  with  the  face  of  the  wall, 
and  gauo^ed  accordino:  to  the  srau  o^e  of  the  work  from 
bottom  to  top — and  so  strain  the  line  to  it ;  by  this 
means  the  work  is  kept  right  both  on  the  face  and 

These  profiles  answer  very  well  for  setting 
arches  when  they  are  required  in  advance  of  the 
other  work ;  for  they  can  be  easily  set  up  at  each 
end,  and  the  line  for  the  face  of  the  arches  drawn 
to  them,  and  afterwards  drawn  perfectly  level 
over  the  crown  of  the  arches,  to  level  up  the 
brickwork  between  them — and  in  tJm  case  it  will 
answer  the  purpose  of  both  level  and  plumb-rule. 


Where  work  is  to  be  cut  to  receive  inverted 
arches,  such  as  the  bottom  half  of  a  wheel  arch, 
and  also  cores  to  receive  any  other  arches,  it  is 
much  best  to  fix  trammels.  These  are  fixed  to 
the  centre,  and  struck  with  the  same  radius  as 
the  arch.  For  the  wheel  arch,  when  it  passes 
throughout  the  thickness  of  the  wall,  it  is  usual 
to  fix  an  upright  piece  of  wood  on  each  side  of  the 
wall,  and  pass  a  bar  of  either  wood  or  iron  from 
one  to  the  other  ;  this  will  answer  as  a  centre  for 
the  trammel  to  swing  round  upon,  either  on  one 
side  of  the  wall  or  the  other. 

All  joints  in  good  face- work  ought  to  be  struck 
as  full  as  possible  without  projecting  beyond  the 
face  of  the  wall,  and  as  straight  as  the  bricks  will 


^^SECTION   11. 


It  is  very  necessary,  in  speaking  of  arches,  that 
the  reader  should  thoroughly  understand  what  an 
arch  really  is.  It  must  not  be  supposed  that  any 
kind  of  building  material  which  has  been  used  to 
cover  an  opening  is  necessarily  an  arch  simply 
because  it  is  made  to  form  a  curve,  for  in  many 
cases  we  see  a  block  of  stone  cut  out  in  the  form 
of  an  arch,  and  placed  over  doorways,  windows, 
&c.  ;  but  in  the  centre  or  crown,  where  the 
proper  arch  is  the  strongest,  the  stone  being 
thinnest  is  the  weakest,  and  being  liable  to  break 
at  any  time,  causes  the  work  above  to  give  way. 

An  arch  that  is  perfectly  equal  may  be  con- 
sidered as  a  slightly  elastic  curved  beam,  and, 
when  loaded,  every  part  is  in  a  state  of  com- 
pression. The  arch  that  the  bricklayer  has  to 
deal  with  is  a  quantity  of  bricks  so  arranged  that 
they  may,  by  their  pressure  one  upon  another, 
not  only  support  their  own  weight,  but  transmit 
any  weight  that  may  be  placed  on  them  to  the 

Therefore  all  bricks  should  be  of  such  a  shape 
that  they  should  "bed  "  with  a  perfectly  equal  bed- 
joint,  one  against  the  other,  and  at  the  same  time 
carry  an  equal  curve,  or  fit  the  centre  upon  which 
the  arch  is  turned,  throughout  the  whole  span. 

And  by  each  joint  cutting  in  a  line  to  the 
point  or  centre  from  which  the  arch  is  struck, 

|.  DRAWING,    CUTTING,    AND   SETTING    ARCHES.     23 

eaeli  brick  will  be  in  tbe  form  of  a  wedge  ;  these 
are  often  called  "  Youssoirs,"  and  the  thickest  or 
uppermost  part  of  them  the  "  mi^0t»s,"  and  the 
■  small,  or  that  part  which  is  fixed  upon  the  centre, 
the  "intrados,"  or  sofl&t  of  the  arch. 

These  few  remarks  will  serve  to  clear  the  mind 
of  the  reader  as  to  what  the  general  principles  of 
an  arch  are. 

The  higher  calculations  connected  with  the 
designing  of  arches,  and  rules  to  find  the  weight 
with  which  each  course  of  voussoirs  should  be 
loaded  to  bring  the  arch  into  perfect  equilibrium, 
would  be  out  of  place  here,  as  this  little  work  is 
intended  for  the  working  bricklayer,  and  he  is 
very  seldom  fortunate  enough  to  be  able  to  enter 
into  calculations  of  this  kind,  although  they  would 
be  of  great  service  to  him. 

Plain  Arches. 

All  arches  turned  without  the  bricks  being  cut 
or  shaped  in  any  way  may  be  classed  under  this 
head ;  and  these  are  in  general  use  for  railway- 
bridges,  tunnels,  vaultings,  and  all  work  where 
strength  is  essential,  and  appearance  no  particular 

In  building  arches  of  this  description,  in  order 
to  avoid  the  thick  joints  that  would  appear  at  the 
extrados  if  the  bricks  were  laid  with  the  end  upon 
the  centre — as  they  are  not  wedge-shaped,  but  of 
one  thickness  throughout  the  length — it  is  usual 
to  build  them  in  rings  the  thickness  of  half  a 
brick,    or   brick  on   edge,  so  that   each  ring  is 


separate,  having  no  connection  with  the  others 
beyond  the  cohesion  of  the  mortar  in  the  collar- 
joints  between  them,  except  a  heading-course 
occasionally,  wheneTcr  the  joints  of  two  rings 
happen  to  coincide :  sometimes  this  is  objected  to. 

It  is  very  necessary  that  each  ring  should  be  pro- 
perly bonded  throughout  the  length  of  the  arch, 
and  also  that  the  joints  should  be  of  a  regular 
thickness.  For  if  the  soffit-ring  is  built  with  a  thick 
bed-joint,  and  the  second  ring  with  a  thin  one,  the 
thick  joints  will  shrink  most,  thereby  causing  an 
unsightly  fracture  between  the  two,  and  so  deprive 
the  arch  of  the  strength  of  the  bottom  rinw. 

Mortar  made  with  good  lime  is  considered  by 
many  better  than  cement  for  this  kind  of  work,  for 
very  often  cement  sets  before  the  work  is  complete, 
and  any  little  accident  in  striking  the  centres,  or  from 
any  other  cause,  is  very  liable  to  break  the  arch. 

Let  it  be  here  understood  that  no  kind  of  arch 
ought  to  be  turned  without  the  centre  has  folding 
wedges,  so  as  to  drop  it,  when  the  arch  is  finished, 
as  easily  as  possible,  and  without  shaking  the  arch. 

These  wedges  ought  to  be  drawn  a  little  a  day 
or  two  before  the  centres  are  really  struck,  so  as 
to  give  the  arch  its  "  bearincj." 

Axed  Arches. 

These  are  used  very  much  in  the  present  day, 
on  account  of  their  taking  less  labour,  as  it  is 
thought.  But  it  is  an  inferior  sort  of  work  at 
the  best,  and  often  costs  as  much  as  gauge-work 
by  the  time  it  is  fi^nished. 

UUAVVING,    CUrriNG,    AND    SE'lTING    ARCHES.     25 

The  bricks  of  these  are  simply  axed  down  to  a 
given  size,  and  nothing  but  the  soffits  are  rubbed  ; 
and  this  is  done  after  they  are  brought  to  the 
required  bevel  with  the  hammer  boaster  and 
scotch ;  they  are  then  set  in  cement,  with  a  joint 
about  three-sixteenths  of  an  inch  in  thickness, 
and  afterwards  pointed. 

Gauge  Work. 

This  consists  of  all  kinds  of  work  that  is  cut  and 
brought  down  to  a  given  gauge  upon  the  rubbing- 
stone  ;  such  as  all  kinds  of  arches,  mouldings  for 
external  cornices,  architraves  to  doorways  and 
windows,  eaves,  &c.,  and  is  considered  the  most 
important  branch  of  the  trade. 

For  this  purpose  a  shed  should  be  built  to 
protect  the  bricks  that  are  to  be  cut  from  the  wet, 
and  also  large  enough  for  the  workmen  to  erect 
their  benches  and  chopping-blocks  to  suit  their 
own  convenience.  They  then  require  the  rubbing- 
stone  and  a  bedding-block.  The  former  ought  to 
be  in  the  form  of  a  circle,  and  not  exceeding  14 
inches  in  diameter ;  for  if  it  is,  it  will  be  very 
likely  to  rub  out  of  level  on  the  face,  that  is, 
either  hollow  or  cambering  ;  and  even  with  this 
size  it  will  be  found  necessary  to  turn  it  round  in 
its  bed  about  once  a  day  when  in  use,  for  if  the 
stone  is  unlevel  the  bricks  will  assuredly  be  the 
same,  making  very  bad  work. 

The  bedding-block  is  square  and  of  a  perfectly 
smooth  surface.  It  is  used  for  the  purpose  of 
scribing  and  fitting  the  bricks  to  the  moulds,  and 


is  usually  made  to  the  size  of  one  course  of  the  arch, 
if  double-faced ;  if  not,  about  14  by  18  inches. 

Various  Arches  tsed  in  the  Building  Trade. 

It  is  necessary  that  the  bricklayer  should 
thoroughly  understand  the  names  of  all  arches 
used  in  the  building  trade,  and  also  what  is 
meant  by  these  names.  The  following  are  the 
principal  arches  used  in  building  construction  : — 

The  Scmi'Circular,  as  shown  in  Fig.  11. 

The  Segment,  which  is  the  part  of  a  circle  only, 
as  Fi^.  12. 

Rg.  11.  Fig.  12. 

The  Camber  (Fig.  13). — This  arch  is  a  very  small 

part  of  a  circle,  as  it  is  generally  reckoned  to  rise 

only  one-eighth  of  an  inch  to  the  foot ;  so  if  the 

span  of  the  arch  is  four  feet, 

V  ~7   the  crown   or  centre  of  the 

Rff.  13. 

soffit  will  only  be  half  an 
inch  above  the  springing 
line,  and  the  top  ought  not  to  be  more  than  a 
quarter  of  an  inch  above  a  straight  line  drawn 
from  the  top  of  each  skewback ;  then,  by  the 
slight  settlement  of  the  arch  when  taking  its 
"  bearing,"  this  line  w  ill  have  the  appearance  of 
being  perfectly  straight. 

The  Gothic  Arch  (Fig.  14)  is  ver}-  much  used 
at  the  present  day,  both  as  shown  in  this  figure. 


and  also   with  a  greater  or  less  rise  above   the 
springing  line,  as  Figs.  15  and  16. 

The  Elliptic  Gothic  (Fig.  17),  which  is  simply 
an  ellipse  with  a  Gothic  head. 

Tig.  17. 

Fig.  18  represents  a  Semi-ellipse,  or  half- oval. 

There  are  many  other  arches  in  use  in  other 
branches  of  the  building  trade ;  such  as  the 
horseshoe  (Fig.  19),  the  0  G  (Fig.  20).      But  it 

Fig.  18.  Fig.  19.  Fig.  20. 

is  very  seldom  the  bricklayer  has  the  building  of 
any  but  those  that  have  been  mentioned. 

We  have  thus  far  only  had  the  forms  of  different 

arches.      The   next  thing  of   importance  to   the 

workman  is  the  methods  of  striking  them  out,  and 

taking  off  the  moulds  and  bevels  for  cutting  them. 




Drawing  Arches. 

As  it  is  out  of  reason  for  the  builder  to  pay 
the  workman  for  tis  time  while  he  is  jiiactising 
on  the  work,  it  will  be  found  necessary  that 
he  should  learn  the  diflferent  ways  of  striking 
out  those  things  that  he  will  require,  either  at 
his  homo,  or  at  some  other  equally  convenient 
place.  And  for  this  purpose  he  will  require 
a  drawing-board.  Sixteen  inches  square  will  be 
large  enough  for  this  purpose;  but  should  a 
larger  one  be  required,  it  would  be  better  to  get 
one  2  ft.  6  in.  by  1  ft.  10  in.  This  will  take  an 
imperial  sheet  of  drawing-paper.  Also,  a  T 
square  and  set  square,  lead  pencils,  a  pair  of  com- 
passes with  pen  and  pencil,  and  a  piece  of  india 
rubber  to  clean  out  any  false  lines.  And  as  it  is 
always  best  in  these  kinds  of  drawings  to  work  to 
a  scale,  the  2-ft.  rule  will  answer  this  purpose. 

Should  the  reader  wish  to 
practise  drawing  other  forms 
of  the  arch,  he  will  require 
moreand  better  instruments. 
It  is  necessary,  in  almost 
-g  every  kind  of  arch,  to  draw 
the  horizontal  and  perpen- 
dicular lines  at  right  angles 
with  one  another.  If  the 
reader  knows  how  to  do  this, 
he  will  find  it  his  principal 
guide  to  drawing  the  arch. 

Fig  21. 

So,  from  the  points  a  and  u,  Fig.  21,  '»'\t|U  any 


radius  greater  than  half  the  given  line  A  b  de- 
scribe two  arcs  intersecting  each  other  at  o  and  s; 
then  the  line  joining  o  s  will  be  in  the  centre  of 
A  B  and  at  riorht  ano^les  with  it.  But  with  the 
T  square  and  drawing-board  this  is  unuecessar}', 
as  he  is  simply  guided  by  the  square  when  fixed 
first  to  the  side,  and  then  to  the  bottom  of  the 

In  showinw  the  methods  of  drawing:  arches  and 
taking  ofi"  the  moulds,  it  will  not  be  necessary  to 
speak  oi plain  arches,  as  the  bricks  are  not  cut  for 
them,  therefore  it  will  be  best  to  deal  with  them 
as  gauged. 

The  Semi -circular  (Fig.  22). — In  drawing  this 
arch,  it  is  oidy  necessary  to  place  one  point  of  the 

Fig.  22. 

compass  at  the  centre  o,  and  with  the  radius  d  b 
describe  the  half-circle  which  will  answer  lor  the 
sofiit ;  then  with  the  same  centre  describe  a 
greater  half-circle,  according  to  the  depth  of  the 
arch  required. 

Divide  the  outer  ring  with  the  compas.s  into  as 


many  parts  as  there  are  required  courses  in  the 
arch,  taking  care  to  see  how  thick  the  bricks  will 
work  first,  so  that  no  more  is  wasted  in  the 
cutting  than  necessary.  Then  from  the  centre  o 
draw  the  lines  to  each  of  the  divisions  marked  on 
the  outside  half-circle  as  shown.  This  will  be 
the  size  and  shape  of  the  mould  for  cutting  each 
course  of  the  face  of  the  arch.  And  a  parallel 
mould,  the  width  of  the  stnall  end  of  the  face 
mould,  will  do  for  the  cutting  of  the  soffit  of  the 
brick,  after  allowing  for  the  joint  in  each  case 
(this  ought  to  be  about  one-tenth  of  an  inch 
thick),  and  is  best  done  by  working  a  little  nearer 
the  small  end  of  the  mould,  which  will  be  easily 
seen  in  the  workinor.  The  bevel  for  cutting  the 
soffit  is  taken  by  placing  the  stock  of  the  bevel  to 
the  line  a,  and  setting  the  blade  to  the  line  repre- 
senting the  soffit  of  the  first  course  of  the  arch 
at  D. 

This  is  the  only  bevel  required  (if  a  X  bevel  is 
used)  as  the  tops  are  cut  to  this  bevel  fitted  on 
the  brick  the  reverse  way. 

Fig.  23  is  another  kind  of  semicircular  arch 
with  a  Gothic  head.  To  draw  the  outside  portion 
of  this  arch  it  is  necessary  to  draw  the  line  or 
chord  A  B,  bisect  it  at  d,  draw  a  line  with  the 
eetsquare  from  d,  at  right  angles  with  a  b,  to  any 
point  c,  and  upon  this  line  the  centre  is  taken  to 
describe  the  outside  curve  of  the  arch,  according 
to  the  haunch  required;  and  the  inner  ring  must 
be  divided  in  the  same  manner  as  the  outer  ring 
of  Fig.  22 ;  but  the  bevels  for  the  tops  must  be 


taken  separately.      In  all  other  respects  it  is  the 
same  as  Fig.  22. 


Fig.  23. 

The  Segment  (Fig.  24)  may  be  worked  in  the 

snrae  way  as  the  semicircle,  the  only  difference 
being  in  taking  the  centre  to  strike  it  with 


This  is  taken  in  the  perpendicular  line  below 
the  springing  level,  with  radius  according  to  the 
rise  required  as  shown  at  d,  and  this  is  the  point 
to  which  all  lines  must  be  drawn,  both  to  get  the 
skewback  and  also  the  size  of  the  course.  The 
bevel  for  cutting  the  skewback  is  taken  by  placing 
the  stock  paritllel  with  the  springing  line  a  b, 
and  setting  the  blade  of  the  bevel  to  the  skewback 
line  D  E. 

We  now  come  to  the  Camber  Arch,  which  is 
perhaps  one  of  the  most  difficult  to  draw  and  cut. 
To  draw  this  arch,  supposing  the  opening  to  be 
4  feet  in  the  clear,  would  require  an  arch  with 
only  half  an  inch  rise  above  the  springing  line 
at  the  crown,  as  it  would  take  a  very  long  radius 
to  strike  an  arch  having  so  small  a  rise  in  the 
ordinary  way  of  striking  a  segment  of  a  circle; 
it  is  necessary,  therefore,  to  resort  to  other  means. 

To  do  this  it  is  best,  in  the  first  place,  to  get 
the  horizontal  and  perpendicular  lines,  and 
measure  out  the  width  of  the  opening  equal  on 
each  side  of  the  upright  line,  then  take  the  rise 
as  shown  at  a.  Fig.  25,  and  drive  three  nails  into 
the  board  upon  which  it  is  intended  to  strike  the 
arch,  at  the  three  separate  points  b,  a,  c ;  this 
done,  get  a  piece  of  |-inch  board  as  long  a* 
the  opening  is  wide,  in  the  form  of  a  very 
flat  triangle,  as  shown  in  Fig.  26,  takinj?  care 
the  rise  of  the  triangle  is  just  half  that  re- 
quired for  the  arch.  Place  the  end  b.  Fig.  26, 
to  the  nail  at  b.  Fig.  25,  a  to  a,  and  c  to  c, 
keeping  it  tight  against  a  c  with  the  left  hand ; 


then  with  the  right  hand  fix  the  pencil  firmly 
against  a,  the  centre  of  the  trammel,  and  gently 
draw  the  curve  with  the  right  hand,  as  the 
trammel  is  drawn  from  a  to  c  with  the  left.  If 
care  is  taken  to  keep  the  pencil  hard  against  the 
centre  a  of  the  trammel,  and  that  part  of  the 



Fis-  25. 

trammel  against  the  two  nails  as  it  is  drawn  from 
A  to  c,  it  will  describe  very  correctly  that  half  of 

Fig.  26. 

the  camber's  soffit.  Then  by  repeating  the 
operation  the  reverse  way,  by  drawing  the 
trammel  with  the  left  hand  from  a  to  b,  while 
with  the  right  hand  and  pencil  that  half  is  de- 
scribed in  like  manner,  this  will  complete  the 
regular  curve  of  the  camber  arch.      Then  with 


c,  as  centre,  and  c  b,  as  radius,  cut  the  perpen- 
dicular in  D ;  this  is  the  point  to  which  the  lines 
are  drawn  to  get  the  proper  skewbaek. 

It  is  then  necessary  to  measure  the  bricks  to 
see  how  they  will  work.  If  3  inches,  set  oflF 
I3  inches  on  each  side  of  the  centre  line  e  d, 
and  draw  lines  to  the  point  d,  as  shown :  this  will 
give  the  shape  of  the  moulds  of  which  there 
ought  to  be  three,  a  quarter  of  an  inch  thick,  and 
about  18  inches  in  length.  If  the  arch  is  to  be 
1  foot  in  depth,  and  in  proportion  if  more  or  less, 
then  mark  them  all  at  about  3  inches  from  the 
narrow  end. 

Fix  one  of  these  upon  the  centre  line,  as 
shown  at  a,  so  the  line  above  mentioned  shall  be 
exactly  at  the  soffit-line  of  the  arch,  and  then 
trace  the  other  two  alternately  towards  the  skew- 
back,  keeping  each  line  on  the  moulds  to  the 
soffit-curve  each  time. 

If  the  last  mould  does  not  meet  the  skewbaek 
exactly,  it  must  be  raised  or  dropped  down  until 
it  does;  then  mark  each  course,  and  the  joint 
must  then  be  allowed  as  before  stated. 

The  bevels  must  be  taken  for  each  course,  and 
marked  on  the  mould  ready  for  working ;  one 
bevel  will  answer  for  soffit,  cross-Joint,  and  top  of 
each  course,  if  it  is  reversed  for  the  two  last  named. 
But  perhaps  it  would  be  best  to  leave  the  tops 
and  cut  them  when  setting  the  arch,  for  very 
often  mistakes  are  made  in  taking  the  length  of 
the  courses  with  the  template.  The  bond  of  the 
camber    arch   is   the   same   as   the    quoin    of   a 


common  wall  of  Flemish  bond,  only  the  arch  is 
level  and  the  quoin  is  upright,  always  remem- 
bering to  work  from  the  soffit,  as  shown  by  the 
two  courses  at  c,  Fig.  25. 

The  Gothic  Arch  (Fig.  26)  is  much  easier  to 
construct  than  the  camber,  owing  to  its  having 
a  shorter  radius. 

Set  out  the  extent  of  the  arch  at  a  b  on  the 
horizontal  line,  then  with  a  for  centre,  and  the 
distance  a  b  for  radius,  describe  the  arc  c  b  ;  then 
with  AE  as  radius  and  with  the  same  centre  describe 

Fig.  26a. 

the  inner  arc  d  e — this  forms  one  side  of  the  arch  ; 
then  with  b  as  centre,  and  same  radii  used  for  the 
first  half,  describe  the  second. 

Divide  the  outer  curve  into  courses  according  to 
the  size  of  the  bricks,  and  draw  the  lines  to  the 
point  A  as  shown,  taking  care  in  dividing  out  the 
courses  that  half  a  course  shall  be  on  each  side  of 
the  perpendicular  line  at  c,  to  answer  for  key- 
brick.     The  bevel  once  set  will  answer  for  the 



whoJe  of  this  arch,  the  same  as  the  st  mi -circular. 
There  are  diflerent  ways  of  forming  the  key  of 
this  arch,  but  the  one  shown  is  considered  the 
best.  Sometimes  the  Gothic  arch  is  cut  as  repre- 
sented  in    Fig.   27,    but  it  is  very    seldcm,   c 

Fig.  27. 

account  of  the  extra  work  in  soffiting  the  bn'cks, 
for  in  this  case  each  course  must  be  cut  to  a  sepa- 
rate bevel.  But  the  lines  for  each  course  are 
drawn  to  the  centre  o,  instead  of  the  opposite 
springing,  as  Fig.  26. 

A  Beduced  or  Modified  Goihic. — To  draw  this 
arch  it  is  necessary  to  draw  the  chords  a  b  and  b  c, 
Fig.  28,  from  the  springing  to  the  crown  ;  bisect 
A  B  and  B  c  at  D  and  h  ;  and  from  these  points  of 
bisection  draw  the  lines  to  the  points  o  o  with  the 
setsquare.  And  upon  these  lines  the  points  are 
taken  to  strike  the  arch  according  to  the  rise 
required  above  the  chord.  The  outer  ares  are 
then  divided  into  courses  and  lines  dr<iwn  to  the 
points  o  for  the  size  of  the  mould,  if  the  arch  is 
to  be  cut  in  the  same  way  as  Fig.  26.     But  if  i' 


IS   to  be   "keyed  in"   with  an  upright  key,  as 
Fiff.  27,  the  lines  must  be  drawn  to  tho  centre  e. 

Fiff  28 

The  method  of  drawing  and  taking  off  the 
moulds  of  the  arch  shown  in  Fig.  28,  applies  to 
any  Gothic,  whether  greater  or  less  than  the  regular 
equilateral  arch. 

The  Ellipse  Gothic  (Fig.  29)  is  rather  more  diffi- 
cult in  the  working  than  the  generality  of  Gothic 
arches,  owing  to  the  different  striking  points.  To 
draw  this  arch,  let  the  distance  a  b  be  set  off 
equally  on  each  side  of  the  perpendicular  line  ; 
then  divide  it  into  four  equal  parts  by  marking 
the  points  c  d,  and  with  d  as  centre,  and  the 
distance  D  B  as  radius,  describe  the  arc  from  b  to 
E,  mark  the  point  b  e  equal  with  b  d,  draw  the 
chord  F  E,  and  bisect  it  at  g,  from  which  point 
draw  a  line  with  the  setsquare  to  any  point  o,  and 
upon  this  line  the  centre  is  taken  to  draw  the 
upper  portion  of  that  side  of  the  arch  as  shown ; 



the  soffit  curves  are  obtained  in  the  same  way. 
After  the  lines  a  f  e  b  are  drawn,  they  can  be 
made  to  answer  either  for  soffit  or  exirados,  by 
striking  the  other  parts  greater  or  less  than  those 
named ;  in  this  figure  they  represent  the  outer 

Fig  28. 

ring;  but  the  centres  will  do  for  either.  The 
moulds  for  this  arch  are  taken  in  the  same  way  as 
those  in  the  camber.  Fig.  25 ;  that  is,  it  must  be 
traced  over  with  the  moulds,  so  that  each  course 
shall  be  exactly  of  one  size,  and  the  bevels  must 
be  taken  separately. 

It  is  of  the  greatest  importance  that  the  work- 
man should  practise  drawing  this  arch  until  he  is 
thoroughly  acquainted  with  every  part ;  for  very 


often  he  may  require  quite  a  different  kind  of 
ellipse  Gothic  to  the  one  here  described,  and  by 
his  understanding  the  principles  of  this  one  he 
will  be  better  able  to  reduce  or  elevate  them  to 
suit  his  requirements.  Perfect  accuracy  in  all 
good  brickwork  cannot  be  too  much  impressed 
upon  the  mind  of  the  bricklayer,  and  more  par- 
ticularly in  drawing  and  cutting  arches. 

Fig.  30  represents  a  semi-ellipsis  arch,  and  is  a 
great  deal  like  the  ellipse  Gothic,  the  only  dif- 


But  the  drawing 

ferenee  being  in  the  crowns 
is  quite,  different.  In  drawing  this  arch,  divide 
the  span  into  three  equal  parts,  as  shown  at  a  c  d  b, 
then,  with  d  as  centre  and  d  b  for  radius,  describe 
the  arc  from  b  to  e  equal  to  d  b,  and  the  same  on 
the  opposite  side  to  f  ;  then,  with  d  for  centre  and 
the  distance  d  c  for  radius,  describe  an  arc  cutting 
the  perpendicular  line  in  g  ;  and  from  this  point, 
with  the  distance  g  f,  describe  the  arc  r  e  :  the 


oiiter  curves  are  tuken  from  the  same  centres. 
The  moulds  for  this  arch  must  be  traced  in  the 
same  way  as  the  camber  and  ellipse  Gothic ;  that 
is,  take  the  thickness  of  the  brick  and  set  it  equally 
on  each  side  of  the  centre  line  at  h,  as  shown ; 
then  draw  the  lines  to  g  ;  this  will  give  the  size 
of  the  mould  very  nearly;  then,  if  they  are  worked 
alternately  down  to  the  springing-liue,  it  will  be 
seen  where  they  want  easing,  should  they  require 
it.  The  bevels  are  all  taken  separately  for  each 
course,  but  the  t  bevel  reversed  will  not  answer 
for  the  top  or  outer  curve  of  this  arch. 

Another  method  of  drawing  this  arch  is  shown 
in  Fig.  31.     Take  the  distance  a  b,  that  is,  the 

Fig.  31. 

span  and  also  the  depth  of  the  arch,  and  set  it  off 
equal  on  each  side  of  the  centre  line ;  divide 
this  into  three  equal  parts  by  marking  the  points 
c  and  D  ;  then,  with  n  as  centre  and  dc  for  radius, 
describe  an  arc  cutting  the  upright  line  in  e.  From 
this  point  draw  a  straight  line  through  d  to  any 
point  F,  and  another  through  c  to  h  ;  then  with  d 
as  centre  and  d  b  for  radius  describe  the  arc  f  b,  and 


take  c  for  centre  and  same  radius  for  the  opposite 
ellipse  A  H,  and,  lastly,  e  for  centre  and  e  h  for 
radius,  to  describe  the  crown  h  f.  The  soffit-ring 
is  drawn  from  the  same  points.  It  is  thought  by 
some  that  the  moulds  can  be  taken  by  drawing 
lines  as  shown  from  divisions  on  the  outer  curves ; 
but  it  is  evident  the  bricks  in  the  arch  cannot  be 
all  of  one  size  and  shape  if  this  is  done,  although 
there  is  little  doubt  the  arch  is  stronger  that  way, 
owing  to  there  being  a  better  skewback  at  h  and  f 
for  the  crown  than  there  would  be  if  each  course 
were  cut  to  one  mould ;  it  is  unnecessary  to  say 
this  is  the  easiest  method.  But  the  appearance  is 
not  so  good,  for  it  is  an  understood  thing  in  the 
trade  that  all  courses  of  an  arch  should  be  of  one 

The  Wheel  Arch,  or  Biiirs-etjc  (Fig.  32).— Tn 
this  arch  the  outer  circle  is  divided  out  iu  such  a 


manner  that  each  line,  a  b,  c  d,  shall  be  in  the 
centre  of  the  course ;  or,  in  other  words,  that 
each  of  these  points  shall  show  a  key  brick,  in 
the  same  way  as  one  key  is  shown  in  the  semi- 
circular arch. 

Where  two  or  more  arches  are  set  close  to- 
gether, "  saddles "  ought  always  to  be  cut,  as 
shown  at  a  and  b  (Fig.  33),  and  not  a  continual 

Fig.  83. 

straight  joint  from  c  to  D ;  for  although  this  is 
often  done,  there  is  no  bond  between  the  two 
arches.  In  all  arch  cutting  the  T  bevel  is  by  far 
the  best  to  use,  for  by  reversing,  it  frequently 
answers  the  purpose  of  two. 


It  has  been  already  stated  that  moulding  is 
also  included  in  what  is  called  gauge-work.  And 
of  late  years  there  has  been  a  very  great  deal 
of  this  work  done,  particularly  in  end  about 
London.  St.  Paucras  Station  of  the  Midland 
Kailway  ra;iy  be  taken  as  a  fine  specimen. 

In  many  places  Ihis  is  done  by  fiiinply  making 
a  template  the  form  of  (he  brick  required,  and 
marking  the  brick,  first  on  one  side  and  ihcn  on 


the  other,  and  so  cutting  or  rubbing  it  down  to 
these  marks.  But  for  moulding  birds'  mouths, 
splay,  bulls*  noses,  and,  in  fact,  almost  any  kind 
of  work,  it  will  be  found  much  better  if  a  box  is 
made  that  will  hold  three  or  four  bricks,  either 
flat  or  on  edge,  as  they  may  be  required,  taking 
care  that  the  ends  are  both  alike,  and  the  exact 
shape  of  the  brick  required.  If  this  method  be 
properly  worked  it  will  be  found  very  accurate, 
and  done  with  a  great  deal  less  labour.  The 
boxes  for  this  purpose  are  usually  covered  with 
tin  or  sheet-iron  to  protect  the  wood  from  wearing 
away  while  working  the  bricks ;  if  not,  the 
moulds  are  very  apt  to  get  out  of  their  proper 
shape  and  so  lead  the  workman  wrong.  Even 
with  this  precaution,  it  is  very  necessary  to  try 
them  sometimes  to  see  if  they  are  correct. 

"When  bricks  are  moulded  for  arches,  it  is  best 
to  mould  them  first  and  cut  them  to  the  shape 
required  afteawards ;  for  should  they  be  cut  first 
and  then  moulded  the  brick  is  often  broken,  and 
all  the  labour  upon  it  is  wasted. 

But  it  must  be  remembered  that  when  the 
bricks  are  moulded  first  the  soflBt  is  not  touched 
afterwards,  or  otherwise  the  bead,  or  splay,  or 
whatever  it  is,  will  be  rubbed  out  of  shape. 
Therefore  the  brick  must  be  brought  down  to 
the  required  bevel  by  rubbing  down  the  side  or 
"  bed,"  so  as  to  bring  it  thinner  at  the  soffit  end. 
This  is  called  soffiting  the  brick  from  the  side; 
and  all  bricks  properly  worked  this  way  will  go 
together  equally  as  well  as  if  they  were  bevelled 


from  the  end,  ip  the  same  way  33  arches  that  are 
not  moulded. 

It  has  been  said  that  where  a  great  many 
arches  are  required,  all  of  one  size,  either  p^a in  or 
moulded,  it  is  best  to  send  the  moulds  to  the 
brickyard  and  have  them  cut  while  the  earth  is 
soft,  and  so  burnt  to  the  shape  required.  But  if 
this  is  tried  it  will  prove  a  total  failure,  for  it  is 
impossible  to  burn  bricks  with  the  accuracy  re- 
quired for  gauge  work ;  and  it  is  always  found  to 
take  almost  as  much  labour  in  brinjjinj?  them  to 
proper  order  as  it  would  have  done  to  cut  the 
bricks  in  the  proper  manner  at  first. 

Let  the  bricklayer  be  careful  to  turn  out  his 
work  in  such  a  way  that  it  shall  reflect  credit 
upon  himself,  and  his  employer  will  soon  see 
which  is  the  best  and  cheapest  method  of  cutting 


It  has  already  been  said  that  cutting  is  considered 
the  most  important  branch  of  the  trade,  and  to  a 
great  extent  this  is  right.  But  it  must  be  re- 
membered that,  after  the  work  is  cut,  there  is 
almost  as  much  skill  required  in  setting  it.  For 
it  very  often  happens  tliat  a  vast  amount  of  labour 
and  skill  is  expended  upon  work  while  in  the 
"cutter's"  hands,  and  directly  it  is  taken  on  to  the 
building  the  beauty  of  it  is  all  destroyed  through 
the  carelessness  or  inability  of  the  setter.  On  the 
contrary,  bad  cut  work  is  often  made  to  look  well 
through  nothin<j  but  the  skill  of  the  setter. 


Therefore  it  is  very  necessary  that  this  branch 
should  be  equally  well  uuderstood.  In  setting 
gauge- work  of  all  kinds,  it  is  necessary  to  take 
the  thickness  of  the  courses,  and  gauge  the  centre 
upon  which  the  arch  is  to  be  turned ;  and  this  is 
done  by  takiug  the  thickness  of  the  brick  and 
joint  at  the  soffit.  Each  course  should  be  marked 
on  the  centre  from  the  key  brick  downwards. 
Never  gauge  from  the  springing  or  the  skewback, 
as  this  often  leads  to  mistakes  when  setting  the 

The  soffit  of  each  course  ought  to  fit  the  centre 
perfectly  ;  and  in  order  that  it  should  do  so  and 
that  the  courses  should  come  in  right  at  the  key, 
it  is  often  necessary  to  have  a  radius  line;  that 
is,  a  nail  should  be  driven  into  the  ledge  of  the 
centre  at  the  point  o  (Fig.  23),  for  instance,  and 
a  piece  of  string  fastened  to  it,  and  drawn  up  to 
each  course  of  the  arch  as  it  is  set,  in  the  same 
manner  as  the  line  o  D  is  drawn.  This  will  pre- 
vent the  setter  getting  his  work  too  high  or  too 
low  at  the  extrados  of  the  arch.  If  this  is  not 
done  he  is  working  at  random,  and  will  very 
likely  have  to  make  his  bricks  smaller,  or,  other- 
wise, his  bed-joint  thicker  when  he  gets  to  the 
key ;  thereby  depriving  the  arch  of  its  strength, 
and  so  causing  a  settlement  when  the  centres  are 
struck.  Gauged  arches,  as  a  rule,  are  set  in  grey 
lime  putty,  brought  to  the  consistence  of  cream. 
This  is  put  into  an  oblong  wooden  box,  about 
2  ft.  by  1  ft.  9  in.  deep,  for  the  setter  to  dip  that 
side  of  the  brick  where  the  bed-joint  is  reauired. 


But  in  doing  this  care  must  be  taken  that  the 
bricks  are  neither  too  wet  nor  too  dry  ;  also  that 
the  putty  is  of  such  a  thickness  that  it  will  give 
the  brick  just  such  a  joint  as  the  work  requires: 
of  course  the  brick  should  be  held  in  the  putty 
until  it  takes  up  the  joint.  If  each  course  is 
bedded  regularly  throughout  its  thickness,  the 
joint  will  be  full  and  even  on  the  face  of  the 
arch  ;  and  should  it  project  a  little,  which  is 
often  the  case,  it  ought  to  be  left  untQ  the 
building  is  cleaned  down,  then  they  can  be  rubbed 
off  level  with  the  bricks,  and  so  leave  the  face  of 
the  arch  perfectly  regular.  This  method  only 
applies  to  gauge- work. 

AxEu  Work 

Is  usually  set  in  Portland  cement ;  and  this 
is  sometimes  mixed  with  a  little  putty  to  make 
it  work  better;  the  brick  is  then  "buttered" 
with  the  trowel  and  not  dipped  as  gauge-work. 
By  being  buttered  is  meant  a  small  portion  of 
the  cement  drawn  on  the  edges  of  the  brick,  and 
the  middle  left  hollow  to  receive  the  cement 
grout  which  is  run  in  after  the  work  is  set  ; 
the  joints  are  then  raked  out  to  receive  the  tuck 
pointing,  which  is  done  after  the  building  is  up. 
Whenever  there  is  a  long  range  of  arches,  one 
ought  not  to  be  set  separately  ;  but  a  line  drawn 
the  whole  length,  so  that  when  all  are  set,  they 
shall  be  perfectly  straight  one  with  another. 




PoLXTiNG  of  all  kinds  of  work  is  another  very 
important  branch  which  the  bricklayer  has  to 
deal  with,  and  is  more  in  practice  at  the  present 
day  than  ever  before,  both  on  account  of  its 
cheapness  and  also  its  appearance.  These  may 
be  classed  under  two  heads — Tuck-pointing  and 
flat-joint  pointing.  The  first  is  of  the  most 
importance,  and  also  requires  the  most  skill,  not 
only  in  the  difierent  methods  of  preparing  and 
using  the  material,  but  also  in  preparing  the  work. 
Stock  icork  icith  the  white  joint  is  most  general 
in  London  ;  and  the  first  thing  necessary  is  to 
mix  the  pointing  stuff.  It  is  often  thought  best 
to  colour  the  work,  even  if  it  is  a  new  building, 
to  bring  all  the  bricks  to  a  uniform  colour, 
because  some  bricks  are  much  darker  than  others, 
and  therefore  have  a  bad  appearance  when 
finished.  This  colour  as  a  rule  is  made  with 
green  copperas  in  the  proportion  of  one  pound 
of  copperas  to  five  gallons  of  water ;  but  in  all 
cases  it  should  be  tried  first  upon  some  bricks 
placed  in  the  same  position  as  the  front  which  is 
to  be  coloured ;  that  is,  if  the  front  face  the 
south,  place  the  bricks  towards  the  same  quarter, 
as  it  is  often  found  that  work  di-ied  in  the  sun, 
£ind  that  which  is  dried  ia  the  shade,  are  quite 


Mix  up  as  much  colour  as  will  complete  the 
whole  job,  as  two  mixings  might  not  be  alike. 
The  longer  this  copperas  is  kept  the  stronger  it 
gets  ;  therefore  if  it  cannot  all  be  used  at  once, 
it  is  best  to  weaken  it  every  morning  by  putting 
half  a  pint  of  water  to  every  gallon  of  colour ;  if 
this  is  not  looked  to,  the  last  part  which  is  done 
will  be  much  darker  than  the  first.  If  the  work 
is  wetted  before  the  colour  is  laid  on,  one  gallon 
of  colour  will  do  100  feet,  more  or  less,  according 
to  the  bricks  and  the  season  of  the  year. 

Telloic  Stopping. — This  is  made  with  grey  lime, 
putty,  and  fine  washed  sand,  in  the  proportion  of 
one  bushel  of  the  former  to  three  of  the  latter, 
and  will  take  about  2  lbs.  of  yellow  ochre  to  each 
hodful  of  stopping.  But  of  course  the  workman 
will  regulate  it  to  suit  the  colour  of  the  brick. 
This  also  must  be  tried  in  the  same  way  as  the 
<  opperas,  and  in  all  cases  let  the  stopping  be  a 
shade  darker  than  the  brick  when  it  is  dry. 
This  will  give  the  putty  joint  a  better  appear- 
ance when  it  is  laid  on.  In  no  case  should 
copperas  be  used  to  colour  the  stopping. 

White  Putty. — This  is  generally  made  with 
chalk  lime  (because  it  dries  much  whiter  than 
grey  lime,  and  gives  the  work  a  better  appear- 
ance), and  silversand,  or  marble  dust ;  the  latter 
should  be  used  whenever  it  can  be  obtained,  on 
account  of  its  giving  the  joint  a  beautiful  glaze. 
It  is  usual  to  heat  the  pieces  of  marble  until 
they  fall  to  a  powder,  then  screen  it  througl. 
a   very   fine   screen   or    sieve   before  mixing    it 


with  the  lime.     But  silver  sand  is  more  generally 

The  lime  is  slaked  and  sifted  through  a  fine 
sieve.  Sometimes  oil  or  size  is  mixed  with  it  to 
make  it  work  better,  and  also  to  give  it  greater 
binding  properties ;  but  this  must  be  done  while 
the  lime  is  hot  and  dry,  and  one  pint  of  either  to 
half  a  bushel  of  lime  is  enough. 

If  chalk  lime  is  used,  one  peek  of  silver  sand 
is  sufficient  for  half  a  bushel  of  lime ;  but  if  grey 
lime  is  used,  it  will  take  double  that  quantity  of 
sand.  If  work  is  to  be  pointed,  it  must  be  well 
cleaned  down  from  top  to  bottom,  and  well  rubbed 
with  pieces  of  the  same  brick  as  the  wall  is  built 
with ;  this  will  give  the  work  a  level  surface. 
Brush  off  all  dust,  and  wet  it  well,  then  follow 
with  the  colour  and  give  it  one  coat  throughout ; 
if  it  should  require  two  coats,  let  one  get  well  set 
before  the  second  is  laid  on ;  but  if  it  only 
requires  one  coat,  the  work  is  ready  for  the 
stopping.  It  is  usual  to  do  this  in  lengths  of 
about  8  feet;  this  is  about  the  length  that  two 
men  will  work  when  laying  on  the  fine  stuff; 
and  if  this  is  taken  for  the  length  and  5  feet  for 
the  height,  it  will  be  quite  enough  at  one  time. 

We  sometimes  see  houses  stopped  in  from  top 
to  bottom  before  ever  a  putty  joint  is  laid  on  ; 
but  the  man  who  does  this  evidently  knows  but 
very  little  about  tuck-pointing,  for,  whenever 
this  is  done,  the  stopping  gets  so  dry  and  hard 
that  the  putty  will  not  combine  with  it  as  it 
ought,  and  it  will  fall  off  in  a  very  short   time, 


dO  bricklaying. 

The  work  is  also  so  besmeared  with  the  white 
stuflf,  that  it  has  more  the  appearance  of  being 
plaotered  than  tuck-pointed. 

TThen  the  length,  as  before  stated,  is  stopped 
in,  it  is  usual  to  rub  it  well  with  a  piece  of  dry 
sacking,  or  something  of  that  kind,  to  give  the 
stopping  and  bricks  the  appearance  of  being  one 
uniform  block.  Brush  ofi  all  dust,  and,  if  neces- 
sary, damp  it  with  the  stock-brush  carefully,  so 
as  not  to  disturb  the  stopping ;  then  gauge  the 
joints  at  each  end  of  the  rule  as  a  guide  for 
holding  it,  so  that  each  course  is  of  the  same 
thickness,  and  each  joint  perfectly  level  through- 
out. This  gauging  must  be  applied  to  all  work, 
whether  yellow,  white,  or  red,  and  it  would  be 
best  to  have  a  gauge-rod  expressly  for  this  pur- 
pose. The  cross-joints  should  be  perfectly  plumb 
from  top  to  bottom  of  the  building.  The  rule 
that  is  used  to  lay  on  the  bed-joints  (if  it  is  done 
with  the  jointers)  is  about  8  feet  long,  5  inches 
wide,  and  about  |  inch  thick ;  and  there  ought  to 
be  two  or  three  pieces  of  cork  a  quarter  of  an  inch 
thick  nailed  on  to  the  back,  to  keep  the  rule 
from  the  work,  so  as  to  allow  room  for  the  waste 
putty  that  is  cut  from  the  joint  to  fall  clear  to  the 
ground.  The  fine  stuff  is  spread  upon  this  rule, 
and  afterwards  taken  off  it  with  the  jointer  and 
laid  on  the  work  that  is  stopped  in,  according  to 
the  rule  when  it  is  held  to  the  gauge-marks. 
After  this  the  rough  edges  are  cut  off  with  a 
knife,  or  "  Frenchman,"  as  it  is  called.  This  is 
the  process  for  yellow  or  stock-work  pointing. 


Bed  brickwork  Is  treated  in  many  respects  quitt 
differently.  The  colour  used  for  this  is  composed 
of  1  lb.  of  Venetian  red,  and  1  lb.  of  Spanish 
brown  to  IJ  gallons  of  water ;  but  it  ought  to  be 
tried  in  the  same  way  as  copperas.  This  colour 
has  no  setting  properties,  therefore  it  is  necessary 
to  mix  something  with  it  that  has,  or  else  the 
first  shower  of  rain  will  surely  wash  it  off. 

One  of  the  best  things  to  use  for  this  purpose 
is  white  copperas.  This  must  be  dissolved  in 
warm  water,  and  1  lb.  will  set  about  3  gallons  of 
colour.  Alum  is  also  used  in  the  same  propor- 
tions ;  and  sometimes  half  a  gallon  of  stale  beer 
to  the  same  quantity  of  colour  for  setting. 

Bed  Stopping  is  composed  of  1  part  of  grey  lime 
to  3  parts  of  fine  washed  sand  (red  sand  would  be 
better,  as  it  would  take  less  colouring).  This  is 
coloured  with  Venetian  red  and  a  small  portion 
of  vegetable  black.  But  in  this  case  no  propor- 
tions can  be  given  as  there  are  so  many  different 
kinds  of  red  brick,  and  the  colour  that  would 
suit  one  would  look  very  badly  if  applied  to  an- 
other ;  therefore  it  is  best  for  the  workman  to 
try  these  colours,  and  match  them  with  the  bricks 
before  he  begins  to  point  the  real  work,  and  in 
all  cases  mix  enough  for  the  whole  of  the  point- 
ing, allowing  three  hods  of  stopping  to  200  feet 
of  work. 

This  class  of  work  is  done  in  the  same  way  as 
stock-work,  the  only  difierence  being  in  the  using 
the  colour.  Red  work  is  coloured  throughout 
first,  and  then  a  second  coat  is  laid  on  after  it  has 



been  stopped ;  this  is  done  very  lightly,  so  as  not 
to  rub  up  the  stopping. 

But  in  stock- vrork,  colouring  over  the  stopping 
should  never  be  done,  for  the  copperas  being  so 
strong  it  will  bring  out  a  white  hue,  and  make 
the  stopping  almost  as  white  as  the  putty  joint, 
giving  the  whole  of  the  work  a  very  bad  appear- 
ance. The  putty  for  red  work  is  just  the  same  as 
that  used  for  stock- work. 

WJiife  BricJiicork. — When  the  bricks  used  for 
this  work  are  sand- made,  they  only  require  well 
rubbing  down  before  pointing ;  but  should  there 
be  any  flesh-coloured  ones  among  them,  it  is  best 
to  leave  the  dust  on  the  face  after  rubbing  it,  and 
give  the  whole  a  coat  of  alum-water  ;  this  will 
set  the  dust  so  securely  on  the  face  of  the  bricks, 
that  no  quantity  of  water  will  wash  it  oflf,  and 
will  give  the  whole  front  a  regular  appearance. 
This  is  made  with  1  lb.  of  alum  dissolved  in  3 
gallons  of  hot  water  ;  and  if  it  can  be  laid  on  the 
work  when  warm,  so  much  the  better. 

The  stopping  for  this  kind  of  work  seldom 
wants  any  colouring,  the  sand  making  it  suffi- 
ciently dark  to  match  the  bricks. 

There  are  three  sorts  of  putty  used  for  this 
work  ;  white,  black,  and  sometimes  red. 

The  method  of  mixing  the  first  has  already 
been  explained,  therefore  it  is  unnecessary  to 
repeat  it. 

Black  Putty  requires  \  bushel  of  grey  lime, 
slaked  and  finely  sifted;  \\  bushels  of  very  fine 
washed,  or  silver  sand     and  12  lbs.  of  lamp-black 


or  vegetable  black :  the  last  named  is  much  easier 
to  mix  with  the  lime  and  sand.  Care  must  be 
taken  that  these  are  well  worked  into  one  another, 
if  not,  the  joint  will  have  a  bad  appearance  when 
laid  on  the  work. 

lied  Puff  I/. — This  is  made  in  the  same  way  as 
the  black,  only  the  colouring  is  different,  this 
being  done  with  Spanish  brown.  But,  as  in  red 
stopping,  the  colour  must  be  mixed  to  the  shade 

It  is  not  always  necessary  to  colour  brickwork ; 
and  if  the  bricks  are  all  of  one  colour,  such  as 
Suffolk  whites,  best  reds,  or  malms,  it  is  much 
better  not  to  do  so. 

But  if,  on  the  contrary,  the  bricks  are  inferior, 
they  cannot  bo  brought  to  a  uniform  colour 
without  it. 

The  putty-joint  in  all  tuck-pointing  ought  not 
to  exceed  a  quarter  of  an  inch  in  thickness. 
Arches  of  all  kinds,  except  those  that  are  gauged, 
are  pointed  in  the  same  way  as  plain  brickwork, 
but  the  joint  ought  to  be  smaller. 

Old  Brickwork. — ^Vhen  this  is  repointed  all  the 
old  mortar  must  be  raked  out  of  the  joints.  The 
whole  front  is  then  well  rubbed  with  pieces  of 
brick  to  clean  off  the  grease  and  dirt,  and  well 
swept  down  with  a  hard  broom  perfectly  clean,  so 
that  the  colour  may  enter  the  face  of  the  brick, 
and  after  this,  it  is  given  two  coats  of  red  colour 
or  green  copperas  as  the  case  may  be,  taking  care 
that  the  first  coat  is  dry  before  the  second  is  laid 
on,  also  that  both  are  dry  before  it  is  stopped  in. 


The  stopping  in  old  work  is  generally  smoothed 
down  level  with  the  face  of  the  bricks  with  the 
trowel,  and  not  rubbed  in  the  way  that  new  work 
usually  is ;  for  very  often  it  is  stopped  with  brown 
or  black  stopping,  if  it  is  stockwork,  and,  of  course, 
it  would  never  do  to  rub  it. 

Flat-Joint  Pointing. — This  is  of  three  kinds.  The 
first  is  laid  on  with  the  trowel  and  cut  ofi"  at  the 
top  only  with  the  Frenchman,  to  give  the  joint 
the  appearance  of  having  been  struck  when  tlie 
bricks  were  laid.  The  second  kind  is  cut  off  top 
and  bottom,  and  is  sometimes  called  "  half-tuck." 
And  the  third  is  simply  done  by  filling  up  each 
joint  flush  with  the  brick  ;  then  rub  it  over  with 
a  stock-brush  or  a  piece  of  sacking,  and  next  run 
a  line  in  the  centre  with  a  jointer  or  anything 
that  will  mark  it.  Inside  work  which  is  to  be 
whitewashed  or  coloured  is  the  only  work  which 
is  done  with  this  kind  of  pointing.  "Washed  sand 
and  lime  made  into  a  stiff  mortar  is  the  only 
pointing  material  required  for  flat-joint  pointing, 
but  the  darker  the  sand  the  better,  and  in  this 
case,  as  in  all  kinds  of  pointing,  the  work  should 
be  kept  well  damped,  for  upon  this  depends  the 
soundness  of  the  pointing. 

PAVING,    TILING,    USE    OF    MATERIALS,    ETC.      55 




Brick-paving. — This  kind  of  flooring  is  less  used 
in  London  than  it  is  in  the  country,  as  it  is  often 
the  practice  to  lay  the  floors  of  dwelling-houses 
in  many  parts  with  this  material ;  but  this  is 
seldom  done  in  the  metropolis,  unless  it  is  the 
cellar  floors,  and  these  are  usually  done  with  the 
stockbricks ;  good  paviours  and  Dutch  clinkers 
being  used  only  for  stables,  coach-houses,  &c. 
These  are  laid  in  various  ways,  such  as  brick-flat, 
brick-on-edge,  and  sometimes  it  is  herringboned. 
Plain  Paving  is  that  which  is  laid  in  parallel 
courses.     This  needs  no  explanation  further  than 











Fig.  »4. 

that  which  will  be  given  in  connection  with  the 
other  kinds.  But  herringbone  paving.  Fig.  34, 
will  be  found  much  more  difficult,  both  in  setting 
out  and  also  after  it  is  set  out,  in  the  working. 

66  BR1CK.LAY1-NG. 

The  first  thing  that  must  be  done  is  to  get  the 
floor-line,  at  any  point  such  as  a,  and,  if  necessary, 
drive  a  stake  into  the  ground  as  a  starting-point 
to  take  the  levels  from.  From  this  point  level  to 
each  corner  of  the  room,  taking  care  to  reverse  the 
level  every  length,  for  very  often  the  level  is  not 
correct,  and  the  work  is  thereby  thrown  out.  But 
if  this  is  done  it  cannot  happen.  After  the  levels 
are  taken,  the  ground  must  be  dug  out  deep 
enough  to  receive  the  brick  and  its  bed  below  the 
level  line;  if  this  is  hrkh-Hat,  3  inches  will  be 
enough,  but  if  on  edge,  it  will  take  5  inches ;  then 
with  a  pair  of  lines  lay  a  temporary  course  of 
brick,  as  shown  from  d  to  c  and  from  a  to  b,  and 
the  line  is  drawn  to  these  courses  to  keep  the  work 
level  on  the  surface  and  also  to  show  if  the  points 
of  the  herringbone  are  correct,  as  shown  by  the 
line  E  F.  Iso  bricks  ought  to  be  cut  against  the 
straight  temporary  courses,  but  leave  them  as  a 
toothing  to  be  filled  up  afterwards.  All  diagonal 
joints  should  cut  in  a  line,  in  the  same  way  as 
those  explained  in  Figs.  7  and  8,  and  those  figures 
will  serve  for  a  guide  for  hruk-on-edge  paving, 
Fig.  34  representing  hrich-Ji<it  only.  But  the 
straight  temporary  courses  are  laid  for  all  sorts  of 
brick  paving. 

2'ih -paving  is  very  much  in  practice,  both  plain 
and  ornamental,  notwithstandiag  the  great  quan- 
tities of  asphalte  Portland  cement  and  York 
paving  used.  These  tiles  vary  in  thickness  from 
two  inches  to  three-eighths  of  an  inch.  Plain 
tiling  is    generally   done  with   tiles,   12,  9,  and 

PAAHNG,    TILING,    USE   OF    MATERIALS,    ETC.       57 

G  inches  square  ;  aud  these  are  laid  in  parallel 
courses  with  one  side  of  the  room,  yard,  or  surface 
that  requires  paving.  Should  the  tiles  be  of  dif- 
ferent colours,  it  is  usual  to  lay  them  diagonally, 
80  that  the  different  colours  form  diamonds.  The 
methods  of  executing  this  kind  of  paving  are 
much  the  same  as  the  others.  But  for  very 
thin  or  ornamental  tiling  the  whole  surface  is 
*'  screeded  "  perfectly  level  with  Portland  cement 
mixed  with  sand ;  and  when  sufficiently  hard,  the 
tdes  are  laid  with  a  thin  bed  of  pure  cement, 
according  to  a  design  ;  by  frequently  applying  the 
straight-edge,  the  work  will  be  brought  to  a 
uniform  surface. 


Roofing-tiles. — These  are  of  two  kinds,  plain 
tiles,  which  are  quite  flat,  with  two  holes  near  the 
head  of  the  tile,  through  which  oak  pins  are 
placed,  aud  by  this  means  the  tiles  are  laid  or 
hung  to  the  laths  of  the  roof;  and  pantiles,  which 
are  much  larger.  These  are  hollow,  or  curve- 
shaped,  and  are  hung  on  the  laths  with  a  project- 
ing ear,  which  is  called  the  nob  of  the  tile  ;  and 
each  course  overlaps  the  previous  one  with  a  roll. 
This  tiling  is  done  much  better  in  the  country 
than  in  London,  owing,  in  a  great  measure,  to 
the  tiles  being  made  with  greater  care,  and  better 
shaped.  If  this  work  is  properly  gauged,  the 
courses  ought  to  fit  perfectly  close  one  to  the 
other,  so  as  to  prevent  the  wind  getting  under 
them  and  lifting  them  off. 


In  preparing  the  roof  for  tiling,  it  is  necessary 
to  lath  it  with  inch  laths.  These  are  called  pan- 
iiJe  Mhs.  To  do  this,  each  outside  rafter  (that  is, 
the  rafter  that  is  nearest  to  each  gable)  should  be 
gauged  out  according  to  the  gauge  of  the  tiles. 
This  is  done  from  the  eaves  to  the  ridge,  taking 
care  to  allow  for  the  eaves  projecting  over  the  wall- 
plates,  so  as  to  carry  off  the  water.  This  is  easily 
ascertained  by  fitting  a  tile  on  to  the  eaves  before 
gauging  the  roof.  Nails  are  then  temporarily 
driven  into  the  rafter  at  each  length  of  the  gauge, 
and  to  these  nails  a  line  is  drawn,  as  a  guide  line 
for  lathing  the  roof. 

Where  these  tiles  are  used  for  dwelling  houses, 
each  space  between  the  pantile  laths  is  covered 
with  small  laths,  and  these  are  covered  with  a 
bed  of  mortar,  to  answer  for  a  bed  for  the  tile, 
and  also  to  keep  out  the  wind  ;  but  in  common 
tiling  this  is  not  done,  as  pointing  the  tiles  inside 
answers  much  the  same  purpose.  The  roof  ought 
to  be  gauged  out  lengthways  also,  the  width 
of  each  course,  so  as  to  finish  exactly  even  courses 
at  the  gable.  For  not  unfrequently  we  see  roofs 
covered  at  random,  and  finished  with  a  broken  or 
cut  course  against  the  gable,  and  this  will 
generally  be  found  to  be  the  first  place  where  the 
water  penetrates  through,  thereby  causing  a  great 
deal  of  injury  to  the  roof,  ceilings,  &c. 

Plmn  Tiling  is  worked  much  in  the  same  way; 
but  of  course  the  gauge  is  less.  They  are  some- 
times hung  with  two  little  nobs  instead  of  pins. 
In  plain  tiling,  the  roof  needs  only  to  be  gauged 

PAVING,    TILING,    USE   OF   MATERIALS,    ETC.      59 

from  the  eaves  to  the  ridge ;  the  guide  length- 
ways is  simply  to  keep  the  second  course  half 
bond  on  the  first,  and  so  on  throughout  the  roof. 
The  setting  of  ridge-tiles  needs  no  explanation, 
as  it  is  only  necessary  to  keep  them  level  and 
straight  along  the  ridge-tree ;  the  difierent  gauges 
will  be  given  further  on. 

It  is  the  practice  in  buildings  of  any  import- 
ance to   construct  fireproof    floors,  and  this    is 

sometimes  done  by  turning  brick  arches  upon 
wrought  iron  girders  as  shown  in  Fig.  35.  But 
of  late  years  it  has  been  found  that  plain  tiles 
will  answer  this  purpose  equally  as  well  as  bricks, 
without  the  disadvantage  of  being  so  heavy.  Not 
only  that,  but  the  depth  of  the  girder  can  be 
greatly  reduced,  for  often  where  a  6-inch  girder 
would  be  required  for  brick  arches,  those  3  inches 
in  depth  would  do  for  tiles,  so  saving  the  3  inches 
in  the  thickness  of  the  flooring.  And  not  only 
fireproof  floors,  but  many  flat  roofs  have  been 
covered  with  two  or  three  courses  of  tiles,  either 

Fig.  36. 

laid  flat  upon  the  girders,  as  shown  in  Fig.  36, 
or  arched  as  Fig.  35  ;  but  by  all  means  let  them 
break  joint.  The  tiles  should  be  well  wetted, 
and  the  finer  the  sand  used  with  the  cement  for 


bedding  them  the  better.  This  construction  of 
floors,  &c.,  although  appearing  very  slight,  will 
carry  an  immense  weight,  if  the  cement  used  is  of 
good  quality. 


One  of  the  principal  things  necessary  to  the 
carrying  out  of  a  building  is  the  scaflolding, 
and  great  care  ought  to  be  taken  in  selecting 
the  men  that  are  to  do  it,  for  upon  their 
care  and  foresight  often  depends  the  lives  of  the 
other  men  engaged  on  the  work.  Scaffold- 
ing in  general  use  for  brickwork  consists  of 
standards,  ledgers,  putlogs,  and  boards.  The 
standards  and  ledgers  are  of  fir,  and  of  various 
lengths  up  to  50  feet,  and  are  about  7  inches 
diameter  at  the  butt  end.  Foreign  poles  are 
much  better  adapted  for  scaffolding  than  English, 
on  account  of  their  freedom  from  knots,  and 
their  being  thinner  according  to  the  length. 
Putlogs  are  usually  made  of  birch  4  inches  square 
by  6  feet  in  length.  Cords  and  wedges  are  used 
to  fasten  the  standards,  ledgers,  and  putlogs  in 
their  proper  places.  Standards  are  placed  up- 
right about  5  feet  from  the  wall  and  10  feet 
apart  throughout  the  length  of  the  building. 

The  ledgers  are  tied  up  horizontally  to  the 
standards  to  support  the  putlogs;  these  are 
placed  crossways  with  one  end  resting  on  the 
ledger,  and  the  other  in  the  wall,  and  upon  these 
putlogs  the  boards  are  laid  to  complete  the 
scaffold  ;    the  latter  are  of  diflerent  lengths  up  to 

I'AVING,    TILING,    USE    OF    MATERIALS,    ETC.     61 

14  or]  6  feet;  in  no  case  should  scaffolding  be 
used  if  it  is  rotten,  or  likely  to  break  ;  it  some- 
limes  happens  that  the  butts  are  decayed  a  little 
and  the  other  parts  of  the  pole  perfectly  sound  ; 
in  this  case  it  is  best  to  cut  off  the  bad  part. 
The  standards  should  be  let  into  the  ground  about 
two  feet,  and  the  earth  firmly  rammed  round 
them,  to  keep  them  upright ;  and  where  the  soil 
is  soft,  pieces  of  brick  or  stones  should  first  be 
rammed  in  the  bottom  of  the  hole,  to  keep  the 
pole  from  settling  down  when  the  scaffold  is 
loaded  ;  for  should  the  poles  sink  the  putlogs  will 
act  as  levers  and  overturn  the  wall. 

When  one  length  of  poles  is  not  sufficient,  two 
are  lashed  together,  top  and  butt,  and  diagonal 
braces  are  then  fixed,  to  prevent  the  scaffold  from 
moving  in  auy  way. 

Relieving  Arches. 

All  openings  in  walls  for  doorways,  windows, 
&c.,  where  wood  lintels  are  used  as  attachments 
for  internal  fittings,  should  be  arched  over  with 
relieving  arches  throughout  the  whole  thickness 
of  the  wall.  And  the  springing  of  such  arches 
ought  always  to  be  beyond  the  end  of  the  lintel. 
If  beams  of  any  kind  or  joists  are  to  be  built  into 
the  walls,  it  is  best  to  leave  recesses  for  the  timber, 
so  that  the  brickwork  is  not  built  upon  it,  as  it  is 
liable  to  lead  to  settlements,  and  frequently  the 
cause  of  the  fronts  of  houses  being  bulged  out  just 
where  the  joist  runs  into  the  inside  of  the  wall. 

When  iron  girders  enter  brick  walls  to  support 


fireproof  floors,  iron  bressummers  (to  support  the 
other  \^ork  over  shop  fronts,  &c.),  York  stone 
templates  are  bedded  in  the  wall  for  the  ends  of 
the  girders  to  rest  upon,  so  as  to  distribute  the 
weight  over  as  large  a  bearing-area  as  possible. 

Bakers'  Ovens. 

To  construct  a  baker's  oven  to  heat  with  coals  : 
the  size  of  the  base  having  been  arranged,  it  should 
be  carried  up  to  the  height  of  the  furnace  door, 
and  the  ashpit  left  according  to  the  width  of  the 
door  and  the  length  of  the  furnace-bars,  allowing 
for  the  door  being  set  4^  inches  from  the  face  of 
the  brickwork.  Let  the  frame  and  door  be  about 
a  foot  square,  like  the  fumace-door  of  a  copper,  and 
the  bars  about  20  inches  long,  and  level  with  the 
bottom  of  the  oven  and  of  the  door.  Let  the  flue 
be  about  16  inches  square,  for  the  fire  to  shoot  into 
the  oven  from  the  shoulder  where  the  furnace  is 
straight  across  to  the  opposite  angle  of  the  OTen, 
and  by  the  fire  catching  the  crown  in  its  course 
it  will  spread  all  round.  Let  a  register  be  fixed 
in  the  flue,  aud  the  copper  five  or  six  inches  above 
the  furnace,  not  so  as  to  get  too  hot,  for  it  is 
usually  tcarm  water  only  that  is  required  in  a 
bakehouse.  A  register  should  be  fixed  within  a 
little  of  where  the  flue  enters  the  oven,  and  rise 
slanting ;  which,  being  stopped  when  the  oven  is 
hot  enough,  leads  into  the  chimney  flue.  The 
general  rise  of  the  crown  above  the  floor  is  from 
18  to  20  inches.  Sometimes  the  oven  is  con- 
structed without  the  copper.     And  perhaps  it  is 

PAVING,    TILING,    USE   OF    MATERIALS,    ETC.      63 

the  best  plan ;  for  it  is  certain  the  two  will  act 
better  apart  than  they  do  together  ;  but  of  course 
the  latter  is  a  little  the  cheapest  as  regards  fuel. 

But  in  building  ovens,  as  well  as  many  other 
things,  the  work  is  done  according  to  the  situa- 
tion and  the  owner's  convenience.  At  all  events, 
the  side  walls,  from  which  the  crown  of  the  oven 
springs,  ought  not  to  be  less  than  2|^  bricks  thick, 
and  the  crown  sj)ringing  from  about  9  inches 
above  the  floor.  The  angles  should  all  intersect, 
and  all  be  laid  with  as  close  joint  as  possible. 

When  the  oven  is  "  domed,"  spread  some  sand 
on  the  top,  so  that  when  the  work  gets  dry  the 
sand  may  fill  up  any  cracks. 

Smoky  Chimneys. 

The  causes  of  these  are  so  various,  that  it  is 
impossible  to  lay  down  any  general  rule  as  a  cure. 
But  perhaps  the  following  remarks  may  be  found 
useful : — 

The  evil  is  generally  in  the  construction.  The 
flues  are  often  too  large  or  too  small,  or 
otherwise  the  chimney-shaft  is  not  carried  up 
high  enough  to  prevent  the  wind  from  blowing 
over  the  roofs  adjoining,  and  so  the  smoke  is 
prevented  from  rising.  And  again,  it  is  not 
unfrequently  we  see  pots  placed  upon  the  chimneys 
of  a  house  all  of  a  uniform  size  and  shape.  It 
matters  not  whether  the  flue  leads  from  a  draw- 
ing-room fire  or  a  kitchen,  while  perhaps  the 
latter  produces  nearly  double  the  smoke  of  the 
former ;     the    result    is,    the    kitchen   chimnej 


smokes,  owing  to  tlie  flue  being  cramped  up  at 
the  top.  Another  cause  of  kitchen  chimneys 
smoking,  is  when  other  flues  are  connected  with 
them  ;  lor  instance,  when  cooking  apparatus  is 
fixed  in  a  kitchen,  it  is  thought  well  to  connect  the 
flue  with  the  flue  from  the  kitchen-rano-e  :  and  this 
is  usually  done  about  2  or  3  feet  above  the  fire- 
place. This  may  answer  very  well  if  the  two  are 
always  in  use  at  the  same  time.  But,  should  the 
kitchen  fire  alone  be  required,  it  is  very  likely 
the  cold  air  from  the  flue  of  the  apparatus  will 
enter  straight  into  the  kitchen-flue,  just  at  the 
entrauce  of  the  shaft,  and  prevent  the  smoke  from 

The  author  has  proved  the  whole  of  these  evils, 
and  therefore  knows  them  to  exist. 

No  chimney-flue  of  a  dweUiug-house  ought  to 
be  less  than  9  inches  by  14  ;  and  the  kitchen  flue 
ought  to  be  14  inches  square  throughout  the 
entire  length  of  the  chimney. 

The  shaft  ought  to  be  carried  up  above  the 
highest  part  of  the  roof;  and  if  chimney-pots 
are  used,  they  ought  to  be  all  of  one  height,  and 
the  area  of  the  end  of  the  pot  equal  the  top  of  the 
fine.  In  building  the  flues,  turn  them  first  one 
way  and  then  the  other,  so  as  to  prevent  the  rain 
Irom  falling  down  the  chimney,  and  also  to  give 
it  a  sharper  draught.  But  care  must  be  taken 
that  the  flues  have  the  same  tt£K)m  for  the  smok& 

PAVING,    TILING,    USE    OF    MATERIALS.    ETC.     65 

To  Proportio:n  "Windows  to  Rooms. 

To  give  the  proper  light,  neither  too  much  nor 
too  little,  multiply  the  length  of  the  room  by  the 
breadth,  and  that  product  by  the  height,  and  out 
of  this  extract  the  square  root,  which  root  will  be 
the  space  to  give  the  proper  light  for  the  room, 
and  may  be  divided  into  as  many  windows  as  the 
room  will  allow. 

Suppose  the  room  to  be  22  feet  long  by  18  feet 
wide,  the  product  will  be  396,  and  multiplied  by 
the  height,  11  feet,  the  product  will  be  4,356, 
whose  square  root  is  66,  which  will  be  the  area 
of  light  space  of  the  room,  and  may  be  divided 
iuto  3  windows  of  22  feet  each.  This  is  thought 
to  be  the  best  rule  for  the  purpose. 

Materials,  their  Use,  etc. 

A  rod  of  brickwork  laid  4  courses  to  11| 
inches  requires  4,530  stock  bricks. 

A  rod  of  brickwork  laid  4  courses  to  the  foot, 
4,350  bricks. 

N.B. — 420  stocks  weigh  about  1  ton,  and  460 
go  to  a  cubic  yard.  Sometimes  the  number  of 
bricks  to  a  rod  of  brickwork  will  be  4,500  allow- 
ing for  waste,  and  the  amount  of  lime  and  sand  to 
equal  the  above  would  be  about  22  bushels  of  the 
former  to  77  of  the  latter. 

But,  of  course,  this  is  beyond  what  it  really 
takes  for  ordinary  buildings ;  but  some  require  a 
great  deal  more  cutting,  and  so  a  greater  quantity 


of  bricks  are  spoiled.  For  dwelling-houses,  &c., 
4,300  to  a  rod  is  sufficient. 

If  laid  dr}',  5,370  bricks  to  tke  rod. 

And  in  wells  and  circular  cesspools,  4,900. 

Should  there  be  any  odd  feet  in  the  calculations 
for  buildings  in  general,  it  is  usual  to  reckon  16 
bricks  to  the  foot  standard  thickness. 

A  rod  of  brickwork,  laid  4  courses  to  the  foot, 
contains  235  cubic  feet  of  bricks  and  71  cubic  feet 
of  mortar,  and  weighs  about  14|  tons ;  but,  of 
course,  this  depends  upon  the  bricks,  whether 
they  are  wet  or  dry. 

A  rod  of  brickwork  measures  16^  feet  square, 
1|  bricks  thick  (which  is  called  the  reduced  or 
standard  thickness),  or  272  feet  3  inches  super- 
ficial; or  306  cubic  feet,  or  II5  cubic  yards. 
These  are  the  measurements  in  general  use.  But 
sometimes  18  feet  are  allowed  to  the  rod,  that  is, 
324  square  feet ;  and  also  the  rod  of  21  feet  long 
and  3  feet  high,  that  is  63  square  feet.  In  this 
case  no  regard  is  paid  to  the  thickness  of  the  wall 
in  measuring.  But  the  price  is  regulated  accord- 
ing to  the  thickness. 

Nevertheless,  all  calculations  in  this  little  work 
will  be  to  the  rod  of  272  feet  3  inches. 

A  rod  of  brickwork  requires  1^  cubic  yards  of 
chalk  lime  and  3  single  loads  of  sand,  or  one 
cubic  yard  of  grey  lime  and  3|  loads  of  sand,  or 
24  bushels  of  Portland  cement  and  48  bushels  of 
sharp  sand. 

A  cubic  yard  of  mortar  requires  7  bushels  of 
grey  lime  and  23  bushels  of  sand. 

PAVING,    TILING,    USE   OF    MATERIALS,    1-TC.       67 

Lime  and  sand  and  also  cement  and  sand  lose 
one-third  of  their  bulk  when  made  up  into 
mortar ;  therefore  the  proportion  of  mortar  or 
cement  when  made  up  is  to  the  lime  and  sand 
or  cement  and  sand,  as  when  dry,  2  to  3. 

Lime  or  cement  and  sand  to  make  mortar  require 
as  much  water  as  equals  one- third  of  their  bulk. 

A  standard  yard  of  brickwork  laid  4  courses  to 
the  foot,  requires  f  bushel  of  cement  and  I5 
bushel  of  sand  and  150  bricks. 

One  barrel  of  cement,  containing  5  bushels, 
cask  included,  weighs  about  3f  hundreds. 

A  yard  of  9-inch  wall  requires  ^  bushel 
of  cement,  1  bushel  of  sand,  and  100  stock 

4|-inch  facing  requires  7  bricks  per  superficial 

45-inch  gauged-work  requires  10  bricks  per 
superficial  foot. 

Brick  noggin g  per  yard  superficial  requires 
30  bricks  on  edge,  or  47  laid  flat. 

30  hods  of  mortar  equal  one  load. 

A  measure  of  lime  is  27  cubic  feet,  and  contains 
21  striked  bushels. 

27  cubic  feet,  or  one  cubic  yard,  is  called 
a  single  load ;  and  two  cubic  yards  a  double 

A  hundred  of  lime  is  25  bushels. 

The  weight  of  a  bushel  of  well-burnt  chalk 
lime  is  from  36  to  38  lbs. ;  and  grey  stone  lime 
from  46  to  59  lbs. 

Paving  with  bricks  or  tiles  requires  1  yard  of 



sand  to  every  12  yards,  or  if  laid  and  grouted  in 
with  mortar,  1|  bushels  of  lime  and  4  bushels  of 
sand  to  12  yards. 

Stock  brick,  flat  paving,  requires  36  per  yard  super. 

„           ou  edge 



Paving  bricks,  laid  flat 



„               on  edge 
Dutch  clinkers,  laid  iiat 




„                on  edge 
12- inch  paving  tiles 
lO-iiich            „ 
6-inch             „ 






With  pantiles  .     . 

Gaupe  in 


.      12     . 

Number  required 
.      150 

99                     •        • 

.      11 

.     160 

.     10 

.     ISO 

With  plain  tiles     . 

.       4 
.       3 
.       3 


.     600 
.     700 
.     800 

N.B. — These  figures  are  quite  near  enough  as  regards  quan- 
tities ;  but  as  a  rule  the  tiles  are  tried  before  the  roof  is  laihed, 
to  find  the  correct  gauge,  as  they  are  of  various  shapes  and  sizes. 

A  square  of  pan  tiling  requires  2  bundles  of  5  ft. 
laths,  and  1,000  of  sixpenny  nails,  if  small  lathed. 

A  square  of  plain  tiling  requires  about  1  bundle 
of  oak  laths,  5  score  to  the  bundle,  5  feet  long — if 
4  feet  long  there  is  6  score,  and  if  3  feet  long, 
8  score,  to  the  bundle;  450  nails ;  3  hods  of  mortar, 
or  lime  and  hair ;  and,  if  the  tiles  are  hung  with 
pins,  between  half  a  peck  and  a  peck  will  be 
required  ;  oak  j^ins  are  those  usually  used. 

All  pantiling  is  executed  by  working  from  the 
eaves  to  the  ridge  each  course,  and  from  the 
right-hand  end  of  the  roof  to  the  left.  But  plain 
tiles  are  hung  in  horizontal  courses  the  whole 
length  of  the  roof  from  right  to  left. 

Flat  plain  tiling  for  floors,  flat  roofs,  &c.,   if 

PAVING,    TILING,    USE    OF    MATERIALS,    ETC.     6P 

two  courses  thick,  420  tiles,  3  bushels  of  Portland 
cement,  and  6  bushels  of  sharp  washed  sand  for  a 
square  superficial;  and  210  tiles,  1|  bushels  of 
cement,  and  3  bushels  of  sand  for  every  extra 

A  measure,  yard,  or  load,  of  lime,  sand,  or  earth 
is  27  cubic  feet  or  21  striked  bushels. 

A  chaldron  is  41  cubic  feet,  and  contains 
32  bushels. 

A  labourer's  hod  measures  1  foot  4  inches  by 
9  inches  by  9,  and  will  hold  14  bricks,  or  three- 
quarters  of  a  cubic  foot  of  mortar  or  cement. 

The  following  is  a  table  of  sizes  and  weights  of 
various  articles  used  by  the  bricklayer  : — 












lbs.  0Z8. 

Siock  bricks,  each  .     . 







0     4 

Paving     „         „      .     . 







4     0 

Dutch  clinkers,  each    . 







1     8 

r2-in.  paving  tiles,  each 






13     0 

10-in.             „            „ 







9     0 

9-in.             „             ,, 







7     5 

Pantiles,  each     .     .     . 







5     4 

Plain  tiles,  each  .     .     . 







2     5 

Pantile  laths  per  10  ft.  ^ 
bundle j 







4     6 

Ditto  per  12  ft.  bundle 







0     0 

(N.B. — A  bundle  con- 

tains 12  laths.) 

Plain   tile    laths    per ) 
bundle | 







0  12 

(30  bundles  1  load.) 

A  square  of  pantiling  requires    1   bundle   of 
pantile  laths  12  feet  long,  and  144  2- inch  nails. 




Ix  many  parts  of  the  country  the  slater's  business, 
&c.,  is  done  by  the  bricklayer.  And  where  such  is 
the  case,  all  materials  for  shelves,  cisterns,  baths, 
lavatories,  &c.,  are  worked  by  the  stone  mason  ; 
for,  as  a  rule,  there  is  not  suflBcient  work  in  small 
towns  to  keep  a  slater  exclusively  for  that  busi- 
ness, and  in  many  country  towns  and  villages 
slates  are  not  used  for  anything  but  the  covering 
of  roofs.  As  a  general  rule,  all  men  in  the  build- 
ing trade  understand  what  tools  the  slater  uses, 
and  also  what  they  are  used  for ;  therefore  it  is 
quite  unnecessary  to  describe  them. 

It  is  best  in  all  cases,  if  possible,  that  the  quan- 
tity of  slates  required  for  the  roof  should  be 
brought  to  the  building  before  the  slater  begins 
to  woi'k  ;  then  he  will  see  the  whole  of  them,  and 
sort  them  out  accordingly  :  this  is  done  by  divid- 
ing the  slates  into  three  thicknesses, — these  are 
thicks,  middlings,  and  thins  ;  this  is  done  so  that 
the  thickest  slates  should  be  at  the  bottom,  the 
middling  ones  next,  and  the  thinnest  nearest  the 
ridge  ;  it  is  also  essential  to  the  soundness  as  well 
as  the  appearance  of  slating.  After  this  they  are 
all  dressed  to  one  size,  and  the  edges  trimmed 
perfectlj''  straight,  gauged,  and  the  holes  made. 

The  upper  surface  of  a  slate  is  called  its  back  ; 
the  under  surface  the  bed;  the  top  edge  the  head; 



and  the  bottom  the  tail ;  that  part  of  the  slate 
which  is  exposed  to  view  when  hung,  the  "  mar- 
gin "  of  the  course ;  and  the  width  of  the  margin 
is  the  gauge ;  the  "  lap "  is  that  distance  by 
which  the  tail  of  the  third  course  overlaps  the 
head  of  the  first,  as  shown  in  Fig,  37.      In  some 


cases  the  slate  Is  fastened  with  the  nails  driven  as 
near  the  head  as  possible ;  but  it  will  be  found 
much  better,  both  for  the  soundness  and  also 
appearance,  if  the  nails  for  the  second  course  are 
driven  in  just  above  the  head  of  the  first,  because 
if  the  slate  is  fastened  with  the  nails  near  the 
middle,  it  is  evident  the  wind  cannot  have  the 
leverage  that  it  would  if  it  were  fastened  at  the 
head.  The  gauge  of  all  kinds  of  slates  used  for 
covering  roof  will  be  equal  to  half  the  distance 
from  the  tail  to  the  head,  less  the  lap.  For 
instance,  suppose  the  lap  to  be  2  inches,  and  a 
countess  slate  20  inches  from  tail  to  head,  first 
deduct  2  inches,  the  lap,  from  20  inches,  the  length, 
of  the  slate,  this  leaves  18  inches  ;  half  18  inches 
is  therefore  the  gauge  of  a  countess  slate  with  a 
2-inch  lap. 


After  the  slates  are  gauged,  perhaps  it  would 
be  best  to  lay  one  of  them  on  the  roof  at  the 
eaves,  letting  it  project  over  for  the  drip,  according 
to  arrangement — this  is  generally  about  3  inches ; 
and  by  so  doing  it  will  easily  be  seen  where  the 
first  lath  should  be  nailed  on  the  rafters,  and  from 
the  top  of  the  first  lath  to  the  top  of  the  second, 
and  so  on,  is  the  gauge.  The  first  lath  at  the 
eaves  ought  to  be  a  little  thicker  than  the  others, 
80  as  to  give  the  first  course  of  slates  its  springing ; 
and  the  ends  of  the  lath,  at  the  gables,  ought  also 
to  be  raised  up  about  three-eighths  of  an  inch  to 
throw  the  water  off;  if  not,  it  will  frequently  soak 
between  the  cement  fillets  or  under  the  lead 
flushing  and  so  enter  the  roof. 

All  slating  laths  should  be  from  two  to  three 
inches  wide  and  five-eighths  of  an  inch  thick. 
The  nails  used  should  be  either  copper  or  zinc. 
Iron  nails  are  sometimes  used,  but  they  are  very 
liable  to  rust,  and  so  after  a  short  time  become  of 
no  use.  All  slates  ought  to  be  fastened  with  two 
nails.  Doubles  and  Ladies  are  sometimes  fastened 
with  only  one,  on  account  of  their  smallness,  but 
it  is  inferior  work. 

The  TVelsh  slates  are  generally  considered  the 
best,  and  are  of  a  light  sky-blue  colour.  West- 
moreland slates  are  of  a  greenish  hue.  It  fre- 
quently happens,  when  roofs  are  covered  with 
these  slates,  that  the  slater  has  to  deal  with  those 
of  various  sizes,  and  of  course  this  requires  more 
skill,  for  he  not  only  has  to  arrange  them  so  that 
they  shall  break  joint  one  with  another,  but  the 



latliiDg  must  also  be  gauged  accordingly.  In 
this  case  the  largest  and  thickest  slates  are  hung 
at  the  bottom,  and  the  smallest  and  thinnest  at 
the  top,  nearest  the  ridge ;  and  a  great  deal  of 
care  must  be  taken  in  trimming  and  sorting 

The  gauge  is  taken  in  the  same  way  as  other 
kinds  of  slating,  that  is,  according  to  the  length. 

The  following  is  a  table  of  sizes  and  gauges  of 
roofing  slates : — 




Number  per 








ft.   in. 

ft.    in. 


Doubles     .     . 

1      1 

0     6 





Ladies .     .     . 

1     4 

0     8 






1     8 

0   10 





Duchesses,     . 

2     0 

1     0 





EagSjQunens  "i 

and  West-  | 

morelands,  1- 

A  square  of  these  we 

ighs  abo 

ut  half  a  ton. 

of  various  1 
sizes     .     .  J 

Thr  methods  of  hanging  slates  vary  according 
to  the  different  situations  and  also  the  slates  that 
are  used.  But  in  all  plain  work  it  is  best,  if  pos- 
sible, to  strain  a  line  for  the  eaves*  course,  and  so 
fix  the  slates  to  it ;  also,  to  run  each  course  hori- 
zontally throughout  the  length  of  the  roof.  This 
is  done  by  gauging  the  margin  of  the  course  at 
each  end  upon  the  first  course,  and  straining  a 
chalked  line  from  end  to  end,  so  making  a  mark 



for  a  guide  to  get  the  second  course  perfectly 
straight  and  parallel  with  the  first. 

^yhen  the  roof  is  slated  as  high  up  as  it  is  pos- 
sible to  reach  from  the  eavt-.s,  a  scafibld  is  erected. 
This  is  sometimes  done  with  a  scaffold-pole,  or  a 
piece  of  quartering  being  hung  from  the  ridge- 
tree  with  scaffold-cords.  But  it  is  much  better  to 
make  it  with  hano'ing  trestles  in  the  form  of  an 
equal-sided  triangle,  with  an  iron  hook  at  the 
top,  so  as  to  fasten  it  to  the  ridge  with  cords ; 
after  which  scaffold-boards  are  laid  upon  them. 
This  will  be  a  much  more  convenient  scaffold 
than  the  previous  one,  and  is  easily  raised  or 
lowered  as  required.  For  all  hips  and  valleys  it 
is  usual  to  fix  the  trimming-block  to  one  of  the 
rafters  or  somewhere  convenient,  so  that  each  slate 
can  be  cut  according  to  the  shape  required  with- 
out the  necessity  of  going  off  the  roof. 

It  is  sometimes  thought  best  to  point  slating 
inside  with  lime  and  hair ;  but,  certainly,  if  the 
slating  is  properly  executed,  this  is  unnecessary ; 
and  if  it  is  to  keep  out  the  little  wind  that  would 
otherwise  pass  between  them  one  would  think  they 
would  be  belter  without  it,  for  we  all  know  how 
very  hot  buildings  that  are  slated  usually  are, 
particularly  in  summer  time. 


The  business  of  the  plasterer  chiefly  consists  in 
covering  walls,  ceilings,  brick  or  wood  partitions, 
floors,  &c.,  with  cements,  limes,  and  plaster,  in 
order  to  bring  them  to  a  uniform  surface  to  re- 


ceive  the  painting,  paper-hanging,  or  distemper- 
ing. This  part  is  usually  done  by  the  bricklayer 
in  small  towns  and  villages,  but  in  London  it 
forms  a  separate  trade.  But  the  decorative  por- 
tions of  the  finishing  of  buildings,  such  as  run- 
ning cornices,  mouldings,  making  and  fixing 
centre  flowers,  &c.,  is  almost  exclusively  done  by 
the  plasterer.  All  internal  plastering,  as  a  rule, 
is  done  with  chalk  lime,  hair,  plaster  of  Paris, 
and  Keen's  and  Martin's  cements.  The  following 
are  the  different  methods  of  mixing  them  : — 

Li))ie  and  Hair,  or  Coarse  Stuff. — For  this  pur- 
pose the  sand  should  be  clean,  sharp,  and  screened. 
Then  form  a  pan  to  receive  the  lime.  This  is 
slacked  in  a  tub,  and  sufiicient  water  is  afterwards 
added  to  bring  it  to  the  consistence  of  cream,  and 
is  then  run  through  a  fine  oieve  into  the  pan 
formed  with  the  sand.  After  a  sufficient  quantity 
is  run  out  to  carry  the  sand,  the  hair  is  thrown 
into  the  lime,  and  thoroughly  raked  about  with  a 
two-pronged  rake,  so  as  to  part  the  hair  and  mix 
it  well  with  the  mortar ;  but  it  would  be  better 
to  run  the  lime  into  putty,  as  for  fine  stuff,  and 
when  cold  mix  the  hair  with  it ;  this  will  not  be 
so  apt  to  rot  the  hair,  and  so  add  to  the  stability 
of  the  work 

For  this  purpose  bullocks'  hair  is  generally 
used,  and  this  should  be  well  beaten  with  small 
laths,  or  else  laid  in  water  a  day  or  two  before  it 
is  mixed  with  the  lime.  The  whole  is  then 
mixed,  and  allowed  to  lie  for  a  short  time. 

Fine  Stuff',  or  Putty,  is  made  of  pure  lime,  and 


is  mixed  in  the  same  way  as  lime  used  for  coarse 
stuff;  but  instead  of  running  it  into  a  pan  of 
sand,  this  is  run  into  a  "  putty  bin,"  built  with 
bricks  according  to  the  size  required,  and  allowed 
to  remain  there  until  the  evaporation  of  the  water 
has  brought  it  to  a  proper  thickness  for  use  :  if 
the  water  rise  to  the  top,  it  can  be  drawn  off  if 
required,  and  the  putty  will  get  dry  the  sooner. 

For  lime  stucco  the  sand  is  mixed  with  the 
putty  according  to  the  quantity  required.  This 
stucco,  when  left  for  painting,  is  left  smooth  from 
the  trowel.  AVhen  plaster  of  Paris  is  to  be  used 
for  the  purpose  of  setting  either  coarse  or  fine 
stuff,  the  mortar  or  putty  is  made  into  a  little 
pan  in  the  banker.  The  water  is  poured  in,  and 
afterwards  the  plaster,  so  that  the  latter  is  well 
soaked  before  it  is  rais:"!  with  the  mortar.  This 
is  called  gauged  stuff,  and  is  used  for  running 
cornices,  mouldings,  and  in  fact  all  kinds  of  work 
which  ought  to  be  finished  by  one  operation. 

The  various  cements  and  other  compositions 
made  use  of  by  the  plasterer  are  very  numerous ; 
but  those  principally  used  for  inside  decorations, 
are  Keen's,  Martin's,  and  Parian  cements ;  these 
are  well  adapted  for  plastering  where  hardness 
and  beautiful  finish  are  required ;  Keen's 
cement  is  used  for  skirtings,  dados,  angle  beads, 
&c.,  because  of  its  extreme  hardness. 

Portland,  Roman,  and  lias  cements  are  those 
generally  in  use  for  all  external  plastering ;  and 
as  regards  quality  and  cheapness,  Portland  ia 
decidedly  the  best. 


All  enrichments,  such  as  flowers  or  fruit 
cornices,  centre  flowers,  &c.,  are  first  moulded  in 
clay  and  afterwards  cast  in  plaster  of  Paris,  or 
made  oi  papier-mache. 

The  Operations  of  Plastering. — Almost  the  first 
thing  the  plasterer  does  is  the  lathing,  so  he 
can  get  all  the  woodwork  rendered  first,  as  this 
takes  longer  to  dry  than  the  brickwork.  And 
for  this  purpose  he  uses  single,  one  and  a  half,  and 
double  laths.  These  names  denote  the  different 
thicknesses.  The  laths  are  generally  of  fir. 
Care  ought  to  be  taken  that  the  thickest  laths  are 
used  for  the  ceilings,  on  account  of  there  being  a 
greater  strain  when  in  an  horizontal  position  than 
when  upright.  The  first  coat  of  plastering  of 
coarse  stufi"  upon  the  laths  of  ceilings  is  called 
pricking  tip,  and  is  used  very  stifi",  to  prevent  its 
dropping  ofi"  again. 

But  the  first  coat  on  walls  is  the  rendering;  the 
second  the  screeding,  or  floating,  from  its  being 
brought  to  a  level  surface  with  the  screeding  rule 
and  hand-float ;  and  the  third  or  last  is  called 
the  setting  ov  fining  ojf. 

The  first  coat  is  laid  on  rough,  and  afterwards 
scratched  with  a  piece  of  lath,  to  form  a  key  for 
the  second  coat.  The  operation  of  floating  walls 
is  perform*  d  by  fixing  upright  stripes  of  plastering 
about  6  or  8  inches  wide,  and  about  6  feet  apart, 
if  only  one  man  is  to  work  upon  them  ;  these 
form  the  screeds  :  and  the  method  of  obtaining 
them  is  by  setting  small  pieces  of  plaster  at  each 
angle  of  the  wall  that  is  to  be  plastered.     These 


are  called  "  dots,"  and  the  dot  nearest  the  ceiling 
should  be  plumb  with  that  nearest  the  floor ; 
after  this  a  line  is  drawn  along  the  ceiling  from 
one  to  the  other,  and  the  intermediate  ones  fixed 
to  it.  Then  repeat  the  operation  with  those  dots 
nearest  the  floor  ;  these  ought  to  be  gauged  with 
a  little  plaster  of  Paris,  so  as  to  make  them  set 
quicker  ;  the  screeds  maj^  then  be  filled  up,  and 
floated  level  with  these  dots.  The  bays  formed  by 
the  screeds  may  then  be  plastered  with  coarse 
stuS!,  and  floated  perfectly  level  with  the  floating 
rule.  The  second  coating  of  ceilings  is  performed 
in  the  same  way,  only  one  is  upright  and  the 
other  is  level. 

In  two-coat  work  the  rendering  and  screeding 
are  performed  at  one  time  upon  brickwork.  After 
the  work  has  been  brought  to  a  level  surface  with 
the  floating-rule,  should  there  be  any  deficiencies 
caused  by  stones  or  knots  of  hair,  they  are  made 
good  with  the  hand-float. 

Sometimes  it  is  thought  best  to  either  sweep 
the  floated  work,  or  else  put  a  nail  through  the 
float,  so  as  to  project  a  little  on  the  face  of  it,  and 
then  rub  it  over  the  work,  and  so  give  it  a  key 
for  the  fine  stufl".  The  floating  should  be  allowed 
to  get  hard,  but  not  too  dry,  before  the  fine  stuff 
is  laid  on  ;  at  all  events,  unless  the  wall  is  in  a 
damp  situation,  it  ought  to  be  sprinkled  with 
water  from  the  stock-brush.  Fine  stuff  is  some- 
times laid  on  with  the  lajang-on  trowel,  and 
sometimes  with  the  hand- float,  at  all  events  the 
latter  is  used  to  bring:  the  fine  stuff  to  a  rejrular 

SLATER    AND    PLASTETIEr's    W(>RK.  79 

surface  before  it  is  trowelled  off.  This  is  done  by 
well  rubbing  it,  either  with  the  laying-on  oi 
gauging  trowel,  alternately  wetting  it  with  thfe 
stock-brush  until  a  fine  and  smooth  surface  is 
obtained.  Stucco,  which  is  left  smooth  on  the 
face,  and  gauge  stuff,  are  treated  in  the  same  way. 

All  work  left  from  the  trowel  ought  to  be  watched 
for  a  day  or  two,  and  if  any  small  cracks  are  seen, 
they  ought  to  be  well  wetted  and  trowelled  over  ; 
but  these  are  seldom  seen  in  stucco  work,  the  sand 
preventing  this  to  a  great  extent. 

Rough  Stucco  is  sometimes  used  for  halls,  stair- 
cases, passages,  &c.  ;  this  is  left  from  the  float, 
und  sometimes  a  little  extra  sand  is  put  with  the 
finishing  coat ;  but  in  other  respects  it  is 
executed  in  the  same  way  as  smooth  stucco. 

Laid  Work. — This  is  simply  a  coat  of  coarse 
stuff  laid  upon  brickwork,  or  lathing,  to  receive 
limewhiting  or  colouring,  and  is  often  done  in 
cellars,  outhouses,  &c.,  where  a  better  kind  of 
plastering  is  thought  unnecessary.  If  cellar 
ceilings  are  covered  with  this  rough  plastering, 
it  prevents  the  wind  from  passing  through  the. 
floor-boards  to  the  rooms  above,  which  is  often 
very  uncomfortable.  But  of  late  years  it  has 
become  the  practice  to  mnke  the  floors  fireproof 
as  well  as  airproof ;  and  this  is  sometimes  done 
by  "pugging,"  that  is,  lining  the  spaces  between 
the  floor-joist  with  concrete  two  or  three  inches 
thick  ;  and  to  receive  this,  fillets  are  nailed  on 
each  side  of  the  joists,  and  a  rough  boarding  iq 
laid  upon  them. 


Portland  cement  is  used  by  the  plasterer  to  a 
great  extent  for  making  floors,  and  there  is  little 
doubt  of  its  answering  that  purpose  if  it  is  laid 
sufficiently  thick,  and  the  materials  are  gauged 
in  a  proper  manner.  For  this  purpose  (as  well  as 
all  others)  the  cement  ought  to  be  gauged  with 
sharp  sand,  free  from  clay,  in  equal  quantities, 
both  for  the  first  coat  and  also  for  the  second  j  for 
if  the  first  coat  is  gauged  with  a  greater  quantity 
of  sand  than  the  second,  they  will  not  bind 
together ;  besides  pure  cement  swells  more  in 
setting  than  cement  and  sand  does  when  mixed 
up  together  ;  therefore  if  the  finishing  coat  is 
made  finer  than  the  first,  it  will  be  very  liable  to 
blister,  and  so  destroy  the  floor.  The  sand  for 
the  last  coat  ought  to  be  well  washed,  and  the 
two  coats  need  not  exceed  an  inch  in  thickness. 
In  many  parts  of  England,  where  there  are  plaster 
mills  in  the  vicinity,  it  is  usual  to  lay  floors  of 
that  material.  But  this  plaster  is  of  a  much 
rougher  kind  than  that  which  is  generally  used ; 
in  fact  it  is  a  sort  of  dross  from  the  mills.  These 
floors  arc  laid  about  2  inches  or  25  inches  in 
thickness,  and  finished  at  one  operation.  A 
plaster  floor  of  "Welsh  lime  is  thought  to  be 
equally  as  good  as  grey  plaster,  and  can  be  done 
for  one-third  less. 

In  some  of  the  eastern  counties  the  fronts  of 
houses  are  plastei'cd  with  a  rough  stucco,  and 
while  it  is  damp  well  dashed  with  small  stones ; 
this  answers  very  well  for  renewing  old  fronts, 
where  they  have  previously  been  plastered,  for  by 


pulling  off  the  old  mortar,  and  replastering  and 
dashing  it,  the  front  will  be  well  repaired  and 
still  retain  its  original  appearance. 

Plastering  may  be  summed  up  as  follows  : — 
The  commonest  kind  of  work  consists  of  only  one 
coat,  this  is  called  rendering  on.  brickwork,  and 
laying,  if  on  laths ;  when  a  second  coat  is  added , 
it  becomes  two-coat  woi'k,  as  render  set,  or  lath  hy 
and  set ;  and  when  the  work  is  floated,  it  is  three- 
coat  work,  and  is  laf/i  lay  float  and  set  for  ceilings 
and  partitions,  and  render  float  and  set  for  brick- 

The  following  remarks  may  be  found  useful : — 

100  yards  of  lathing  require  20  bundles  of 
laths  and  7,600  nails. 

'  100  yards  of  rendering,  or  laying,  20  bushels  of 
chalk  lime,  40  bushels  of  sand,  and  3  bushels  of 

100  yards  of  floating  requires  about  half  as 
much  as  rendering. 

And  setting  requires  10  bushels  of  lime,  2 
bushels  of  white  hair  and  a  little  sand  if 

Bender  set  requires  per  100  yards,  30  bushels 
of  lime,  42  bushels  of  sand,  and  5  bushels  of 

Render  float  and  set,  40  bushels  of  lime,  G2 
bushels  of  sand,  and  7  bushels  of  hair,  to  100 

A  bushel  and  a  half  of  Portland  cement  will 
plaster  two  yards  superficial  three-quarters  of  an 
inch  thick. 


82  rrickjatixg- 

Artificial  Stoxe. 

The  following  may  be  found  very  useful,  both 
on  account  of  its  cheapness,  simplicity,  and 
durability : — 

Take  7  parts  of  coke  dust,  screened  through  a 
quarter  bar  screen,  to  1  part  of  Portland  cement, 
for  all  kinds  of  ornamental  purposes,  such  as  small 
columns,  capitals,  balustrades,  mouldings  for 
cornices,  chimney-pieces,  &c.  But  for  pavement, 
steps,  window-sills,  hearth-stones,  or  any  rougher 
kind  of  work,  o  parts  of  coke  dust,  and  3  parts  of 
any  hard  substance,  such  as  burnt  earth,  broken 
brick,  &c. ;  but  these  also  should  be  screened 
before  they  are  mixed  with  the  cement.  Moulds 
are  then  made  of  wood,  or  in  some  cases  iron,  to 
the  shape  required,  care  being  taken  that  they  are 
a  little  smaller  at  the  bottom  than  they  are  at  the 
top,  so  that  the  moulded  work  shall  turn  out  of 
the  mould  freely  when  set ;  the  moulds  should  be 
well  greased  first,  and  a  little  pure  cement  mixed 
up  very  thin  thrown  into  them  ;  the  cement  and 
coke  dust,  or  cement,  coke  dust,  and  broken  bricks, 
are  then  mixed  with  water  to  form  a  sort  of  con- 
crete, and  gently  put  into  the  moulds ;  if  this  is 
done  properly  the  soft,  pure  cement  will  flow  all 
round  the  inside  of  the  mould,  and  so  give  a 
facing  to  the  coarser  stuflf;  the  top  is  finished  ofi" 
level  with  the  mould  with  the  trowel.  This  work 
should  be  left  until  it  is  perfectly  hard,  which  will 
take  two  or  three  days.  There  is  one  fault  attached 
to  this  composition,  that  ie,  when  it  is  used  for 

SLATER    AND    PLASTER EIl's    WORK.  83 

steps,  stair-cases,  or  pavement,  it  is  liable  to  get 
very  smooth  and  slippery  ;  but  in  otber  respects  it 
answers  very  well. 

Distempering  of  Ceilings,  Walis,  Etc. 

For  this  purpose  the  work  should  be  well  washed 
with  clean  water  and  scraped  with  the  trowel,  so 
as  to  thoroughly  clean  off  all  old  whitening.  Of 
course,  if  the  walls  and  ceilings  are  new  they  do 
not  require  this.  After  they  are  dry  they  should 
be  clear-cokd,  that  is,  sized  over  with  clear  size, 
taking  care  in  melting  the  size  that  it  does  not 
boil,  but  only  heated  sufficient  to  melt  it.  If  glue  is 
used  instead  of  size,  put  1|  pints  of  water  to  each 
pound  of  glue.  When  this  is  done,  the  work  is 
ready  to  receive  the  whitewash.  To  mix  this, 
break  the  whitening  into  a  vessel  containing  suffi- 
cient water  to  cover  it,  and  let  it  soak  well,  and 
if  any  water  remains  on  the  top,  pour  it  off,  and 
mix  the  size  with  the  whitening,  which  will  be 
about  4  lbs.  to  the  ball,  more  or  less  as  required ; 
and  strain  a  little  blue-black  or  ultramarine  blue 
into  the  vessel  containing  them,  and  w^ell  mix  the 
whole  together.  This  mixing  is  usually  done  the 
day  before  the  whitening  is  required  for  use; 
then  the  size  will  get  set,  and  by  stirring  well 
before  using  it,  the  whole  will  work  up  into  a 
jelly.  Should  there  be  any  water  stains  in  the 
ceilings,  they  should  be  well  washed  with  strong 
soft  soap  and  water,  and  if  this  fail,  paint  them 
previous  to  white-washing  the  ceiling.  All  work 
ou^ht  to  receive  two  coats. 




The  problems  here  given  are  those  only  which 
it  is  absolutely  necessary  for  the  bricklayer  to 
understand  before  he  can  be  considered  a  pro- 
ficient tradesinan. 

1.  A  solid  is  a  figure,  or  a  body  having  three 
dimensions,  viz.,  length,  breadth,  and  thickness. 
The  boundaries  of  a  solid  are  surfices  or  super- 

2.  A  superficies,  or  surfice,  has  length  and 
breadth  only  ;  the  boundaries  of  a  surfice  are  lines. 

3.  A  line  is  length  without  breadth,  and  is 
formed  by  the  motion  of  a  point.  The  extremities 
of  a  line  are  points. 

5.  A  point  is  that  which  has  no  parts  or 
magnitude;  it  is  indivisible;  it  has  no  length, 
breadth,  nor  thickness. 

6.  When  a  straight  lino,  b  d,  standing  on 
another,  a  C,  makes  the 
angle  i)  b  a  equal  to  the 
angle  d  b  c,  each  of  these 
angles  is  called  a  right 
angle ;  the  measure  of  the 
angle  d  b  a  is  90  degrees, 

or  the  fourth  part  of  3G0 

7.  An  acute  angle  is  less  than  a  right  angle,  as 

D  B  O. 


8.  An  obtiis.  angle  is  greater  than  aright  angle, 
as  c  B  o. 

9.  A  plane  triangle  is  the  space  in- 
closed by  three  straight  lines,  and  has 
three  angles,  as  b. 

10.  A  right-angled  triangle  is 
that  which  has  one  of  its  angles 
right  as  A  B  c  ;  the  side  a  c  opposite 
the  right  angle  is  called  the  hypo- 
thenuse,  the  side  b  c  the  perpen- 
dicular, and  b  a  the  base. 

11.  An  obtuse-angled  triangle  has 
one  of  its  angles  obtuse,  as  the  tri- 
angle c. 

12.  An  acute-angled  triangle  has 
all  its  three  angles  acute,  as  shown 
in  figure  b. 

13.  An  equilateral  triangle  has 
all  its  sides  and  angles  equal  as  u. 

14.  An  isosceles  triangle  is  that  which 
has  two  of  its  sides  equal,  as  e. 

15.  A  scaline  triangle  is  that  which 
has  all  its  sides  unequal,  as  r. 

16.  A  square  is  a  four-sided 
figure  having  all  its  sides  equal 
and  all  its  anj^les  riffht. 

17.  An  oblong,  or  rectangle,  is  a 
right  angled  parallelogram,  whose 
length  exceeds  its  breadth,  as  g. 

18.  A  rhombus  is  a  parallelogram 
having  all  its  sides  equal,  but  its 
angles  are  not  right  angles,  as  h. 





r 19.  A  rhomboid  is  a  parallelo- 

\         /         \      grain    having   its    opposite    sides 

\ A     equal,     but    its    angles    are    not 

right-angles,  and  its  length   ex- 
ceeds its  breadth,  as  I. 

20.  A  trapezium  is  a  figure  in- 
cluded by  four  straight  lines,  no 
two  of  which  are  parallel  to  each 
other,  asK.  Aline  connecting  any 
two  of  its  opposite  angles  is  called 
a  diagonal. 

21.  A  trapezoid  is  a  four- sided 
figure  having  two  of  its  opposite 
sides  parallel,  as  m. 
22.  Polygons  are  those  which  have  more  than 
four  sides.  Thej^  receive  particular  names  from 
the  number  of  their  sides ;  thus  a  pentagon  has 
five  sides,  a  hexagon  has  six  sides,  a  heptagon  seven, 
an  octagon  eight,  a  nonagon  nine,  a  decagon  ten, 
an  undecagon  eleven,  and  a  dodecagon  has  twelve 

If  all  the  sides  of  each  figure  are  equal,  it  is 
called  a  regular  polygon  ;  but  if  unequal,  an 
irregular  polygon. 

23.  A  circle  is  a  plane  figure 
contained  by  one  line,  called  its 
circumference,  which  is  every- 
where equally  distant  from  a 
point  within  it  called  its  centre, 
as  o ;  and  an  arc  of  a  circle  is  any 
part  of  its  circumference,  as  a  b. 
24.  The  diameter  of  a  circle  is  a  stiaight  line 


passing  through  the  centre  and  terminated  both 

ways  by  the  circumference ;  thus 

A  B  is  the  diameter  of  the  circle ; 

the  diameter  divides  the  circle 

into   two    equal   parts,  each  of 

which    is    called    a   semicircle : 

the   diameter    also   divides  the 

circumference    into   two    equal 

parts  each  containing  180  degrees. 

Any  line  drawn  from  the  centre  perpendicular 
to  A  B,  it  divides  the  semicircle  into  two  equal 
parts,  AGS  and  bos,  each  of  which  is  called  a 
quadrant,  or  one-fourth  of  a  circle  ;  and  the  arcs 
A  s  and  B  s  contain  each  90  degrees  ;  and  they 
are  said  to  be  the  measure  of  the  angles  a  g  s  and 


25.  A  chord  of  an  arc  is  a  straight  line  joining 
its  extremities,  and  is  less  than  the  diameter ;  c  b 
is  the  chord  of  the  arc  c  d  b,  or  of  the  arc  c  a  s  b. 

26.  A  segment  of  a  circle  is  that  part  of  the 
circle  contained  between  the  chord  and  the  cir- 
cumference, and  may  be  greater  or  less  than  a 


Problem  I. 

From  a  given  point,  p,  in  a 
straight  line,  a  b,  to  erect  a 

1.  On  each  side  of  the  point,     __, 

p,  take  equal  portions,  P  x,  p/; 

and  from  the  centres,  x/,  with  any  radius  greater 



than  p  X,  describe  two  arcs,  cutting  each  other  at 
D ;  then  the  line  joining  d  p  will  be  perpen- 
dicular to  A  B. 

When  the  point,  P,  is  at  the  end  of  the  line. 

2.  From  any  centre,  c, 
out  of  the  line,  and  with  the 
distance,  c  b,  as  radius,  de- 
scribe a  circle,  cutting  a  b 
in  D,  draw  d  c  o,  and  the 
line  joining  the  points  o  b 
will  be  perpendicular  to  a  b. 

Or  thus : 

Set  one  leg  of  the  com- 
passes on  B,  and  with  any 
extent,  b  p,  describe  an  arc, 
p  X ;  set  off  the  same  extent 
from  T  to  q ;  join  p  q ;  from  q 
as  centre  with  the  extent,  p  q, 
as  radius  describe  an  arc  r, 
and  the  line  joining  r  b  will  be 
perpendicular  to  a  b. 

Problem  II. 

Upon  a   given  right  line  to  describe  an  equilateral 

liCt  A  B  be  the  given  right  line. 
From  the  centres  a  and  b,  with  the 
given  line  a  b  as  radius,  describe 
two   arcs  cutting  each  other  at  c ; 
then  the  line  drawn  from  the  point  c  to  the  points 


A  and  B  will  form  with  the  Hue  A  b  the  triangle 

Problem  III. 

To  describe  a  triangle,  hnmng  the  length  of  the  three 
sides  given. 

Let  A  B,  c  D,  e  F,  be  the  given  lines,  of  which 
A  B  is  the  base  line. 
From  B  as  centre  with 
c  D  as  radius  describe  an 
arc,  and  from  a  as  centre 
with  e  F  as  radius  de- 
scribe  another   arc,  cut-       c 1 

ting  the  first  at  o ;  join         ^  '' 

A  G,  G  B  :  this  will  give  the  triangle  required. 

Problem  IV. 

To  find  the  centre  of  a  given  circle. 

Draw  any  two  chords  A  b, 
B  c,  and  divide  each  into  two 
equal  parts,  as  shown  at  e  and 
D  ;  draw  the  lines  e  o  and  o  d 
at  right  angles  to  a  b  and  b  c, 
and  where  these  lines  intersect 
at  o  will  be  the  centre  of  the  given  circle  a  b  c. 

Problem  V. 

I'o  describe  a  regular  pentagon  upon  a  given  line. 

Let  A  B  be  the  given  line.     With  b  as  centre 

and  B  A  as  radius  describe  the  semicircle  a  c  d; 

then  with  a  as  centre,  with  same  radius,  describe 



an  arc  cutting  the  semicircle  in  c  ;  bisect  a  b  at  e, 
join  c  E,  bisect  the  arc  c  b  in  f,  join  e  f;  then 

with  D  as  centre,  E  f  for 
radius,  cut  the  semicircle 
in  G,  and  with  o  as 
centre,  with  same  radius, 
cut  the  semicircle  in  h; 
draw  the  line  h  b  and 
bisect  it  at  i,  and  at 
this  j)oint  erect  a  perpendicular  cutting  the  line 
E  c  in  X ;  this  will  be  the  centre  of  the  circum- 
scribing circle. 

Problem  VI. 

To  describe  a  regular  hexagon  upon  a  given  line. 

Let  A  B  be  the  given  line.  "VTith  a  as  centre 
and  A  B  as  radius  describe  an  arc, 
and  with  b  as  centre  with  same 
radius  describe  a  second  arc,  cut- 
ting the  first  in  c ;  this  point  of 
intersection  is  the  centre  of  the 
circumscribing  circle. 


No.  of  Sides. 

^xme  of  Polygon. 

Multiplier  or  Divisor. 

















1 — 7  decimals          ] 

2 — 0  or  radius 





3 — 00 




The  preceding  Table  may  be  found  useful  in 
describing  regular  polygons  of  any  number  of 
sides,  from  five  to  twelve  inclusive. 

Description  of  the  above  Tahle. 

In  the  left-hand  column  will  be  found  the 
number  of  sides  of  any  polygon  having  from  five 
to  twelve  sides.  In  the  second  column  will  be 
found  the  name  of  the  polygon  corresponding 
with  the  number  in  the  first  column.  And  the 
third  column  contains  those  figures  by  which  the 
length  of  the  side  must  be  multiplied  for  the 
diameter  of  the  circumscribing  circle;  or  by 
which  the  length  of  the  diameter  of  a  given  circle 
must  be  divided  to  give  the  length  of  the  side  of 
each  polygon  in  a  line  with  it  in  the  opposite 


"What  is  the  length  of  each  side  of  a  regular 
pentagon,  the  diameter  of  the  circumscribing 
circle  being  4  feet  ? 

Divisor      .     .     1-7)  4-0  (2-35    Ausm-pt,  in  feet  nnd 
3  4  decimal  parts. 


5  1 


•5   Rem. 

Or  thus  : — 
'What   is  the  diameter  of  the  circumscribing 


circle  of  a  nonagon,  each  side  being  2  feet  in 
length  ? 

2     feet  length  of  side. 
2-9    multiplier. 



5-8     Answer. 

Therefore  the  diameter  of  the  circle  is  5  feet 
and  8-lOths  of  a  foot,  -svhich  is  equal  to  5  feet 
9  inches  and  5-8ths  of  an  inch. 

Problem  YII. 

To  describe  an  ellipsis,  having  the  longest  diameter 

Let  A  B  be  the  given  diameter.  Erect  the  per- 
pendicular c  D,  and  divide  a  b  into  four  equal 

parts  at  1,  2,  3 ;  then  with  1  2  3  as  centres,  with 
radius  1  2,  describe  the  three  circles  as  shown ; 
then  from  f  as  centre  with  f  e  as  radius  describe 
the  arc  c,  and  with  n  as  centre  with  same  radius 


describe    the   arc    d.      This    will    complete    the 

Another  method  of  describing  an  ellipse. 

Let  A  B,  0  D,  be  the  given  diameters  drawn  at 
right  angles  with  each    other.     Then  with  c  as 

centre  with  a  o  as  radius  describe  an  arc  cutting 
A  B  at  e  and/;  then  take  a  j)iece  of  string  or  very 
■tine  wire  the  length  of  a  b,  fix  one  end  at  e  and 
the  other  at/;  then  draw  the  ellipse  by  running 
the  pencil  along  the  string,  taking  care  the  string 
is  kept  tight  with  the  pencil. 

Problem  VIII. 

To  describe  a  circle  about  any  triangle. 

Bisect  any  two  sides  as 
shown  at  a  and  b,  and 
draw  perpendicular  lines 
intersecting  at  c.  This 
point  of  intersection  is 
the  centre  from  which 
the  circle  is  drawn. 



Problem  IX. 

To  inscribe  a  circle  within  a  triangle. 

From  A  as  centre  with 
any  radius  describe  an 
arc  B  c ;  bisect  it,  and 
through  the  point  of  bi- 
section draw  the  line  a  o; 
bisect  the  angle  deb, 
and  draw  the  line  o  e. 
^here  the  lines  a  o  and 
0  E  intersect  is  the  centre  of  the  circl 

Problem  X. 
In  a  given  circle  to  inscribe  a  square. 

Draw  any  two  diameters,  a  b, 
C  D,  at  right  angles  to  each 
other,  then  join  their  extremi- 
ties, and  the  figure  thus  formed 
will  be  a  square  inscribed  in  a 
given  circle.  And  if  a  line  be 
drawn  from  the  centre  o,  bisect- 
ing A  D,  and  produced  to  f,  f  d  will  be  the  length 
of  one  side  of  an  octagon  inscribed  in  the  circle. 

Problem  XI. 

In  a  gif^en  circle,  to  inscribe  any  regular  polygon ; 
or,  to  dicide  the  circumference  of  a  given  circle 
into  any  number  of  equal  part^. 

Divide  the  diameter  a  b  into  as  many  equal 
parts  as  the  figure  has  sides;  erect  the  perpen- 


dicular  o  s  from  the  centre  o ;  divide  the  ra- 
dius of  into  four  equal  parts, 
and  set  off  three  of  these 
parts  from  /to  s ;  draw  a 
line  from  s  to  the  second 
division  h  of  the  diameter 
A  B,  and  produce  it  to  cut 
the  circumference  at  c ;  join 
A  c,  and  it  will  be  the  side 
of  the  polygon  required. 

Problem  XII. 

To  draw  a  straight  line  equal  to  any  given  arc  of  a 

Let  A  c  B  be  the  given  arc  of 
a  circle  ;  divide  the  chord  a  b 
into  four  equal  parts,  and  set 
off  one  of  these  parts  from  b  to  c ;  join  d  c,  and  it 
will  be  the  length  of  half  the  given  arc,  suffi- 
ciently near  enough  for  practice. 

Problem  XIII. 

To  make  a  square  equal  in  area  to  a  gicen  circle. 

Divide  the  diameter  a  b  into 
fourteen  equal  parts,  and  set  off 
eleven  of  them  from  a  to  c ; 
from  c  erect  the  perpendicular 
c  D  and  join  a  d,  the  square  of 
which  will  be  very  nearly  equal 
to  the  area  of  the  given  circle 
of  which  a  D  K  is  the  half. 


The  foregoing  geometrical  problems  arc  those 
generally  used  by  the  bricklayer  ;  but  for  those 
who  are  anxious  to  proceed  farther,  there  are 
many  excellent  manuals  of  instruction. 

A  FEW  REilAravS  (.»X  ilENSURATION  OF 
The  area  of  any  plane  figure  is  the  space  con- 
tained within  its  boundaries,  and  is  estimated  bj' 
the  number  of  square  miles,  yards,  feet,  inches, 
and  parts  which  it  contains.  This  squaring  is 
generally  estimated  by  the  following  rules  of 
arithmetic,  viz.  :  duodecimals,  or  cross  multiplica- 
tion, decimals,  and  practice. 


Rule  1.  "Write  the  multiplier  under  the  multi- 
plicand in  such  a  manner  that  feet  shall  be  under 
feet,  inches  under  inches,  and  parts  under  parts. 

2.  Multiply  each  term  of  the  multiplicand 
(beginning  at  the  lowest)  by  the  number  of  feet 
in  the  multiplier,  and  write  each  result  under  its 
respective  term,  taking  care  to  carry  one  for 
every  12  from  each  lower  denomination  to  its 
next  superior,  and  sot  down  the  remainder  under 
the  term  last  multiplied. 

3.  Next  multiply  the  terms  of  the  multiplicand 
by  the  number  under  the  denomination  of  inches 
in  the  multiplier  ;  carry  1  for  every  12,  as  before. 
But  set  down  each  remainder  one  place  further  to 
the  right  than  as  if  multiplied  by  a  number  under 
the  deromination  of  feet. 


4.  Proceed  in  the  same  manner  with  the 
second  in  the  multiplier,  setting  each  result  one 
more  place  further  to  the  right  hand,  and  so  on 
with  thirds,  fourths,  &c. 

5.  Add  the  partial  products  thus  obtained  up, 
and  their  sum  will  be  the  product. 

1.  Multiply  4  feet  7  inches  by  3  feet  10  inches 




ft.      in. 
4       7 
3     10 

13       9 
3       9-10 

17       6-10 

2.  Multiply 
5  parts. 

feet  9  inches  3  parts  by  7  feet  6 

ft.    in.  ptg. 

37     9     3 

7     6     5 

inches  an(3 

264     4     9 
18  10     7-6 
1     3     8  •    0  •  3 

284     7     1  •    4-3 


4.  Multiply 
6.  Multiply 

6.  Multiply 

7.  Multiply 

in.                 ft.    in.                           ft. 
6         X     6     9         An.swer  43 
8X76              „         72 
5  •  9  X     3     5  •  3         „         25 
9         X     9     5              .,643 
9         X   17     7              „     13^1 

in.  pte, 
1     6 

8  6  •  2  •  3 

9  9 
9     3 

Decimal  Fractions. 
In    decimal    fractions    the    intesrer    or    whole 
thing,  as  one  yard,  one  foot,  &c.,  is  supposed  to 
be  divided  into  ten  equal  parts,  and  these  parts 
into  tenths,  and  so  on  without  end. 



These  parts  are  distinguished  from  the  wholo 
numbers  by  a  point  prefixed :  thus — 0,  which 
stands  for  5-10th8,  or  half  a  whole  number ;  '26, 
which  stands  for  25-lOOths,  or  one-quarter  of  a 
whole  number  ;  or  '75,  which  stands  for  75-lOOths, 
or  three-quarters  of  a  whole  number. 

"Whole  numbers  increase  in  ten-fold  proportion 
to  the  left  hand  ;  decimal  parts  decrease  in  ten- 
fold proportion  to  the  right  hand  ;  so  that  ciphers 
placed  before  decimal  parts  decrease  their  value 
by  removing  them  further  from  the  point ;  or 
units  placed  thus — -5,  is  5-lOths  ;  -05,  is  5-lOOths ; 
and  -005,  is  5-lOOOths.  But  ciphers  after 
decimal  parts  do  not  alter  their  value ;  for  '5,  "50, 
•500  are  each  but  5-lOths,  or  half  a  whole 

Huk. — In  addition  of  decimals  great  care  must 
be  taken  in  setting  down  the  figures  to  be  added 
up,  so  that  each  figure  shall  come  under  another 
of  the  same  value,  whether  this  be  a  mixed 
number  or  pure  decimal  parts.  And,  iu  order  to 
do  this,  there  must  be  a  due  regard  had  to  the 
separating  points,  which  ought  always  to  stand 
in  a  direct  line  one  with  another;  and,  to  the 
right  hand  of  these,  carefully  place  the  decimal 
parts  according  to  their  respective  values,  and 
add  them  as  in  whole  numbers. 

To  add  5  ft.  9  in.,  7  ft.  6  in.,  3  ft.  3  in.,  and 
7  ft.  10  in.  together. 


„.    Decimal 
^^-    parts. 

6-75  Equal  5  ft.    9  in. 

7-6  „  7  ft.    6  in. 

8-25  ,.  3  ft.    3  in. 

7-835  ,.  7  ft.  10  in. 

24-335    Ans-wer,  equal  24  ft.    4  in. 

Subtraction  of  Decimals. 

This  differs  but  very  little  from  whole  numbers, 
only  in  placing  the  numbers,  which  must  be 
carefully  observed,  as  in  addition. 


Subtract  2  395  from  7-62,  and  5  ft.  9  in.  from 
27  ft.  3  in. 

7-620  27-25 

2-395  6-75 

o"22o  Answer.  21-50  =  21  ft.  6  in. 

1.  From  -769  take  -543  Answer  -220 

2.  From  1-743  take  -339  Answer  1-404 

3.  From  3-975  take  1-243  Answer  2-732 

4.  From  407-2      take  40-362  Answer  357-838 


Eule. — Place  the  decimal  parts,  and  multiply 
them  as  in  whole  numbers ;  and  from  the  product 
cut  off  as  many  figures  towards  the  right  hand  as 
there  are  figures  representing  decimal  parts,  both 
in  the  multiplier  and  multiplicand  together;  but 
should  there  not  be  so  many  places  in  the  product, 


make  up  the  defect  by  adding  ciphers  towards  the 
left  hand. 


Srultiplf  3-795         Multiply  5  ft.  6  in.  X  8  ft.  10  in. 

By  2-43  0  5 



15180  275 

7590  165 


9-221  So  440 

48-5925  .  =  48  ft.  '\  in. 

Multiply      3074  X  25-93         Answer      79-70882 
JIultiply    25-15     X  72-04         Answer  1S11-S060 
Multiply        -07    X     1"02        Answer  -0714 

Division  of  Decimals. 

This  is  worked  in  the  same  way  as  whole 
numbers,  the  only  difficulty  is  in  valuing  the 

Biih  1. — The  first  figure  in  the  quotient  is 
always  of  the  same  value  with  that  figure  of  the 
dividend  which  answers  or  stands  over  the  place 
of  units  in  the  divisor. 

Ruk  2. — The  quotient  should  always  have  as 
many  decimals  as  the  dividend  has  more  than  the 

Notf  1. — If  the  divisor  and  dividend  have  both 
the  same  number  of  decimal  parts,  the  quotient 
will  be  a  whole  number. 

Note  2.  —  If  the  dividend  has  not  so  mir.y 
places  of  decimnls  as  there  are  in   the  divisor, 


then  so  many  ciphers  must  be  added  to  the 
dividend  as  will  make  them  equal,  and  the  quo- 
tient will  then  be  a  whole  number. 

Kote  3. — And  if,  when  the  sum  is  done,  the 
quotient  has  not  so  many  figures  as  it  should  have 
places  of  decimals,  then  so  many  ciphers  must  be 
added  as  there  are  places  wanting. 

Brickwork  is  estimated  at  the  rate  of  a  brick 
and  a  half  thick  ;  this  is  called  the  standard  thick- 
ness, so  that  if  a  wall  is  either  more  or  less  than 
this  thickness  it  must  be  reduced  to  it ;  thus  : — 
Multiply  the  superficial  contents  of  the  wall  by 
the  number  of  half-bricks  in  thickness,  and 
divide  the  product  by  3. 

"When  a  piece  of  brickwork  is  to  be  measured, 
the  first  thing  to  be  done  is  to  ascertain  what 
measures  are  to  be  employed  :  then,  having  mul- 
tiplied the  length  and  breadth  together,  if  the 
dimensions  are  feet,  the  product  is  divided  by  the 
divisor  agreed  upon,  this  is  generally  272^  feet 
to  the  rod  standard  thickness,  and  the  quotient 
will  be  the  number  of  rods  and  feet  contained 
within  the  dimensions  taken. 

In  measuring  work  by  the  rod  of  272^  feet,  it 
is  very  seldom  the  odd  quarter  is  used,  owing  to 
its  taking  more  labour  in  figuring  for  a  mere 


IIow  many  rods  of  brickwork  (standard  thick- 
ness) are  there  in  a  wall  34  feet  6  inches  long  by 
23  feet  9  inches  high,  at  1|  bricks  thick  ? 

















10  ■ 


272)  819  4-6  (3  rds.  3  ft.  4}  in.  Answer. 



34  •  5 
23  •  75 



272)  819  •  375  (3  •  0124*  rds.  Anawei. 






If  the  area  of  a  wall  be  3,700  feet,  and  the 
thickness  2}  bricks,  how  many  rods  and  feet  does 
it  contain  ? 

*  lliis  decimal  fraction  equals  3  ft.  4^  io. 



3700  feet  the  area,  by 
5  half-bricks  thick. 

Standard  divisor  3)  18500 

272)  6166  (22  rds. 


182  feet. 

Chimney  Shafts. 

In  measuring  chimney  breasts,  when  standing 
against  any  party  wall,  it  is  usual  to  take  the 
width  of  the  middle  for  the  breadth,  and  the 
height  of  the  story  for  the  length :  the  thickness 
should  be  the  same  as  the  depth  of  the  jambs ; 
and  if  the  chimney  is  carried  up  square  to  the 
ceiling  no  deductions  are  made  for  the  fire-place 
on  account  of  the  extra  labour  in  gathering  the 
with  walls  over  to  prepare  for  the  hearth  in  the 
room  above. 

The  chimney-shaft,  or  that  portion  which  is  above 
the  roof,  is  measured  by  multiplying  the  height, 
width,  and  depth  together.  But  in  cases  where 
t  here  is  a  greater  amount  of  labour  than  usual,  the 
quality  of  the  work  is  taken  into  consideration, 
and  the  price  allowed  according  to  its  class. 

Chimney  Shafts  in  the  Form  of  a  Circle. — In 
order  to  measure  these  it  is  necessary  to  obtain  the 
diameter  of  the  shaft  midway  between  the  base 


and  the  top  as  they  are  usually  battering.  Square 
this  diameter,  and  multiply  the  product  by  the 
decimal  •7854* ;  this  will  give  the  area  of  the 
circle,  after  cutting  off  the  four  fingers  from  the 
right  hand ;  and  this  area  multiplied  by  the 
height  will  give  the  contents  in  cubic  feet. 


AVhat  is  the  cubic  contents  of  a  shaft  the  mean 

diameter  of  which  is  4  feet  and  the  height  GO  feet  ? 

4  diameter. 


•  7854 

square  of  diameter, 
decimal  fraclioo. 


12  •  5664 

area  of  circle. 


753  •  0840 

cubic  contenta. 

The  diameter  of  a  circle  is  to  its  circumference 
as  7  is  to  22  ;  therefore,  if  the  diameter  is  not  to 
be  obtained  by  any  other  means,  take  the  girth  or 
circumference  of  the  shaft,  and  as  22  is  to  7,  so  is 
the  circumference  to  the  diameter. 

Let  the  girth  of  a  circular  shaft  be  10  feet,  then, 
\)y  proportion,  the  diameter  will  be  obtained  in 
the  following  manner  : — 

•  This  decimal  fraction  equals  the  area  of  any  circle  whose 
diameter  id  1,  i.e.  if  the  liiameter  of  the  circle  u  I  foot,  thid 
fraction  of  a  foot  i^  the  area. 


ft.  ft. 

22  :  7  :  : 


22)  70  (3 

•  18  Answer  in 

feet  and  part3. 





When  the  shaft  is  in  the  form  of  a  regular 
polygon,  the  following  table  may  be  found  useful 
i'or  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  its  area  in  feet 
or  inches  : — 

Rule. — Square  the  length  of  the  side  of  the 
polygon,  and  multiply  the  product  by  those 
figures  in  a  line  with  the  figure  in  the  first 
column  denoting  the  number  of  sides  of  the  given 
polygon ;  the  product  thus  obtained  will  be  the 
area.  And  this  multiplied  by  the  height  of  the 
chimney  will  give  the  cubic  contents.  And  to 
bring  this  into  rods,  divide  by  306  feet. 

Number  of 











2- .98 
9  3G6 

V     '\ 



Vaulting. — In  measuring  circular,  elliptical, 
or  Gothic  vaulting,  the  rule  is  to  find  the  super- 
ficial contents  of  one  end,  and  multiply  it  by  the 
length  of  the  vault ;  or,  take  a  piece  of  string  or 
the  tape,  and  ply  it  close  to  the  soflBt  from  one 
side  of  the  vavdt  to  the  other,  and  this  length  by 
the  length  of  the  vault  will  give  the  superficial 
contents  of  soffit ;  then  multiply  by  the  thickness 
for  standard  or  cubic  contents.  But  if  this 
method  is  employed,  the  outside  surface  ought  to 
be  taken  as  well  as  the  soffit.  Add  the  two  areas 
together,  and  divide  by  2  for  the  exact  superficial 
contents,  and  then  multiply  by  the  thickness  for 
standard  or  cubic  contents,  as  before  explained. 

Groim  are  generally  measured  by  taking  the 
length  and  breadth  of  the  base  and  multiplying 
ihem  together,  and  that  product  by  the  height. 
But  sometimes  one-tenth  is  deducted  from  the 
solidity  thus  found,  and  the  remainder  is  reck- 
oned as  the  solid  contents. 

But  if  measuring  for  labour  only,  the  groin- 
points  are  measured  by  running  measures,  the 
price  being  so  much  per  foot. 

Bakers'  Orens. — It  is  usual  in  measuring  these 
to  cube  the  whole  and  divide  by  306  to  bring  it 
to  rods. 

A  T\Bi.E  OF  Brickwork, 

Showing  how  many  rods,  feet,  and  inches  are 
contained  in  any  number  of  superficial  feet,  from 
1  foot  to  10,000  feet,  and  so  on  as  far  as  required ; 


and    from  half  a  brick  to  two  bricks,   and,   by 
addition,  to  any  thickness. 

This  table  also  shows  how  many  bricks  are 
required  to  build  a  piece  of  brickwork,  from  1  foot 
to  10,000  feet,  from  half  a  brick  to  two  bricks,  and 
this  also,  by  addition  only,  to  any  thickness  or 
number  of  feet  required,  at  the  rate  of  16544 
bricks  to  the  foot  standard  thickness,  or  4500  to 
the  rod. 

Explanation  of  the  following  Table. 

At  the  head  of  this  table,  over  each  separate 
column,  is  stated  the  thickness  of  any  wall  from 
half  a  brick  to  two  bricks,  and  beneath  each  of 
these  is  a  double  column,  one  for  giving  the  rods, 
teet,  and  inches,  contained  in  the  wall,  and  the 
other  the  number  of  bricks  contained  in  these 
rods,  feet,  and  inches,  standard  measurement; 
and  in  the  first  column  towards  the  left  hand  will 
be  found  the  number  of  feet  the  wall  contains  by 
superficial  measurement. 






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Example   1st. 

llow  many  rods  and  feet  of  standard  work  are 
there  in  a  wall  59  feet  in  length  and  12  feet  6 
nches  in  height,  and  I5  bricks  thick  ? 







the  lengtli. 
the  height 






So  by  these  figures  we  find  the  superficial  area  of 
the  wall  to  be  737  feet  6  inches.  Look  in  the 
first  column  towards  the  left  hand  for  700,  and 
opposite  that  in  the  sixth  column  will  be  found 
2  rods  156  feet ;  look  again  in  the  first  column  for 
37  feet,  and  opposite  this,  in  the  sixth  column,  is 
37  feet ;  add  the  6  inches,  and  the  product  will  be 
as  follows : — 

todB  ft.  in. 
2  156  0 
0       37     6 

2     193     6     Answer. 

Examjile   2itd. 

How  many  rods,  feet,  and  inches  are  there  in  a 
wall  95  feet  long  by  17  feet  high,  at  2  bricks  thick  ? 

95  X  15  =  1015  ;  this  is  the  superficial  con- 
tents of  the  wall.  Look  in  the  first  column  for 
the  following  numbers — 1000  feet,  GOO  feet,  and 
15  feet ;  and  opposite  these  respectively,  under 
the  heading  "  Two  bricks  thick,"  will  be  found 


the   following  figures,  which  added  up  together 
will  give  the  standard  contents  of  the  wall. 

rods  ft.  in. 

4  245  4 

2  256  0 

0  20  0 

6     521     4  =  7rd8.  249  ft.  4  in. 

The  quantity  of  bricks  required  to  build  a  wall 
containing  any  given  number  of  superficial  feet  is 
taken  in  almost  the  same  way. 

Example   ^rd. 

llow  many  bricks  are  required  to  build  a  wall 
SO  feet  long  by  27  feet  high,  at  I5  bricks  thick  ? 

80  X  27  =  2160  feet,  the  area.     Look  in  the 

first  column  for  2000  feet,  100  feet,  and  60  feet, 

and   against  these   respectively,   in    the    column 

headed  "  One  and  a  half  bricks   thick,"  will  be 

luu^nd  the  following  figures,  which,  by  addition 

u>nl/,  give  the  number  of  bricks  that  will  build 

the  wall. 




35734     Answer. 

The  superficial  areas  of  the  walls  of  a  house 
amount  to  2649  feet.  Now  1200  feet  is  2  bricks 
thick,  900  feet  is  1^  brick  thick,  and  549  is  one 
brick  thick  :  how  many  bricks  did  tlie  builder 
require  to  build  the  house? 

Answer,  by  table,  47403. 


All  gauge-work  is  measured  by  superficial 
nieasureraeut  (unless  otherwise  specified) ;  and 
every  part  that  is  exposed  to  view  ft  taken  in  the 

Skewbacks,  birds'-mouths,  splays,  beads,  &c.,  are 
generally  measured  by  the  run.  But  if  measured 
as  gauge-work,  it  is  usual  to  ply  the  tape,  or  a 
piece  of  string,  close  to  every  part  of  the  brick 
that  is  moulded,  and  afterwards  measure  it  to  get 
the  whole  of  the  girth  of  the  work,  and  this  is 
multiplied  by  the  length  for  the  contents. 

Arches  are  also  measured  by  the  girth  multiplied 
by  the  length. 

1000  new  stock  bricks  stacked  in  bolts  measure 
50  feet  cubic. 

1000  old  bricks  cleaned  and  stacked  in  bolts 
measure  72  cubic  feet. 

Short  axd  TTseftl  Tablb. 

277i  Clinic  inches  1  gallon  of  water. 

1  cubic  foot  contains  6  gallons  1  j  pints. 

144  square  inches  equal  I  square  foot. 

172S  cubic  inches       „      1  cubic  foot. 

9  square  feet  ,.      1  square  yard. 

27  cubic  feet  „      1  culiic  yard  or  load. 

100  superficial  feet   „      1  square. 

Tiling  and  Slating  is  measured  by  the  square  of 
loo  feet,  and  in  many  country  places  double 
measure  is  allowed  for  cutting  hips  and  valleys, 
i.e.  for  valleys  take  the  length  of  the  ridge  for  one 
dimension  and  the  depth  from  ridge  to  eaves  for 
the  other,  and  multiply  one  by  the  other  for  the 
superficial  area ;  and  for  hips  take  the  length  of 
the  eaves  and  multiply  the  depth  as  before.    This 


is  SO  allowed  to  pay  for  the  amount  of  waste  iu 
labour  and  material  in  cutting  them. 

But  in  London  slating  is  not  measured  in  this 
way,  but  for  all  hips,  valleys,  eaves,  cuttings  to 
skew  gables,  cheeks  of  dormers,  &c.,  the  length  of 
the  cutting  is  taken,  and  1  foot  allowed  for  the 
hips  and  valleys,  and  6  inches  allowed  for  eaves 
and  the  other  cuttings  above  named.  All  plain 
work  is  measured  net. 

When  the  space  taken  up  by  sky-lights,  chim- 
ney-shafts, &c.,  do  not  exceed  4  feet  in  area,  no 
deductions  are  made  on  account  of  the  extra 
labour  in  cutting  round  them. 

The  ridge  is  always  taken  separately  at  per 
running  foot. 

Where  soakers  are  used  they  are  reckoned  by 
the  dozen. 

All  plain  or  pantiling  for  roofs  is  measured  by 
the  square,  and  cutting  and  eaves  are  allowed  for 
in  the  same  way  as  slating. 

Plain  and  ornamental  tiling  for  floors,  walls, 
ceilings,  &c.,  is  measured  by  the  yard  square,  and 
all  cufling  per  foot  run. 

Pludcring  is  either  measured  by  the  foot,  yard, 
or  square  of  100  feet,  and  any  surface  under 
1  foot  (in  taking  revcils,  &c.)  is  usually  called  a 

Cornices,  beads,  chamfers,  and  all  mouldings 
arc  taken  b}'  the  foot  run. 

Mitres,  stop,  &c.,  are  taken  sepai-ately  and  priced 
at  so  much  each. 

Doorways,    windows,    fireplaces,    &c.,   are    de- 


ducted,  and  ceiling  and  walls  are  measured  sepa 

Trhite\vasliiug  and  colouring  are  measured  in 
the  same  way  as  plain  plastering — mostly  by  the 
yard  square — and  where  this  is  done  between 
principals,  rafters,  joists,  &c.,  the  tape  must  be 
applied  to  the  whole  of  the  surface  covered  by  the 

This  work  is  specified  to  be  one,  two,  or  three 
coat  work. 

THE    END. 

pmiXTtD  BT  J.  8.  nuTTi  Am  '^o.,  I  rurr^D   tttt  ro4o,  u>!tr««>«. 







By  F.    WALKEE 










By  F.   walker 



^cconb  Cebition,  glcbbrb  nnb  (Enlnrgtb 





\_All  rights  reserved.] 





The  object  of  this  little  work  is  to  give  tlie  young 
artisan  a  general  and  practical  insight  into  his 
trade,  and  to  inspire  him  with  a  wish  to  become 
a  useful  and  successful  workman ;  which  means 
that  he  must  work  with  his  head  as  well  as  with 
his  hands.  The  greater  portion  of  the  matter 
contained  herein  is  such  as  to  he  indispensable 
to  the  proficient  -workman.  Though  the  work 
does  not  profess  to  be  in  any  way  an  exhaustive 
treatise  on  a  trade  so  varied  as  that  of  the  brick- 
layer, yet  the  writer  hopes  that  it  may  be  a  help 
to  those  who,  through  the  division  of  labour  or 
otherwise,  have  had  their  practice  confined  to  one 
branch  only  of  their  trade  ;  and  that  it  may  not 
be  considered  altogether  unworthy  the  notice  of 
professional  men,  being  to  some  extent  the  out- 
come of  twenty-two  years  of  practical  experience 
iu  building  operations.     It  is,  however,  intended 


chiefly  for  that  large  majority  of  young  men  who 
enter  the  trade  of  the  bricklayer  (and  all  other 
trades  in  house-building)  without  any  previous 
training  or  instruction  to  fit  them  for  the  calling, 
depending  entirely  upon  the  manipulatiye  skill 
they  may  or  may  not  acquire  in  the  handling 
of  their  tools.  The  book  commences  with  the  site 
of  a  building,  and  goes  through  the  successive 
stages  of  the  bricklayer's  trade,  including  roof 
tiling  ;  and  concludes  with  a  section  on  Applied 
Geometry,  containing  problems  that  may  be 
useful  in  every-day  practice. 

Lo2n)OS,  Sfjjfemicr,  18S4. 


The  very  rapid  and  gratifying  sale  of  the  first 
edition,  and  the  favourable  manner  in  which  it 
has  been  received  by  the  various  technical  journals, 
have  led  the  author  to  make  several  additions 
and  a  few  alterations  to  the  work,  with  a  view  to 
increasing  its  usefulness  not  only  to  the  operative 
student,  but  also  to  those  who  may  be  preparing 
for  the  Science  Examination  in  Building  Con- 





Site 1 

Establishing  a  Level  or  Datum 2 

Setting  out  Building 2 

Concrete 5 

Cement 10 

Drains 11 

Mortar 14 

Red  Brickwork 14 

Bricks 16 

Characteristics  of  Good  Bricks         .         .         .         .         .19 

Bond  of  Brickwork           . 20 

Old  English  Bond 21 

Bond  of  Footings  and  Walls 22 

Setting  out  the  Bond 26 

Heading  Bond 28 

Templates  and  Strings 30 

Bats 30 

Flemish  Bond          ........  31 

Various  Bonds 34 

Herring-bone  Bond          .......  36 

Dutch  Bond 37 


Keeping  the  Perpends 









Arches 46 

Relie\-ing  Arches 48 

Plain  Arches 49 

The  Skew  or  Oblique  Arch 49 

Skew  Arch  at  Brondeshury 52 

Water  Conduit .56 

Groined  Vaulting: 58 


Gauged  Work 




Drawing  and  Cutting  Arches   . 


The  Bulls-eye 


Semi  and  Segmental  Arches 


The  Camber  Ai-ch     . 


The  Gothic  Arch 


The  Ellipse  Gothic  Arcli  . 


The  Semi-Ellipse  Arch 


The  Venetian  Arch  . 


The  Scheme  Arch 


The  Semi-Gothic  Arch 


Gothic  on  Circle  Arch 


To  Find  the  Soffit  Mould  . 





The  Niche 79 

The  Niche  Mould 83 

Moulded  Courses 83 

Ornamental  Arches 84 

The  Oriel  Window 85 

Ornamental  Gable  or  Pediment 87 

Gothic  Window        . 88 


Tiling 92 

Roofs  having  different  Pitches 94 

To  obtain  the  necessary  Angle  of  Hip  or  Valley  Tiles      .  96 

Pointing 97 

Flat-Joint  Pointing 98 

Burning  Clay  into  Ballast 100 

Building  Additions  to  Old  Work 102 

Fire-proof  Floors 102 


To  draw  a  square  •whose  superficial  area  shall  equal  the 

sum  of  two  squares  whose  sides  are  given  .        .        .103 

To  draw  a  right-angled  triangle,  base  H  inches,  height 

J-  inch 104 

To  draw  an  arc  by  cross-sectional  lines    .        .        .        .105 

To  describe  a  flat  arc  (camber  for  instance)  by  mechani- 
cal means 106 



To  find  the  joints  of  a  flat  arch  without  using  the  centre 

of  the  circle  of  which  the  arc  is  a  part       .         .         .     106 

To  draw  the  joints  of  a  semi-ellipse  arch  with  mathemati- 
cal accuracy 107 

To  find  the  invisible  arch  contained  in  a  camber  .        .108 

Any  two  straight  lines  given  to  determine  a  curve  by 

■which  they  shall  be  connected 109 

To  find  the  form  or  curvature  of  a  raking  moulding  that 

shall  unite  correctlj'  with  a  level  one         .        .        .111 

To  describe  an  ellipse  by  means  of  a  carpenter's  square 

and  a  piece  of  notched  lath 112 

To  draw  a  Gothic  of  any  given  height  and  span:   or. 

in  other  words,  an  Ellipse  Gothic     .        .        .        .113 

To  draw  the  arch  bricks  of  a  Gothic  arch,  that  is  for  the 

cuivc  in  the  previous  problem 114 

To  find  the  ladius  of  any  arc  or  arch,  the  rise  and  span 

being  given .        .        .     11 J 






Though  the  bricklayer  is  very  seldom  called 
upon  to  choose  the  site  of  a  proposed  building, 
he  should  nevertheless  make  himself  acquainted 
with  the  essentials  of  a  good  foundation,  and  the 
characteristics  of  a  bad  one,  as  a  subject  not  alto- 
gether foreign  to  his  calling.  The  workman  who 
rests  satisfied  with  just  the  manipulative  know- 
ledge of  his  own  trade  is  not  likely  to  realise  the 
value  of  the  word  prof/rcss,  and  must  of  necessity 
be  content  to  remain  in  the  position  in  which  he 
found  himself  placed  as  a  workman.  Though  the 
bricklayer  has  no  voice  in  the  choice  of  site,  he 
maj',  as  foreman  or  clerk  of  works,  have  to  a  great 
extent  the  power  of  minimising  the  evil  effects  of 
a  bad  one,  if  he  be  possessed  of  the  necessary 
knowledge.  For  be  it  remembered  that  a  good 
foundation  is  as  necessary  to  the  stability  of  a 
building,  as  good  flues  and  drains  are  to  the 
health  and  comfort  of  its  occupants.  The  best 
sites  to  build  upon  are  hard  gravel,  igneous  and 


metamorpliic  rocks,  limestones,  sandstones,  and 
chalk.  A  clay  foundation  should  be  well  drained, 
as  clay  by  its  impervious  nature  retains  moisture, 
and  the  whole  area  of  the  site  covered  with  6 
inches  of  surface  concrete,  made  up  with  Portland 
cement  or  ground  blue  lias  lime,  to  keep  back 
ground-damp,  which  will  otherwise  be  attracted  by 
the  warm  air  within  the  building.  "When  building 
on  a  clay  or  sand  foundation  the  building  should 
be  kept  level  throughout,  as  by  building  up  one 
portion  of  the  building  and  leaving  down  another, 
ugly  fractures  sometimes  occur  in  the  walls, 
caused  by  one  portion  of  the  work  settling  at  one 
time,  and  other  portions  at  another,  which  greatly 
mar  the  appearance  of  the  structure. 

Establishing  a  Level  or  Daixm. 

Before  excavating  trenches  to  receive  concrete 
for  footings,  a  level,  or  datum  as  it  is  technically 
called,  should  be  established.  To  do  this,  drive  a 
large  stake  well  into  the  ground  where  it  will  not 
be  likeh'  to  get  disturbed,  and  let  the  top  of  it  be 
the  ground-floor  level,  which  must  be  taken  off 
the  drawings  if  not  otherwise  determined.  To 
avoid  the  possibility  of  mistakes,  all  levels  for 
excavations,  concrete,  and  brickwork  should  be 
taken  from  this  only. 

Settixg  git  Building. 

In  setting  out  a  building,  one  or  other  of 
the  following  methods  is  generally  adopted. 
Either  the  extreme  side  walls  are  squared  from 


the  line  of  frontage,  wticli  is  given,  and  the  posi- 
tions of  the  intermediate  walls  established  by 
parallels  ;  or,  two  centre  lines  are  drawn  at  right 
angles,  right  through  the  plan  of  the  building, 
and  the  walls  set  out  at  parallel  distances  from 
them  ;  taking  all  measurements  from  the  centre 
lines.  The  positions  of  walls  should  not  be  laid 
down  by  measuring  the  distance  of  one  wall  from 
another  in  succession  ;  for  if  an  error  be  made  in 
the  setting  out  of  the  first  wall,  it  will,  in  this 
way,  be  perpetuated  from  one  wall  to  another 
throughout  the  building.  But  by  measuring 
from  the  centre  line,  an  error  would  be  confined 
to  that  particular  wall  in  connection  with  which 
it  was  made,  and  would  be  readily  discovered  when 
checking  the  distances  between  the  respective 
walls.  In  both  methods  we  have  assumed  the 
building  to  be  square.  If  the  setting  out  is  to  be 

Fif?.  1. 

done  by  means  of  a  large  square,  which  is  generally 
the  case,  it  should  be  tested  or  proved  before  use. 
To  do  this,  draw  a  line  a  h  along  a  straight 


edge  (Fig.  1),  not  less  than  twice  the  length  of 
the  base  of  the  square.  Adjust  the  base  of  the 
square  along  this  line  from  b,  and  draw  a  line  c 
along  the  perpendicular  blade  until  it  meets  the 
base  line  a  h  ;  now  reverse  the  square  along  the 
base  line  from  a,  and  if  the  square  be  true  its 
perpendicular  will  coincide  with  the  perpendicu- 
lar line  c.  Another  way  of  setting  out  the  side 
walls  from  a  given  line  of  frontage  is  by  means 
of  a  10-feet  rod.  Having  drawn  a  line  tighth^ 
to  represent  the  front  of  the  building,  along  this 
line  measure  G  feet  from  the  quoin  (French  coin, 
a  corner),  and  push  through  the  line  at  the  6- 
feet  point  an  ordinary  brass  pin.  Draw  another 
line  in  the  same  way  as  the  first,  approximately 
at  right  angles  to  it,  and  from  the  quoin  again 
measure  off  8  feet  along  this  line,  fixing 
another  pin  as  before  at  the  8-feet  point. 
"With  one  end  fixed  at  the 
quoin,  the  other  end  of  the  line 
must  be  moved  until  there  be 
a  distance  of  10  feet  between 
the  two  pins  measured  across 
the  angle.  Tlie  lines  will  then 
be  square  one  with  the  other. 
Instead  of  G,  8,  and  10,  we 
could  have  taken  12,  16,  and 
20 ;  but  whatever  figures  be 
used  must  stand  in  the  same 
ratio  or  proportion  to  each 
other  as  the  above,  and  shown  in  Fig.  2. 

Another  Method. — From  point  B  (Fig.  3),  with 

Fi?.  2. 


steel  measuring  tape  set  off  30  feet,  or  more  or  less 
as  conyenient,  at  an  approximate  angle  of  45 
degrees  witli  the  given  line  a  b.     From  d  mea- 

rig.  3. 

sure  off  the  same  distance  to  a;  from  a  draw 
a  line  through  d,  measuring  from  d  to  c  30  feet. 
A  line  drawn  from  b  through  c  will  be  at  right 
angles  to  the  given  line  a  b,  the  line  of  front- 
age ;  B  would  be  the  quoin  of  building.  This 
depends  upon  the  principle  that  all  triangles  in 
a  semicircle  are  right-angled  triangles,  and  all 
the  angles  in  the  same  segment  of  a  circle  are 
equal  {Euclid,  bk.  iii.  prob.  21). 


The  thickness  for  concrete  varies  from  1  to  3 
feet,  according  to  the  nature  of  the  subsoil  upon 
which  the  building  will  stand  ;  but  in  some  cases 
it  is  very  much  thicker,  as  in  made-up  ground, 
where,  to  ensure  a  good  foundation,  it  is  necessary 


to  go  down  to  the  London  clay,  or  some  other  firm 
substratum,  depending  upon  the  nature  of  the 
ground.  The  Metropolitan  Building  Act  requires 
that  the  concrete  shall  not  be  less  than  9  inches 
in  depth,  nor  have  a  margin  of  less  than  4  inches 
outside  the  first  course  of  footings ;  G  inches  is 
the  usual  margin  in  good  work. 

The  following  is  a  specification  to  govern  the 
suppl}^  of  materials,  the  mixing,  and  the  putting 
into  place  of  cement  concrete.  The  whole  of  the 
cement  to  be  Portland  of  the  very  best  quality, 
very  finely  ground,  weighing  not  less  than 
110  lbs.  to  the  striked  bushel,  of  which  90  per 
cent,  must  pass  through  a  sieve  of  2,500  meshes 
to  the  square  inch,  and  it  must  be  capable  of 
maintaining  a  breaking  weight  of  350  lbs.  per 
square  inch,  after  being  made  in  a  bronze  mould 
immersed  in  water  during  an  interval  of  seven 

The  mixing  to  be  carried  on  upon  a  clean  plat- 
form made  of  9  inch  X  3  inch  deals,  bedded  solidly 
on  sand,  that  the  cement  may  not  run  off  through 
the  joints  in  the  pi'ocess  of  mixing.  The  concrete 
to  be  composed  of  four  parts  of  broken  bricks, 
broken  porous  stone,  or  Thames  ballast ;  two  parts 
sharp  clean  sand,  free  from  loam  or  other  impuri- 
ties ;  and  one  of  cement  of  the  specified  quality. 
The  parts  to  be  measured  in  a  half-yard  cubic  box 
(3  feet  X  2  feet  X  2|  feet),  and  thoroughly  mixed 
together  in  a  dry  state.  The  ballast  or  broken 
bricks  to  be  capable  of  passing  through  a  2-inch 
mesh.     The  dry  concrete  to  be  heaped  up  and 


turned  over  at  least  twice  before  wetting.  The 
water  to  be  applied  through  a  rose,  not  more  to 
be  iised  than  is  necessary  to  mix  the  whole  very 
thoroughly.  While  the  water  is  being  sprinkled 
on,  the  mixture  should  be  drawn  down  by  "  picks," 
while  two  or  more  other  men  turn  it  over,  after 
being  so  drawn  down,  to  another  part  of  the 
platform,  from  which  it  must  be  again  turned 
over  until  the  parts  are  thoroughly  incorporated. 
The  concrete  to  be  tipped  from  a  height  not  ex- 
ceeding 4  feet,  and  to  be  steadily  rammed  or 
struck  with  the  back  of  a  shovel  until  the  cement 
or  matrix  flushes  to  the  surface.  The  whole  to  be 
left  solid  and  clean. 

In  the  treatment  of  concrete  much  depends 
upon  experience  and  judgment,  and  it  is  there- 
fore the  more  difficult  to  lay  down  hard  and  fast 
rules  to  govern  the  proportion  of  the  ingredients 
and  the  mixing  of  them.  The  one  thing  to  be 
aimed  at  in  the  apportionment  of  the  ingredients 
is  homogeneity ;  where  this  does  not  exist,  strength 
will  be  wanting. 

As  regards  "packing,"  or  the  practice  of 
placing  stones  or  other  suitable  material  larger 
than  the  aggregate,  in  the  mass  of  the  con- 
crete, it  is  objectionable  under  certain  condi- 
tions. In  a  thoroughly  good  Portland  cement 
concrete,  if  properly  treated,  there  will  neither 
be  contraction  nor  expansion  to  any  perceptible 
degree  in  the  setting ;  and  in  such  there  is  no 
objection  to  packing,  if  the  stones  or  other  material 
be  uniformly  distributed  and  solidly  bedded  in 


the  mass.  But  in  an  inferior  concrete  subject  to 
contraction  or  expansion,  packing  is  decidedly 
objectionable,  and  likely  to  lead  to  injurious 
results;  more  especially  if  the  packing  be  not 
evenly  distributed  throughout  the  concrete.  This 
consideration  has  led  engineers  and  architects  to 
adopt  in  their  specifications  the  precautionary 
clause  that  the  aggregate  shall  be  of  an  uniform 
size — generally,  to  pass  through  a  2 -inch  or 
2|-inch  ring. 

The  quantity  of  water  to  be  used  depends  almost 
entirely  upon  the  nature  of  the  aggregate  ;  ballast 
or  any  siliceous  aggregate  requiring  only  enough 
to  thoroughly  mix  the  cement,  while  that  of  a 
porous  nature,  such  as  broken  bricks,  would 
require  more.  The  proportion  of  cement  must  be 
governed  by  circumstances,  for  while  the  Metro- 
politan Main  Drainage  "Works  adopted  one  of 
cement  to  five  and  a-half  of  aggregate,  we  are 
informed  by  Mr.  Picid  On  Concrete,  that  in  the 
sea  forts  of  Copenhagen  the  concrete  was  made  in 
the  following  proportions:  — 

Portland  cement     ....       1 

Sand 4 

Fragments  of  stone         .        .         .     IG 

and  the  concrete  for  filling  in  the  terra-cotta  at 
St.  Paul's  School,  Kensington,  consisted  of  one  of 
Portland  cement  and  ten  of  aggregate. 

In  Portland  cement  concrete,  "  a  rotten  or  fri- 
able material  is  to  be  avoided,  except  where  un- 
avoidable, and  in  that  case  only  in  combination 
with  a  large  quantity  of  cement,  so  as  to  neutralise 


as  far  as  possible  any  tendency  to  weakness. 
Sand,  where  a  clioice  exists,  should  be  as  rough, 
and  coarse  as  possible,  and  that  made  by  the 
various  natural  or  physical  influences  from  sand- 
stone, limestone,  or  other  similar  rocky  forma- 
tions, is  to  be  preferred  over  those  from  flint  or 
volcanic  rocks.  The  former  sands  or  shingles  are 
more  porous  than  the  latter,  and  consequently 
better  able  to  absorb  the  silicates  of  the  cement 
when  being  mixed.  For  this  reason  it  is  advisable 
not  to  have  the  sand,  gravel,  or  shingle  too  fully 
saturated  with  water  ;  if  this  is  so,  the  matrix  is 
unable  to  imbibe  the  fluid  portion  of  the  mixture, 
and  consequently  it  is  thrown  off  as  waste  from 
the  concrete.  This  observation  equally  applies  to 
the  mischievous  practice  of  over- wetting  bricks  in 
building  with  cement  mortar.  A  dry  brick  is 
bad  enough,  but  when  saturation  is  carried  to 
excess  equally  faulty  results  ensue.  With  regard 
to  the  acting  properties  of  Portland  cement  when 
used  with  salt  sand,  or  salt  water,  an  experiment 
proved  the  use  of  salt  water  and  salt  sand  per- 
fectly satisfactory,  both  with  Portland  cement  and 
lias  lime,  but  there  was  no  question  as  to  their 
setting  being  retarded  by  their  use." — Brunei. 

"When  blue  lias  is  used  for  concrete,  the  pro- 
portion of  parts  and  the  mixing  is  the  same  as 
described  in  cement  concrete. 

Burnt  ballast  is  frequently  used  as  an  aggre- 
gate for  concrete,  but  care  should  be  taken  that  it 
be  thoroughly  burnt  free  from  clay.  Burnt  bal- 
last concrete  should  be  made  rather  sloppy  on  ac- 


count  of  its  absorbent  nature,  or  it  will  quickly 
absorb  tbc  moisture  from  the  cement  or  lime  with, 
which,  it  is  mixed,  to  the  injury  of  its  setting  pro- 
perties and  ultimate  strength. 

Mixed  with  one- third  of  Thames  ballast  and 
a  fair  proportion  of  lime  it  will  yield  a  good 
concrete  for  footings  to  walls. 


Adie's  No.  1  cement  testing  machine  is  very 
generally  used  for  testing  cements,  but  where  one 
of  these  is  not  at  hand  they  may  be 
r  -"^A  roughly  tested  in  the  following  man- 
)c^  ~~^  ner.  Having  mounted  a  briquette 
Fig.  4.  (Fig.  4),  whose  sectional  area  is  one 
square  inch,  or  more  as  the  case  may  be,  after  seven 
days'  immersion  let  it  be  suspended  from  one 
end,  and  from  the  other  end  suspend  a  cement 
barrel  containing  sand,  increasing  the  quantity 
until  the  briquette  breaks  or  its  power  of  resistance 
be  overcome.  The  sand  should  not  be  thrown 
into  the  barrel,  but  slid  into  it  by  means  of  an 
inclined  plane,  and  in  small  quantities.  The 
weight  of  the  cask  with  its  contents  will  repre- 
sent the  breaking  weight.  "With  Adie's  machine 
the  briquette  in  the  making  is  subjected  to  a 
slight  pressure,  which  adds  considerably  to  its 
tensile  strength,  so  that  the  resistance  to  breaking 
of  a  briquette  made  by  the  machine  •\^•ill  be  greater 
than  that  of  a  briquette  of  the  same  cement  made 
by  hand  and  not  subjected  to  pressure.  Another 
way  :  bed  two  bricks  together  (Fig.  5),  and  after 


a  few  days'  immersion  let  them  be  suspended  and 
treated  in  the  same  way  as  the  briquette.  This 
plan  is  suitable  for  ascertain- 
ing the  comparative  strength  of 
cements,  but  in  so  doing  the 
same  kind  of  bricks,  sand  (if  any 
used),  and  even  water  should  be 
used,  and  the  exact  proportions 
maintained  in  the  mixing,  or, 
in  other  words,  the  conditions  should  be  exactly 
the  same.  Bricks  having  a  smooth  impervious 
bed  will  be  found  to  have  less  adhesion  than  those 
of  a  hard  but  comparatively  porous  nature — 
pressed  bricks  and  hard  stocks,  for  instance. 

The  bricklayer  should  make  himself  acquainted 
with  the  various  limes  and  cements,  and  the  in- 
gredients used  in  combination  wath  them ;  also 
with  concrete,  as  subjects  belonging  particularly 
to  his  trade,  and  which  by  reason  of  his  occu- 
pation he  has  a  better  opportunity  of  doing  than 
any  other  class  of  operatives.  In  large  and  im- 
portant public  works  these  are  generally  subject 
to  the  inspection  of  a  bricklayer. 


The  laying  of  drains,  at  once  the  most  impor- 
tant and  too  frequently  the  most  neglected  part  of 
a  building,  should  never  be  intrusted  to  unskilled 
workmen.  The  fall  having  been  determined, 
which  should  not  be  less  than  one  in  sixty  or  one 
inch  in  five  feet,  the  flange  of  each  pipe  should 
rest  upon  a  bedded  brick,  that  the  joints  may  be 


caulked  all  round  •v^•ith  gaskin  or  oakum  previ- 
ously to  being  made  up  with  Portland  cement. 
The  object  of  caulking  is  to  prevent  the  cement 
squeezing  through  into  the  pipe,  a  very  common 
cause  of  stoppage  in  drains.  They  can  now  be 
bedded  half  way  up  in  fine  concrete,  so  as  to  form 
a  cradle,  care  being  taken  not  to  disturb  the 
joints.  The  inside  joint  of  each  length  of  pipe 
as  it  is  laid  should  be  stopped  with  Portland 
cement,  and  left  solid  and  clean,  free  from  any- 
thing approaching  to  burrs.  The  drains  should  be 
laid  down  air  and  water-tight,  free  from  "  dips," 
with  no  right-angled  junctions  nor  sharp  bends, 
and  kept,  if  at  all  possible,  outside  the  building, 
with  inspection  holes  large  enough  for  a  man 
to  work  forcing-rods  in  ease  of  a  stoppage.  A 
length  of  pipe  in  the  man-hole  should  have 
a  movable  top.  This  kind  of  pipe  is  called  an 
operculum  or  "  channel "  pipe-  In  many  in- 
stances only  the  invert  half  of  the  pipe  is  used 
in  that  portion  of  the  drain  passing  through  the 
man-hole,  which  is  ventilated  by  a  current  of 
fresh  air  entering  the  man-hole,  passing  through 
the  entire  length  of  the  drains,  and  finding  an 
outlet  through  the  open  soil-pipe  above  the  roof. 
In  such  an  arrangement  a  trap  shovdd  intervene 
between  the  sewer  and  the  man-hole,  to  prevent 
the  possibility  of  sewer  gas  escaping  through  the 
fresh  air  inlet.  But  where  fresh  air  is  not  intro- 
duced, the  trap  may  be  dispensed  with,  the  soil- 
pipe  serving  as  a  ventilator  both  for  the  sewer 
and  the  drains. 



Six-inch  pipes  will  be  found  large  enough,  for 
most  buildings.  As  the  subject  of  trapping,  dis- 
connecting, and  ventilating  drains  belongs  to 
sanitar)^  science,  it  cannot  be  further  noticed  here 
beyond  giving  a  plan  and  section  of  a  dip-trap 
(Figs.  6  and  7)  which  the  bricklayer  is  sometimes 



Pi?.  6. 

Pig.  7. 

called  upon  to  build.  This  trap  should  be  used 
only  where  there  is  a  copious  and  frequent  supply 
of  water  (but  not  in  connection  with  soil),  as  by 
its  size  and  construction  a  greater  quantity  of 
water  is  required  to  trap  it  than  the  earthenware 
traps  now  more  generally  and  preferably  used. 

14  brickwork. 


Mortar  used  by  the  bricklayer  is  made  either 
from  stone  lime,  lias,  or  Portland  cement,  mixed 
with  a  proper  proportion  of  sand.  Chalk  lime 
should  not  be  used,  as  the  only  setting  that  takes 
place  in  it  is  the  formation  of  a  surface  crust, 
bearing  a  small  proportion  to  the  bulk.  Stone,  or 
gray  chalk  lime,  as  it  is  sometimes  called,  is 
generally  used  ;  it  possesses  slight  hydraulic 
power,  and  will  set  if  secluded  from  the  air 
or  in  damp  situations,  and  is  capable  of  bearing 
three  parts  of  sand  to  one  of  lime.  For  damp 
situations  blue  lias  will  be  found  to  make  the 
best  lime-mortar.  It  is  eminently  hydraulic,  and 
becomes  very  hard,  especially  in  damp  places ;  but 
it  will  not  bear  so  much  sand  as  stone  lime.  The 
amount  of  sand  should  not  exceed  twice  that  of 
lime.  Lump  lias  is  used  for  mortar ;  it  should 
be  well  wetted,  coTcred  over  with  sand,  and 
allowed  a  day  to  slack  before  being  ground  in 
the  mortar  mill.  The  sand  used  for  all  mortars 
should  be  a  clean,  sharp,  angular  grit.  Cement 
has  been  already  spoken  of  in  connection  with 
concrete,  and  elsewhere. 

Red  Brickwork. 

Owing  to  the  revival  of  the  Queen  Anne  stylo 
of  architecture,  brickwork  now  occupies  the  fore- 
most position  in  building  construction,  of  which 
very  good  samples  may  bo  seen  at  Westwood 
House,   Sydenham  ;    Fitz- John  Avenue,  llamp- 


Stead ;  the  Chelsea  Embankment,  and  many  other 
places  in  and  about  London.     Our  popular  archi- 
tects delight  to  revel  and  indulge  their  fancies  in 
red   brickwork,   as   evidenced   in   several  public 
buildings  of  recent  erection.     The  Victorian  age, 
from  an  architectural  point  of  view,  will  be  con- 
spicuous for  its  stuccoed   buildings  and  its  red 
brickwork— the  former  an  expressionless   imita- 
tion,   the   offspring   of   the   speculator,   and  the 
Caliban  of  architecture.     But  Truth  in  architec- 
ture, as  in   all  things,  will  assert  herself;    she 
breathes  into  the  nostrils  of  a  second  Adam,  and 
lo  !   we  have  "  a  thing  of  beauty." 
_  We  can  remember,  in  our  experience,  when  the 
life  of  the  bricklayer  was  often  made  "  bitter  with 
hard  bondage  in  mortar  and  in  brick,"  by  reason 
of  the  reign  of  stucco;   but,  thanks  to  the  able 
advocacy  of  Mr.  Tvuskin  and  the  late  Mr.  E.  Street, 
such  rapid  strides  have  been  made  in  brickwork 
that  one  is  almost  surprised  to  see  the  amount  of 
art-workmanship  wrought  in  red-brick  designs. 

These  will  be  found  mostly  in  retired  out-of-the- 
way  streets,  relieving,  both  by  colour  and  detail, 
the  dull  monotony  of  the  unbroken  line  of  our 
vista-like  old  street  architecture. 

Some  years  ago  the  Philological  School,  St. 
Marylebone  Eoad,  was  pointed  out  as  a  sample  of 
ornamental  brickwork.  The  ornamental  features 
m  this  structure  are  made  up  of  a  judicious  use 
and  arrangement  of  polychrome  bricks,  and  stone 
dressings.  The  building  is,  undoubtedly,  a  good 
one,  possessing  that  repose   almost  peculiar  to 


ecclesiastical  architecture.  But  the  term  orna- 
mental brickwork  is  so  closely  associated  in  these 
days  with  the  idea  of  form,  that  we  are  accustomed 
to  exclude  from  the  meaning  of  that  term  all 
brick  designs  characterized  bj"  an  absence  of  pro- 

We  know  no  better  samples  of  red  brickwork 
than  St.  Paul's  Schools,  and  the  City  Guilds 
Technical  Institute,  Kensington  ;  and  the  Mid- 
land Hotel,  St.  Pancras  Station. 


In  dealing  with  brickwork  it  is  necessary  that 
something  should  be  said  about  bricks,  though  it 
is  not  intended  to  go  into  the  chemical  properties 
or  other  scientific  matters  connected  with  them,  as 
we  are^'presumably  writing  for  persons  in  or  con- 
nected with  the  trade  of  a  bricklayer,  but  will 
just  take  a  passing  glance  at  the  bricks  commonly 
used  in  and  about  London,  and  state  the  purposes 
for  which  they  are  best  adapted. 

Stock  bricks  are  divided  into  "picked  "  stocks 
(picked  for  colour  and  hardness),  "  washed  " 
stocks,  "  grizzles,"  "  place,"  and  "  shuffs." 
"  Shuffs  "  are  worthless,  "  place  "  are  little 
better  ;  "  grizzles  "  are  those  bricks  which  haye 
a  good  face  or  end  with  the  other  face  or  end 
underburnt,  and  similar  in  appearance  to  "  place/* 
which  are  of  a  reddish  colour.  "  Picked  "  are 
those  which  are  suitable  for  good  exterior  facing. 
"  "Washed "  stocks,  on  account  of  their  softness, 
are  fit  only  for  interior  facing.     The  best  stock 


bricks  for  general  facing  purposes  are  those  called 
"stippers,"  whicli,  as  their  name  implies,  are 
sorted  for  shipping. 

INEalms  are  a  superior  kind  of  stock  bricks,  made 
of  washed  clay  and  chalk,  and  are  used  for 
superior  facing  and  for  "  cutting  "  purposes,  but 
are  not  suitable  for  "  gauged-Avork"  on  account  of 
the  numerous  small  air-cells  contained  in  the 
bricks,  which  make  it  impossible  to  rub  them 
up  to  an  arris,  which  is  indispensable  to  good 

Of  red  building  bricks  there  are  a  great  yariety 
in  the  London  market,  the  best  of  which  for 
colour  and  weathering  properties  arc  Fareham 
reds,  though  rather  irregular  in  shape.  St. 
Thomas's  Hospital,  and  the  Nurses'  Training 
Home,  Queen  Anne's  Gate,  St.  James's  Park,  are 
faced  with  these.  Sometimes  they  are  rubbed 
down  to  obtain  true  faces ;  but  this  should  be 
avoided  for  the  sake  of  preserving  the  deep  red 
colour,  which  constitutes  the  beauty  of  these 
bricks.  Fareham  rubbers  for  "  gauged-work " 
also  stand  first  in  quality,  though  they  are  not 
extensively  used,  as  they  are  dearer  than  the 
other  varieties  in  the  market. 

Next  in  quality  come  the  Berkshire  Builders 
and  T.  L.  B.  Rubbers,  made  by  T.  Lawrance, 
Bracknell,  Berks.  The  Teynham  bricks,  stamped 
G.  Richardson,  Teynham,  are  good  bricks,  pos- 
sessing in  a  large  degree  the  qualities  that  recom- 
mend the  Farehams,  and  with  the  additional 
advantage  of  a  fairly  good  shape.      Gault  bricks 


arc  mucli  used  for  facing ;  they  are  much  harder 
than  stocks,  and  also  dearer.  Of  ■white  bricks 
Suffolks  are  the  very  best.  They  are  a  close, 
firm  brick,  suitable  for  first-class  facing,  either 
exterior  or  interior,  or  for  "  gauged- work."  They 
are  of  a  soft  nature,  but  harden  very  much  by 
exposure  to  the  action  of  the  atmosphere. 

A  very  nice  piece  of  work — three-light  geo- 
metrical windows — executed  in  these  bricks,  and 
designed  by  Messrs.  II.  Saxon  Snell  and  Sons, 
22,  Southampton  Buildings,  W.C,  mny  be  seen  in 
the  chapel  attached  to  the  Rackham  Street  In- 
firmary, Netting  Hill,  "W.  Staffordshire  blue 
.bricks  are  the  most  suitable  for  external  bases, 
plinths,  and  dwarf-walls  for  palisading,  or  wher- 
ever there  is  much  trafRc. 

Enamelled  bricks  are  now  very  extensively 
used  instead  of  tiles ;  they  can  be  obtained  in 
various  colours,  and  are  suitable  for  facing  dairies, 
&c.,  and  areas  where  reflected  or  borrowed  light  is 
required.    They  are  obtainable  in  double  headers, 

^ J       viz.  two  ends  enamelled  for  9- 

inch  Avails,  and  double  stretchers 
for  4 3 -inch  walls,  single  headers 

Fig.  8.  ^^^^  stretchers  for   fticing,  and 

buUnose  and  chamfered  bricks 
(Fig.  8)  for  jambs  or  reveals.  The  best  kind  are 
those  bearing  the  stamp,  "  Cliff,  "Wortlcy,  Leeds." 
Firebricks  should  be  used  for  all  places  exposed 
to  the  action  of  fire  or  intense  heat.  They  are 
made  of  fireclay,  and  should  be  set  with  close 
joints  in  a  mortar  made  of  the  same  material, 


wetting  the  bricks  before  setting  them.  The 
mortar  under  the  action  of  the  fire  will  Titrify, 
and  form  one  body  with  the  bricks.  In  lining 
boiler  furnaces,  &c.,  bricklayers  frequently  use 
fireclay  only  with  that  portion  of  the  work  that 
will  be  subjected  to  the  flame,  but  it  may  be  set 
down  as  a  rule  that  wherever  it  is  necessary  to 
use  firebricks,  it  is  also  necessary  to  w&ejireclaij  to 
bed  them  in.  Nevertheless,  when  it  is  not  readily 
obtainable,  plaster  of  Paris  and  sand  may  be  used 
as  a  very  good  substitute  for  small  jobs,  but  on 
no  account  should  cement  be  used,  for  being  non- 
elastic  it  will  fracture  under  the  action  of  intense 
heat.  Stourbridge  bricks  are  much  used  as  the 
best  kind  of  ordinary  fire-bricks,  but  Dr.  Siemens 
has  shown  the  Dinas  firebricks  to  be  the  best,  and 
to  be  capable  of  resisting  the  temperature  of  4,000° 
to  5,000-  Fahr.* 

Characteristics  of  Good  Bricks. 

Soundness,  freedom  from  flaws,  cracks,  or  stones 
of  any  kind.  They  should  contain  no  lumps  of  lime 
or  limestone,  however  small;  should  be  regular  in 
shape  and  uniform  in  size,  their  length  exceeding 
twice  their  breadth  by  the  thickness  of  a  mortar 
joint.  They  should  not  absorb  at  most  more 
water  than  is  equal  to  one-sixth  of  their  dry 
weight.  They  should  be  hard,  and  burnt  so 
thoroughly  that  there  is  incipient  vitrification  all 
through  the  brick.  When  struck  together  they 
should  yield  a  clear  metallic  ring.  (This  last- 
*  Dr.  Siemena'  "Chemical  Society,"  7th  May,  1868. 

20  BRlCKWOlUv. 

mentioned  characteristic  belongs  more  to  stocks 
and  the  harder  kind  of  bricks.)  Their  texture 
should  be  homogeneous  and  compact.  They  should 
be  regular  in  colour,  with  their  arrises  square, 
sharp,  and  well-defined.  Pressed  bricks,  such  as 
those  from  the  midland  counties  and  Ruabon,  are 
almost  non-absorbent,  and  for  all  practical  pur- 
poses impervious  to  water.  The  nearer  bricks 
approach  to  imperviousness  the  better  will  they  be. 
The  following  is  an  analysis  of  the  clay  worked 
by  Messrs.  Monk,  Is^ewell,  and  Bryon — Euabon — 

Moisture   . 


Combined  water 

3-. 54 



Alumina    . 


Sesquioxide  of  iron    . 


Protoxide  of  iron 







Bricks  and  terra-cotta,  manufactured  from  this 
clay,  may  be  seen  at  the  Northern  Ilospital, 
Winchmore  Hill,  London,  now  in  course  of 
erection  by  Messrs.  Wall  Brothers,  of  London. 

Bond  of  Brickwork. 

We  will  now  enter  into  what  might  be  termed 
the  scientific  part  of  bricklaying,  and  it  will  not 
be  out  of  place  to  repeat  what  Smeaton  wrote 
half  a  century  ago  with  reference  to  this  sub- 
ject, and  which  is  equally  true  to-day  :  "  As  the 
art  of  bricklaying  is  generally  supposed  to  be 
so  simple  as  to  require  little  or  no  attention,  it 


will  be  necessary  to  remove  this  false  impression 
by  a  somewhat  particuhir  detfiil  of  the  facts  which 
relate  to  it.  There  are  many  persons,  and  even 
some  workmen,  who  suppose  that  nothing  more 
is  required  than  that  the  bricks  should  be  properly 
bedded  and  the  work  level  and  perpendicular.  But 
the  workman  who  would  attain  perfection  in  his 
business  should  acquaint  himself  with  the  different 
arrangements  made  use  of  in  placing  [bonding] 
the  bricks,  so  that  one  part  of  the  work  shall 
strengthen  another,  and  thus  prevent  one  portion 
from  a  greater  liabilitj'  to  give  way  than  another." 
So  much  for  the  statement  of  an  eminent  engi- 
neer, than  whom  none  knew  better  the  value  of 
bonding,  as  evidenced  in  the  old  Eddystone  Light- 
house, which  was  so  thoroughly  bonded,  one  stone 
into  another,  and  each  into  the  whole,  that  nothing 
but  the  wearing  away  of  the  rock  upon  which  it 
stood  led  (or  was  likely  to  lead)  to  its  demolition. 

Old  English  Bond. 

Old  English  bond  consists  of  alternate  courses 
of  headers  and  stretchers,  while  Flemish  bond 
consists  of  alternate  headers  and  stretchers  in 
each  course.  Old  English  is  the  only  true  bond, 
the  other  bonds  (and  there  are  several)  being 
merely  arrangements  to  please  the  eye.  Gwilt, 
referring  to  bond,  remarks,  in  his  "  Encyclopedia 
of  Architecture,"  that  "  previous  to  the  reign  of 
"William  and  !Mary  all  the  brick  buildings  in  the 
island  were  constructed  in  what  is  called  English 
bond ;  and  subsequent  to  the  reign  in  question, 


when  in  buildings  as  in  many  other  eases  Dutch 
fashions  were  introduced,  we  regret  to  say  much 
to  the  injury  of  our  houses'  strength,  the  work- 
men have  become  so  infatuated  with  what  is  called 
Flemish  bond  that  it  is  difficult  to  drive  them  out 
of  it.  To  the  introduction  of  the  latter  has  been 
attributed  (in  many  cases  with  justice)  the  splitting 
of  walls  into  two  thicknesses ;  to  prevent  which 
expedients  have  been  adopted  which  would  be 
altogether  unnecessary  if  a  return  to  the  general 
use  of  English  bond  could  be  established." 

Bond  of  Footixgs  and  Walls. 

•  The  Metropolitan  Building  Act  requires  that 
the  footings  of  all  walls  shall  not  be  less  than 
twice  the  thickness  of  the  super- 
incumbent wall,  or,  as  brick- 
layers call  it,  "  the  neat  work." 
Fig.  9  represents  the  footing  for 
a  brick-and-a-half  wall.  A  two- 
brick  wall  would  require  a  four- 
brick  footing,  and  so  on,  according  to  the  size  of 
the  wall,  setting  back  2^  inches  on  each  course  of 
footings  until  the  wall  be  brought  into  its  proper 
size.  Where  a  "bat  "  occurs  in  the  footings,  as 
in   the   second  course,  it 

A       should  always  be  kept  in 

^      the  centre.    Fig.  10  shows 


in  elevation  the  footings 
and  three  courses  of  a 
14-inch  wall.     It  will  be 

Tig.  10. 

seen   that    the   "  closer "  is  not   used   until   the 



setting  out  of  the  bond  for  the  "  neat  work." 
Figs.  11  and  12  are  the  plans  of  two  successive 
courses  of  a  one-and-a-half  brick  wall,  showing 
the  sectional  bond.  It  will  be  seen  by  this  that 
there  are  no  two  joints  in  the  wall  immediately 
one  above  the  other,  but  that  in  the  direction  of 
the  length  of  the  wall  there  is  a  lap  or  bond  of 
2j  inches  of  each  brick  over  the  two  immediately 
below  it  in  the  next  course,  and  a  lap  of  4^  inches 
in  the  width  of  the  wall.  This  result  is  obtained 
by  running  the  transverse  joints  right  through  tlie 

Fig.  11. 

Fig.  12. 

wall  from  one  side  to  the  other.  A  simple  prin- 
ciple, but  seldom  carried  out  even  by  bricklayers. 
The  method  in  general  practice  is  shown  in 
Figs.  13  and  14.  It  will  be  seen  that  the  trans- 
verse or  "cross"  joints  do  not  run  through  the 
wall,  but  that  the  ends  of  the  stretchers  come 
in  the  middle  of  the  headers,  consequently  the 
cross  joints  in  the  middle  4|  inches  of  the  wall 
are  one  over  the  other  from  the  bottom  to  the 
top  of  the  wall.  This  is  caused  by  showing  full 
"stretchers,"  a  and  h,  in  the  internal  angle,  instead 
of  letting  them  pass  2;^  inches  into  the  return 



wall,  as  in  Figs.  11  and  12.  Many  bricklayers 
insist  upon  showing  a  whole  "stretcher"  in  the 
angle  in  all  cases ;  but  he  who  insists  upon  this  has 



Fig.  13. 

Fis.  14. 

yet  to  learn  the  bond  of  brickwork.  The  reader 
would  be  greatly  helped  to  an  understanding  of 
bond  by  haying  a  few  model  bricks,  and  arranging 


-     1 


Fig.  15.  Fig.  IC. 

them  as  shown  in  these  figures.  Figs.  15  and  16 
represent  a  straight  jamb  in  a  14-inch  wall.  Here 
again,  that  the  "  cross  "  joints  may  run  straight 
through  the  wall,  it  is  necessary  to  introduce  a 


Fit".  IS. 

three-quarter  "stretcher"  a,  and  to  omit  the 
"closer"  in  the  next  course  above.  Figs.  17  and 
18  are  the  plans  of  two  consecutive  courses  of  a 



pier  14  inches  on  the  face  and  18  inches  deep. 
The  face  bond  is  made  up  of  two  three-quarter 
"stretchers"  on  one  course,and  of  three  "  headers" 

on  the  other. 


19  and  20  are  two  courses  of 

Fig.  19.  rig.  20. 

a  wall  two  and  a  half  bricks  thick.  In  all  walls 
of  such  a  size  as  to  take  an  odd  half  brick  (two 
bricks  and  a  half,  three  bricks  and  a  half,  &c.),the 
"  stretcher  "  is  always  laid  on  the  outside  face  in 
one  course  and  on  the  inside  face  in  the  next  course. 




Fig.  21. 

Fig.  22. 

Figs.  21  and  22  show  the  "  king  closer,"  which  in 
practice,  owing  to  the  trouble  of  cutting  and  the 
probability  of  breaking  in  the  cutting,  is  seldom 
used.     In  this  case  two  bricks  are  cut  in      

their  whole  length  from  2j  inches  to  4j 
inches,  but  it  is  more  frequently  cut  out  ^*^-  ^^■ 
of  one  brick,  as  in  Fig.  23,  and  an  adjoining 
"  bat  "  is  cut  to  fit  it. 

A  great  many  instances  of  bond  in   diifcrcnt 



sized  walls  and  piers  might  be  given,  but  as 
a  thorough,  knowledge  of  "bonding"  can  be 
obtained  only  by  practice,  we  will  not  multiply 

If  the  bricklayer  adhere  to  the  principle  of 
keeping  the  "  cross  "  joints  immediately  opposite 
each  other,  and  laying  the  bricks  in  one  course 
quarter  bond  with  the  bricks  in  the  course  below 
it,  he  will  experience  little  difficulty  with  any 
sized  wall  or  pier. 

Setting  Out  the  Bond. 

The  chief  thing  in  connection  with  brickwork 
is  setting  out  the  bond,  for  which  a  good  brick- 
layer should  be  selected.  This  will  be  more 
readily  conceded  when  we  consider  the  strains  to 
which  a  building  is  subject.     The  bond  should  be 

r.  .  I,  ,  I,   1.3 

1  i  n  II 




I    I    !  ,1    I 




Fig.  24. 

set  out  at  least  one  course  below  the  ground  line, 
anl  the  positions  of  doors,  windows,  panels,  or 
large  apertures  taken  off  the  drawings.  This  is  best 
don3  in  a  stretching  course,  setting  a  "perpend  " 
for   every   reveal    or    jamb,    and   working  the 






"  broken  bond "  under  eacb  window,  or  other 
aperture,  as  tbe  case  may  be,  as  in  Fig  24,  a  and 
b.  Eeveals  and  jambs  in  point  of  bond  should  be 
treated  as  "  quoins."  Where  a  base  occurs  the 
"  bond  "  should  be  so  arranged  that  a  whole  brick 
will  work  in  the  internal  angle  above  the  plinth. 

In  Fig.  25  (plan  and  elevation)  we  have  a 
2i-inch  plinth  ;  a  "perpend  "  or  vertical  joint  in 
the  stretching  course  is 

started  6|  inches  from     ,  '    i    I    i     '    '  1  ( 

the  angle  at  the  base  ; 
this  joint  "  plumbed  " 
up  will  be  9  inches,  or 
a  brick,  from  the  angle 
above  the  plinth,  and 
work  proper  or  con- 
ventional "bond."  In 
many  cases  the  base  is 
treated  by  bricklayers 
as  if  it  were  a  detached 
part  of  the  building, 
and  the  consequence  is  that  "  closers  "  are  to  be 
seen  in  the  internal  angles  of  many  good  buildings 
where  whole  bricks  should  be  found.  Such  things, 
though  small  in  themselves,  go  a  long  way  to 
make  up  or  to  detract  from  the  general  effect  and 
appearance  of  brickwork. 

"Broken  Bond  "  is  the  result  of  badly  propor- 
tioned piers  ;  thus,  in  a  pier  3  feet  2i  inches  long, 
the  bricklayer  would  have  to  work  four  bricks 
and  a  quarter,  but  to  do  away  with  the  quarter 
or  "  closer,"  a  header  and  a  three-quarter 
c  2 


"  stretcher  "  are  substituted  for  a  "  stretclier  " 
aud  the  "  closer,"  the  three-quarter  and  "  header  " 
making  up  the  "  broken  bond,"  and  are  kept  as 
near  as  possible  in  the  middle  of  the  pier. 

The  work  once  above  the  ground,  the  building 
should  be  levelled  all  round,  and  a  piece  of  hoop- 
iron  fixed  in  a  joint  at  each  corner  or  angle  to 
gauge  or  measure  from,  taking  care  that  they  are 
all  in  the  same  level   course.     A  "  gauge-rod," 
reaching  from  floor  to  floor,  with  all  the  courses 
and  stone  strings  (if  there  be  any)  and  heights  of 
window  sills  and  heads  marked  on  it,  should  be 
given   to  the  bricklaj-er  to  work  to,  by   which 
means  he   can  at  any  time  see  how  his   work 
is  rising,  which  in  London  should  not  exceed  nor 
be  less  than  four  courses  to  a  foot ;  and  the  care- 
less or  inferior  workman  will  then  have  no  ex- 
cuse for  not  keeping  his  work  level  and  to  the 
gauge.     Not  working  to  a  gauge- rod  is  the  chief 
cause  of  thick  and  thin  joints,  though  any  compe- 
tent workman  with  a  2-feet  rule  should  be  able 
to  keep  his  work  right.     The  bricks  in  building 
should  be  wetted,  but  not  to  saturation,  and  the 
mortar  of  such  a  consistency  that  the  "cross"  joints 
between  the  bricks  can  be  drawn  up  as  the  bricks 
are  laid  ;  any  open  or  partiallj'  filled  joints  can  then 
be  filled  by  "  flushing,"  which  is  to  be  preferred  to 
"  grouting,"  and  shoidd  be  done  on  every  course. 

Heading  Bond 

is  the  name  given  to  that  arrangement  in  which  the 
bricks  are  laid  all  "  headers."     This  bond  is  used 



in  circular  and  curved  "walls  of  a  short  radius,  and 
in  round  chimney  stacks,  so  as  to  keep  the  wall 
within  the  "  sweep,"  or  arc,  for  if  "  stretchers"  be 
used,  every  9  inches  of  the  wall  will  be  a  straight 
line,  and  when  built  will  consist  of  projections  and 
hollows,  and  will  be  in  that  state  described  by 
bricklayers  as  ''hatching  and  grinning."  Heading 
bond  should  never  be  used  on  straight  walls  or 
where  it  can  be  avoided,  as  very  little  longitudi- 
nal strength  is  obtained,  as  will  be  seen  by  refer- 

Fig.  27. 

ence  to  Figs.  26  and  27,  showing  the  angles 
of  strain  in  two  walls,  one  in  heading  bond  and 
the  other  in  English.  The  thick  lines  show  the 
direction  a  fracture  would  take  in  the  event  of  a 
settlement.  They  also  show  the  space  over  which 
any  given  weight  resting  on  either  a  or  b  would 
be  distributed ;  and  this  idea  leads  us  to  the 
consideration  of  the  use  of  stone  templates  and 
strings  in  connection  with  brickwork. 

30  brickwork. 

Templates  axd  Strings. 
Templates  under  girders,  principals,  beams, 
&c.,  should  always  be  of  York,  never  of  Portland 
or  any  similar  stone,  and  should  be  at  least 
14  inches  long — 18  inches  would  be  better,  but 
the  length  must  be  regulated  by  the  weight  which 
it  has  to  carry.  There  is  little  doubt  that  "  string 
courses  "  in  the  shape  of  a  flush  band  were  first 
introduced  to  impart  strength  to  walls  whose 
component  parts  were  of  diminutive  dimensions 
(the  Roman  tile  for  instance,  used  in  Roman 
walling),  and  that  their  ornamental  feature  was  a 
secondary  idea  and  an  outgrowth  of  the  former. 
String  courses  and  bands  are  still  used  very  ex- 
tensively for  this  purpose,  and  are  placed  gene- 
rally at  the  floor  line,  the  window  sill  level,  or 
the  window  head  or  springing  line,  and  in  some 
buildings  in  each  and  all  of  these  positions. 

A  consideration  of  the  previous  remarks  will 
have  illustrated  the  evil  attending  the  use  of 
"  bats."  The  greatest  evil  in  connection  with  them 
is  that  workmen  when  walling,  instead  of  fairly 
distributing  them  amongst  the  whole  bricks,  gene- 
rally allow  them  to  accumulate  on  the  scafibld,  and 
when  they  have  a  quantity  put  them  in  the  wall 
all  together,  much  to  its  injury.  Good  work 
may  be  done  with  a  fair  proportion  of  "  bats  "  if 
they  be  used  with  discretion  ;  and  it  is  only  fair 
to  the  builder  that  he  be  allowed  to  use  the  bats 
made  on  the  job. 



Flemish  Bond. 

Having  already  pronounced  upon  the  merits  of 
this  bond  and  given  the  opinion  of  an  eminent 
authority  (Gwilt),  little  remains  to  be  said  on  this 
subject  beyond  explaining  a  few  examples  in 
diflEerent  sized  walls  and  piers. 

Fiffs.  28  and  29  show  a  14-inch  wall  with  a 


Tig.  2S. 


straight  jamb,  both  sides  Flemish  bond,  showing 
the  way  such  a  wall  is  generally  bonded  in  prac- 
tice. The  rule  laid  down  to  keep  the  "  cross  " 
joints  straight  through  the  wall  is  departed  from 
in  this  example,  consequently  the  joints  in  the 
middle  of  the  wall  are  one  over  the  other  in  the 
entire  height  of  the  wall.  The  proper  method  is 
showli  in  Figs.  30  and  31,  in  which  the  "  closer  " 





'    ^        1 

Fig.  30. 

Fig.  31. 

is  dispensed  with,  and  two  "  headers,"  a,  in  one 
course  and  a  three-quarter  "  stretcher,"  b,  in  the 
other  are  used.  A  heading  and  stretching  course 
are  obtained  by  laying  whole  headers  on  one  face 
and  "snapped  headers"  on  the  other.  A  still 
better  bond  would   be   obtained  by  laying   the 



headers  on  each  face,  alternately  "header"  and 
"  snap  ;  "  but  to  prevent  all  "  snaps  "  coming 
over  each  other  and  all  whole  headers  over  each 
other  they  (the  ''snap  headers"  and  the  whole 
"headers")  should  be  alternated  in  the  height  as 
well  as  on  the  level. 

Figs.  32  and  33,  the  same  wall,  with  the  face 

rig.  32.  Fig.  S3. 

in  Flemish  and  the  back  in  English  bond.  A 
good  strong  wall  can  be  obtained  in  this  way,  and 
where  the  inside  has  to  be  plastered  it  should 
always  be  so  built. 

Figs.  34  and  35,  a  two-brick  wall,  Flemish 
bond  both  sides.      By  snapping  the  headers  in 

riff.  34. 

Fig.  35. 

one  course,  34,  and  putting  them  whole  in  the 
other,  35,  a  heading  and  a  stretching  course  are 
obtained,  Avhich  gives  a  much  better  bond  through 
the  wall  than  if  all  whole  headers  were  used. 
Fig.  3G,  a  quoin  in  isometric  projection,  showing  the 
internal  and  external  angle,  and  a  perfect  bond  as 
far  as  obtainable  in  Flemish  bonding  with  the  in- 
side face  built  in  Old  English  bond.    Fig.  37  gives 


the  bond  of  a  two-and-a-half  brick  pier  projecting 
from  a  wall.  At  r/  is  shown  a  broken  bond — two 
"  stretchers"  in  one  course  and  three  "headers  " 

Fig.  36. 

in  the  next  course  above  them,  which  frequently 
occurs,  and  is  the  only  legitimate  "  broken  "  bond 
in  Flemish.     Where  a  three-quarter  "  stretcher" 

"Mil        II 

1    1 

II         II 

II          M 

1    1    1     1        II 

1     1 

\     1        1         II 

1  1          II 

)       1    1    1     1        II 

1     1 

-  i 

M  .        II 

Fig.  37. 

occurs  as  "broken"  bond,  it  can  be  obviated  or 
done  away  with  by  "  reversing  "  the  bond  on  one 
end  of  the  pier  or  wall.    Thus  for  a  "stretcher" 
substitute  a  "header"  and  "closer." 
c  3 

34  brickwork. 

Yarious  Bonds. 

Chimney  bond  is  a  term  applied  only  to  4|-inch 
external  walls  to  chimney  stacks.  In  this  arrange- 
ment the  disposition  of  the  bricks  is  such  as  to 
obtain  the  greatest  possible  strength  by  bonding 
in  the  "  withes "  on  every  second  course,  and 
aToiding  the  use  of  bats  as  far  as  practicable. 

Stacks  of  4i-inch  walls  should  never  be  built 
in  Old  English  bond,  for  the  reason  that  brick- 
layers, when  cutting  the  half  bricks  to  form  "  snap 
headers,"  will  sometimes  cut  them  3J  inches  in 
depth  instead  of  4i  inches,  depending  upon  the  par- 
getting or  mortar  to  make  up  the  thickness  of  the 
wall,  which  when  the  flue  comes  into  use  will 
shrink  and  crack,  and  falling  away  from  the 
brickwork  leave  a  stack,  in  many  cases,  built 
partly  of  closers.  English  bond  is  also  objection- 
able on  account  of  the  numerous  bats.  Another 
practice  in  45-inch  stack  building,  and  which 
cannot  be  too  severely  condemned,  is  that  of 
"buttering"  the  cross  joints  with  the  point  of 
the  trowel;  or,  in  plainer  words,  putting  a  mortar 
joint  between  the  ends  of  the  bricks,  extending 
in  about  1  inch  from  the  face,  the  remaining 
85  inches  being  left  open,  excepting  what  little 
may  be  filled  up  in  the  process  of  pargetting. 

We  believe  this  practice,  together  with  that  of 
plugging  into  45 -inch  chimney  walls  for  fixing 
skirtings,  to  be  a  fruitful  source  of  many  fires, 
with  accounts  of  which  we  are  occasionally  startled. 
The  mortar  or  cement  joints  should  be  put  n'^ht 


through  the  width  of  the  bricks,  and  drawn  up 
solid  and  tight.  Stacks  with  4|-inch  walls  may 
often  be  built  with  advantage  in  Flemish  bond ; 
but  the  main  thing  to  be  attained  is  strength, 
which  is  to  be  obtained  only  by  bonding  in  the 
"withes"  or  divisions  between  the  flues.  Another 
reason  the  author  would  advance  in  objection  to 
4|-inch  walls  for  chimney  stacks  is  that  plumbers, 
in  "flashing"  roimd  the  base,  cut  out  the  joints 
for  the  purpose  of  turning  in  the  lead ;  and  when 
wedging  the  same,  thoughtless  of  the  power 
exerted  by  the  wedge,  often  break  the  bond  of 
adhesion  between  the  mortar  and  the  course  above 
the  "  flashing,"  leaving  the  stack  in  this  condi- 
tion to  withstand  a  wind  pressure  of  from  40  to 
50  lbs.  on  the  square  foot  during  a  hurricane, 
often  resulting  in  a  coroner's  inquest.  Zinc 
"soakers"  maybe  used  with  much  advantage  in 
connection  with  stacks  built  with  4;^  inch  walls, 
and  the  angles  formed  by  the  junction  of  the 
stack  and  the  slating  filled  in  with  a  small  cement 
fillet,  triangular  in  section,  making  a  perfectly 
sound  and  water-tight  job,  doing  away  with  the 
necessity  of  flashings,  and  preventing  the  evils 
that  sometimes  attend  them. 

English  garden -wall  bond  consists  of  three 
courses  of  "  stretchers"  to  one  course  of  "headers." 
This  bond  may  be  said  to  have  grown  into  disuse, 
excepting  in  the  north  of  England,  where  five 
courses  of  "stretchers"  to  one  course  of  "headers" 
are  frequently  used  in  general  building.  Flemish 
garden- wall  bond  consists  of  three  "  stretchers  " 



to  one  "  header  "  in  every  course,  as  in  Fig.  38. 
Garden-wall  bond  is  used  only,  as  its  name  implies, 
for  9-incli  garden  walls  that  have  to  be  kept  fair 

I       ,11 

1      T 

J,  I        I- 

Fig.  OS. 

or  smooth  on  both  sides.  The  bricks  vary  most 
in  their  lengths  ;  the  more  ** headers"  that  are  put 
through  the  wall  will,  therefore,  add  to  the  diflS- 
culty  of  keeping  it  straight. 

Herring-bone  Bond. 

Figs.  39  and  40  represent  a  panel  filled  in  with 
bricks  laid  "  herring-bone."   The  former  is  gene- 

Fig.  39. 

Fig.  40. 

rally  the  method  used  in  paving,  where  the  bricka 
are  laid  on  their  beds,  4|  by  9  inches,  in  sand, 
and  "  grouted  "  up  with  cement  or  mortar.  The 
latter  is  used  for  filliug  in  panels  under  windows 
and  for  tympana   of  arches,  and  are  laid   four 


courses  to  the  foot.  When  a  large  area  of  paving 
has  to  be  done  in  this  way,  the  simplest  way  will 
be  to  work  from  a  centre  line,  and  lay  the  middle 
course  first  and  at  an  angle  of  45  degrees,  the  other 
courses  will  then  follow,  and  the  points  may  be 
kept  right  by  means  of  a  line  drawn  parallel  to 
the  centre  line. 

In  a  panel,  the  first  brick  starting  from  the 
corner  should  be  set  to  a  small  set  square,  forming 
a  right  angle  and  two  angles  of  45  degrees,  and 
measuring  from  the  base  to  the  apex  3  inches,  or 
whatever  the  bricks  will  work. 

Dutch  Bond. 

arrangement  cs 
It  is  a  modification  of  English  bond,  the  "  closer  " 

Fig.  41  is  an  arrangement  called  Dutch  bond. 


'    1     I    I    I  .  I    I    III  T'Tl 

1 .1 ' L II , I  I : I Vi 

Fig.  4] . 

being  omitted  and  a  three-quarter  "  stretcher " 
used  on  the  "  quoin."  In  every  third  stretching 
course  a  "Flemish  header"  is  introduced  next 
to  the  "  quoin  "  brick,  by  which  means  the 
"  stretchers  "  in  that  course  arc  pushed  forward, 
and  overlap  the  "  stretchers "  below  4|  inches, 
instead  of  being  "  plumb  "  over  them  as  in  other 


bonds.  The  advantage  of  this  bond  is  that  addi- 
tional strength  is  imparted  to  the  wall  in  the  di- 
rection of  its  length,  and  that  without  diminishing 
its  transverse  strength.  A  writer  in  the  Builder, 
from  which  Fig.  41  is  taken,  speaking  of  this  sub- 
ject says  :  "  As  regards  construction  in  common 
English  and  Flemish  bonds,  no  greater  tie  in 
the  direction  of  the  wall  is  obtained  than  2^ 
inches  which  one  brick  overlaps  another.  If, 
therefore,  a  fracture  takes  place,  the  crack  runs 
down  the  wall,  following  the  joint  with  only  that 
small  deviation  from  a  perpendicular  line  ;  but  by 
the  Dutch  method  a  crack  would  have  to  follow 
4 1  inches  to  the  right  or  left  in  the  courses 
containing  the  'Flemish 
header,'  or  else  break 
through  the  bricks. 
Clearly,  therefore,  wo 
have  some  additional 
strength,  the  lap  between 
the  courses  of 'stretchers' 
being  as  much  as  4 J 

The  adjoining  Fig.  42 
shows  the  way  in  which 
buttresses  and    chimney 
^^^'  ^'  stacks  are  reduced.   They 

are  generally  "  tumbled  in  "  at  an  angle  of  about 
60  or  70  degrees.  The  beds  of  the  bricks  should 
always  be  at  right  angles  to  the  "  tumbling  in." 
The  bond  on  the  "  battering  "  jamb  will  be  the 
same  as  on  the  upright  jamb  below. 

materials  and  general  principle?.      39 

"  Keeping  the  Perpends." 

Architects  usually  specify  that  the  "  perpends  " 
shall  be  kept,  or,  in  other  words,  the  yertical 
joints  are  to  fall  in  plumb  lines  from  top  to 
bottom.  Owing  to  the  difference  in  the  sizes 
of  bricks,  this  cannot  be  done  with  bricks  as 
they  come  to  hand  ;  they  must  be  sorted  to  a 
length,  or  cut  where  necessary,  by  the  bricklayer 
as  he  proceeds  with  his  work.  This  would  add  to 
the  cost  of  the  work,  and,  as  cost  has  to  be  con- 
sidered in  most  buildings,  it  is  seldom  done.  But 
if  the  bricklayer  carry  up  a  plumb  line  in  the 
middle  of  large  piers,  and  work  his  bricks  between 
that  and  the  plumb  reveals  or  jambs,  he  will  be 
able  to  keep  his  "  perpends "  tolerably  regular. 
The  "  closers  "  should  be  cut  to  a  2i-inch  gauge. 


Toothings  should  not  be  allowed  in  a  building 
where  they  can  possibly  be  avoided  ;  they  are  a 
source  of  weakness,  and  very  often  a  disfigurement 
to  a  building.  When  building  into  toothings, 
the  bricklayer  seldom  takes  the  time  or  trouble  to 
make  solid  work  ;  and  where  they  have  been  can 
very  often  be  traced  in  buildings  that  have  been 
up  but  a  short  time  by  the  pointing  having 
fallen  out  right  down  the  line  of  toothings.  This 
is  caused  in  frosty  weather,  by  the  expansion  of 
moisture  which  has  got  into  the  hollow  parts  of 
the  toothings,  forcing  the  pointing  from  the 
brickwork,  to  be  washed  off  by  the  first  heavy 


rainfall.  Where  toothings  arc  unavoidable,  they 
should  not  be  carried  up  in  a  straight  line  from 
bottom  to  top,  as  they  usually  are,  but  should  be 
stepped  back  everj'  few  courses,  so  that  the  new 
work  may  be  bedded  solidly  here  and  there. 
When  building  new  work  into  old,  a  chase  is 
preferable  to  a  toothing,  as  the  new  work  is  left 
free  to  settle.  But  in  a  front  where  new  work 
has  to  be  built  into  an  old  toothing  there  should 
be  no  mortar  used  in  the  toothing ;  the  new  work 
should  be  kept  a  trifle  high  above  the  old,  and  the 
joints  of  the  toothing  filled  in  after  the  building 
is  up.  Among  the  characteristics  of  good  brick- 
work are  solidity,  perpendicularity,  smoothness  ; 
the  vertical  joints  carrj-  a  plumb  line  from  top  to 
bottom;  the  "cross"  joints  of  the  "stretchers" 
fall  immediately  in  the  centre  of  the  "headers," 
and  the  bed  joints  arc  neither  too  thick  nor  too 


"  Grouting  "  is  the  practice  of  using  mortar  or 
cement  in  a  semi-liquid  state  to  fill  up  the  open 
joints  in  the  work,  the  result  of  careless  or  bad 
workmanship.  In  some  works  every  course  is 
"  grouted"  in  ;  in  others  every  four  courses. 

"Grouting  "  is  not  the  best  way  to  obtain  solid 
walls,  for  the  mortar  being  in  a  serai-fluid  state, 
the  excess  water  is  absorbed  into  the  bricks  of 
which  the  work  is  composed,  and,  as  a  conse- 
quence, the  "grouting"  shrinks  or  subsides,  leav- 
ing the  joints  or  interstices  only  partially  filled.  A 


better  process  is  tliat  oi"  lan'yinrj-up,''  wMcli  is, 
after  having  laid  a  course  of  bricks  on  eacb  side 
or  face  of  the  wall,  to  put  a  proper  amount  of 
mortar  in  the  wall,  and  by  the  addition  of  water, 
and  the  use  of  trowels,  shovels,  or  a  larry,  to 
reduce  it  to  such  a  consistency  as  to  be  able  to 
swim  in  the  bricks  solidly.  Even  in  this  practice 
there  is  a  subsidence  or  shrinkage  of  the  mortar, 
with  the  same  effect,  though  in  a  less  degree,  as 
described  in  "grouting."  But  the  best  and  proper 
plan  is  undoubtedly  that  of  putting  up  the  joints 
solidly  through  each  brick  as  it  is  laid,  and 
having  the  mortar  of  such  a  consistency  as  to  be 
able  to  draw  the  joints  up  solidly  when  filling  in 
the  middle  of  the  wall. 


Of  the  abominations  of  a  bad  building,  bad 
flues  are  second  only  to  bad  drains.  The  causes  of 
smoky  flues  are  as  follows.  The  sectional  area  of 
the  flue  is  either  too  large  or  too  small.  Its  sec- 
tiono.l  area  is  cramped,  the  **  cramp"  generally  oc- 
curring in  sharp  bends,  close  to  a  floor,  where  the 
bricklayer  has  to  make  room  for  another  fire- 
place. The  flue  is  too  short,  or  is  not  carried  up 
high  enough  to  be  above  some  adjoining  building 
or  contiguous  wall.  There  is  too  much  air-space 
below  the  throat  of  the  flue,  or,  in  bricklayers' 
phraseology,  the  wing  gatherings  are  not  brought 
over  fast  enough.  In  considering  the  scientific 
principle  of  flues,  we  should  remember  that  the 
properties  of  air  in  their  action  are  very  similar  to 


those  of  water.  A  stream  with  a  straight  smooth 
course  flows  swiftly  and  regularly,  while  one  with 
a  rugged  winding  course  is  full  of  eddies  and 
whirls,  and  flows  with  a  retarded  velocity.  So  it 
is  with  flues.  An  unused  flue  contains  a  column 
of  cold  air  in  equilibrium  with  the  surrounding 
air.  This  column  of  cold  air  must  be  rarefied  or 
heated  before  a  good  draught  can  be  obtained, 
when  the  denser  air  rushes  in,  pushing  the  lighter 
up.  This  will  account  for  the  fact  that  a  flue 
never  draws  so  well  when  the  fire  is  first  started 
as  it  does  some  little  time  after. 

Where  the  flue  is  unnecessarily  large,  a  larger 
volume  of  air  has  to  be  rarefied,  and  it  also  admits 
of  a  possible  down  draught,  or  in  other  words  an 
ascending  and  a  descending  column,  inconsequence 
of  the  heated  air  not  filling  the  flue.  Where  the 
flue  is  "  cramped  "  somewhere  in  its  length,  the 
cause  of  smoking  is  that  the  smoke  is  checked  in 
its  ascent  just  were  the  "cramp"  occurs,  the 
smoke  escaping  with  a  retarded  instead  of  an 
increasing  velocity.  Sharp  bends  have  the  same 
efi'ect,  though  in  a  less  degree,  as  "  cramps."  Yet 
it  is  a  common  thing  to  hear  bricklayers  advocat- 
ing sharp  bends  in  flues  to  increase  their  draught. 

Every  flue  should  be  formed  with  sufiicient 
bend  to  prevent  the  daylight  and  rain  falling  upon 
the  fire. 

Where  a  flue  terminates  below  an  adjoining 
wall,  it  will  often  smoke  in  consequence  of  a 
down  draught,  caused  by  the  wind  striking 
against   the   wall   and    in    its   rebound  passing 


down  the  flue,  or  at  least  obstructing  for  a  time 
the  passage  of  the  smoke  from  the  flue,  which  in 
efiect  is  similar  to  a  down  draught.  "Where  the 
throat  of  the  flue  is  formed  high  up  above  the 
chimney  bar  there  is  a  large  volume  of  cold  air 
collected  which  has  to  be  heated  or  rarefied  to  get 
a  proper  draught ;  until  this  takes  place  the  smoke 
is  obstructed  in  its  ascent,  and  driven  back  into 
the  room. 

To  cure  these  evils,  innumerable  contrivances 
have  been  invented,  of  various  forms  and  difierent 
degrees  of  ugliness,  and  it  is  almost  rare  to  see  a 
house  in  the  metropolis  that  is  not  surmoimted 
with  one  or  more  of  these  articles,  each  advertised 
as  a  panacea  for  smoky  flues.  These  so-called 
remedies  are  (with  the  exception  of  the  "  blower  ") 
always  applied  to  the  top  of  the  flue,  when  in  fact 
the  remedy  is  generally  required  at  the  bottom  or 
somewhere  in  the  length  of  the  flue.  We  would 
give  the  following  advice  for  flue  building. 
Form  the  throat  of  the  flue  as  low  down  as 
possible,  and  let  the  sectional  area  be  the  same 
throughout  its  entire  length,  avoiding  all  bends 
beyond  what  is  necessary  to  hide  light.  "NATiere 
bends  cannot  be  avoided  let  them  be  as  easy  as 
possible,  and  carry  the  flue  well  up  above  con- 
tiguous structures,  and  let  it  be  pargetted 
smoothly  inside.  In  building  flues  "  coring 
holes,"  12  X  14  inches,  should  be  left  out  on 
every  floor,  or  at  least  where  every  bend  occurs, 
and  a  piece  of  board  put  in  to  catch  the  mortar 
and  brick  rubbish  that  fall  while  in  erection.    By 



this  method  the  flues  may  be  easily  "  cored  "  or 
cleared  without  the  aid  of  a  chimney  sweep.  Flues 
for  dwelling-houses  arc  generally  for  registers, 
9  X  14  inches,  and  for  kitchens  14  X  14  inches. 
Fig.  43  is  the  plan  of  a  fireplace  and  flue  for  a 
register  stove,  which  we  insert  by  permission  of 
the  originator,  H.  Saxon  Snell,  Esq.,  F.R.I.B.A. 

Fig.  43. 

The  peculiarity  and  advantage  of  this  fireplace 
is  that  the  sectional  area  or  throat  of  the  flue 
commences  immediately  on  the  chimney  bar, 
doing  away  with  the  necessity  of  wing  gather- 
ings and  the  possibility  of  cold  air  collecting 
round  the  base  of  the  flue.  This  for  its  economy 
of  construction  and  efficiency  of  action  recom- 
mends itself  for  general  use. 

All  chimney  stacks  from  the  part  where  they 
pass  through  a  roof,  or  from  the  point  where 
they  separate  from  a  wall  with  which  they 
have  been  in  junction,  to  their  tops,  should  be 
built  in  cement  and  sand  instead  of  with  lime 

Where  several  flues  are  grouped  together  in 


one  stack,  instead  of  dividing  them  with  the 
usual  4|-inch  brick  "  withes,"  Boyd's  flue-plates 
(iron  plates  |  inch  thick,  and  about  12  inches 
square,  fitting  into  each  other  with  a  tonguedand 
grooved  joint,  and  built  into  the  sides  of  the 
stack)  are  often  introduced  to  economise  space. 

To  ensure  that  flues  shall  have  the  same  sectional 
area  in  their  entirety,  they  are  sometimes  built 
round  a  wooden  section-box,  open  at  both  ends 
and  with  a  wooden  "  strap  "  to  take  hold  of,  that 
the  box  may  be  pulled  up  from  time  to  time  as  the 
work  progresses.  The  box  is  placed  in  the  space 
intended  to  be  occupied  by  the  flue,  and  the  bricks 
carefully  laid  with  full  joints  against  the  box, 
which  is  drawn  up  about  every  two  or  three  feet. 
In  some  cases  the  pargetting  is  dispensed  with, 
and  the  joints  struck  instead.  Good  flues  are 
undoubtedly  obtained  in  this  way.  The  same  end 
is  obtained  by  the  use  of  Doulton's  terra-cotta 
flue-pipes  ;  but  when  built  in  small  detached  piers 
(as  they  sometimes  are),  they  prove  a  source  of 
weakness  by  interfering  with  the  bond  of  the 
work.  Where  they  are  grouped  in  stacks  there 
should  be  a  space  of  4  J  inches  between  each  pipe, 
to  admit  of  bonding  the  stack  in  the  direction  of 
its  width. 





Arches  are  of  various  kinds,  but  those  wliicli 
the  bricklayer  has  to  deal  with  are  either  circular, 
segmental,  scheme,  elliptic,  or  Gothic.  To  the 
young  operative,  and  in  many  cases  to  the  aged 
workman,  they  are  veiled  in  mystery,  though  a 
little  application  and  determination  to  understand 
.them  would  soon  make  them  clear  to  the  opera- 
tive who  would  be  master  of  his  trade.  Time  was 
when  the  arch-cutter  would  box  himself  up  and 
carefully  tack  strips  over  the  chinks  between  the 
boards  that  prying  eyes  might  not  penetrate  into 
his  cutting-shed  and  discover  the  craft  by  which 
he  held  himself  superior  to  his  fellow-workmen. 
This  jealousy  and  exclusiveness  is  still  alive, 
though  it  is  being  slowly  trampled  under  by 
means  of  the  flood  of  light  that  is  spread  abroad, 
and  is  still  spreading,  from  technical  classes  and 
technical  publications.  If  the  young  workman 
will  but  set  to  work  in  earnest,  there  is  every 
facility  to  acquire  technical  knowledge,  and  to 
make  himself,  as  a  workman,  superior  to  those 
who  have  gone  before,  and  who, 

"  By  geometric  scale, 
Did  gpauge  the  si/e  of  pots  of  ale." 

Let  him  but  catch  that  spirit  breathed  forth  in 


Longfellow's  lines  to  Strasburg  Cathedral,  and 
success  will  surely  be  bis  : — 

"  A  great  master  of  his  craft, 
Edwin  von  Steinbach  ;  but  not  he  alone, 
For  many  generations  labour'd  with  him. 
Children  that  came  to  see  these  saints  in  stone, 
As  day  by  day  out  of  the  blocks  they  rose. 
Grew  old  and  died,  and  still  the  work  went  on, 
And  on,  and  on,  and  is  not  yet  completed. 

The  architect 
Built  his  great  heart  into  these  sculptured  stones. 
And  with  him  toil'd  his  children,  and  their  lives 
"Were  buUded  with  his  own  into  these  walls, 
As  offerings  to  God." 

The  word  arch  implies  an  arrangement  of 
bricks  or  other  material  in  which  all  its  parts — 
we  might  with  equal  propriety  say  particles — are 
in  equilibrium ;  or,  in  other  words,  that  the  pres- 
sure or  thrust  to  which  it  is  subjected  is  trans- 
mitted from  one  course  to  the  other,  and  distri- 
buted throughout  the  whole  of  the  arch,  each 
course  or  voussoir  taking  its  share.  .  Every  brick- 
layer who  has  turned  an  arch  will  have  noticed 
that  this  condition  is  not  obtained  by  simply 
turning  the  arch  on  its  centre  and  keying  it  in, 
the  tendency  being  for  the  arch,  by  reason  of  its 
own  weight,  to  spread  out  at  the  springing,  or  if 
this  be  prevented  to  buckle  up  at  the  haunches, 
to  prevent  which  and  bring  about  equilibrium, 
calculations  have  to  be  made  so  as  to  apportion 
the  weight  at  the  haunches  to  resist  or  counteract 
the  thrust  from  the  crown.  Such  mathematicians 
as  Dr.  Ilooke,  Huygens,  Leibnitz,  and  many 
others,  devoted  much  time  and  attention  to  the 
solution  of  the  principle  of  the  arch  under  the 


name  of  the  catenary  curve  (Latin  catena,  a  chain) ; 
and  the  conclusion  they  arrived  at  was,  that  the 
true  shape  of  an  arch  is  that  into  which  a  chain 
would  arrange  itself  if  freely  suspended  from  two 
points  whose  distance  apart  is  equal  to  the  span 
of  the  intended  arch.  We  have  mentioned  these 
things  because,  considering  the  way  in  which 
arches  are  often  thrown  together,  it  is  well  that 
the  artisan  should  know  there  is  a  principle 
involved  in  their  construction. 

Eelieving  Arche?. 

Relieving  arches  should  be  turned  over  all 
lintols  where  practicable,  and  should  spring  clear 
of  their  ends.  They  should  not  be  built,  as  they 
generally  are,  solid  on  the  brick  "  core,"  whereby 
the  weight  of  the  wall  above  is  transmitted  from 
the  arch  to  the  "  core,"  from  the  "  core  "  to  the 
lintol,  and  from  the  lintol  to  the  frame,  very  often 
to  the  great  injury  of  the  latter ;  but  should  be 
built  at  least  f  inch  clear  of  the  "  core."  This 
can  bo  done  by  putting  a  layer  of  sand  f  inch 
thick  on  the  core,  and  raking  it  out  with  a 
trowel  or  piece  of  hoop  iron  when  the  arch  is 
turned,  that  it  may  take  its  own  bearing.  They 
should  be  turned  in  compo. 

The  above  remarks  apply  to  where  the  window 
and  door  frames  are  built  into  the  brickwork 
during  erection ;  and  more  particularly  to  arches 
intended  to  relieve  free-stone  rectangular  door 
and  window  heads.  It  is  not  an  uncommon  thing 
to  see  such  heads  fractured  right  through  their 


depth  in  about  the  middle  of  the  openings  which, 
they  span,  and  kept  from  falling  only  by  the 
weight  of  brickwork  upon  their  ends  ;  though  the 
architect  has  been  careful  to  provide  against 
superincumbent  weight  by  the  use  of  relieving 
arches,  but  which,  through  inexperience  or  want  of 
judgment,  or  some  other  cause,  have  been  built 
upon  a  solid  "  core." 

Plain  Akches. 

All  arches  put  in  with  bricks  as  they  come  from 
the  brickfield  come  under  the  term  plain  arches, 
and  are  built  in  concentric  rings  of  4|  inches 
laid  as  "headers"  on  edge,  instead  of  bonding 
by  "  stretchers,"  to  avoid  the  large  joints  that 
would  unavoidably  occur  at  the  extrados,  thereby 
decreasing  the  strength  of  the  arch  unless  it 
were  built  with  cement,  or  a  strong  hydraulic 
mortar,  as  lias. 

The  Skew  or  Oblique  Arch. 

This  arch  is  used  in  the  construction  of  bridges 
over  roads  or  waterways  where  the  bridge  is  not 
at  right  angles  to  the  road  passing  under  it. 

Two  very  remarkable  arches  of  this  kind  may 
be  seen  on  the  Metropolitan  District  Eailway  at 
Brondesbury,  and  which  the  writer  believes  to  be 
the  only  bridges  so  constructed.  Of  these  we  will 
speak  hereafter. 

To  set  out  and  understand  drawings  of  the 
skew  arch,  a  knowledge  of  solid  or  descriptive 
geometry  is  indispensable  ;  but  as  the  setting  out 




is  generally  performed  by  the  engineer  or  in- 
spector of  works,  we  will  confine  our  remarks  to 
that  portion  of  the  work  which  properly  belongs 

to  the  operative  bricklayer. 

A  B  c  D,  Fig.  44, 

Fig.  U. 

represents  the  plan  of  a  skew  arch  of  which  e  f  c 
would  be  a  section  cut  square  with  the  abut- 
ments. E  c  A  is  called  the  angle  of  skew,  for  it 
shows  how  much  out  of  square  the  face  of  the 
arch  is  with  the  road,  a  c  is  the  face  of  the 
arch,  and  as  the  "bed"  joints  (called  by  engi- 
neers "coursing"  joints)  start  square  from  the 
face,  they  must  run  in  a  diagonal  direction  across 
the  centre,  as  seen  in  c  d  «  b,  which  is  a  develop- 
ment of  the  soffit  of  the  arch.  To  make  this 
clear,  we  will  suppose  the  courses  to  be  pencilled 
on  the  centre,  and  a  sheet  of  white  paper  folded 
round  the  centre  and  rubbed  until  the  pencil 
marks  be  transferred  to  the  paper.  If  the  paper — 



fastened  at  c  d,  the  abutment  line — be  now  un- 
folded from  tbe  centre  and  spread  out  on  a  level 
surface  as  in  Fig.  44,  we  shall  have  a  develop- 
ment of  the  soffit  of  the  arch,  c  a  is  the  length 
of  the  line  on  the  centre  from  c  to  a.  d  6  is  the 
length  of  the  line  on  the  centre  from  d  b,  and  is 

Fig.  45. 

parallel  with  ca.     cb  is  the  length  of  a  line  on 
the  centre  from  c  to  b. 

In   long   skew  arches   the   bricks,  instead   of 
being  laid  on  the  skew  all  through  the  arch,  are 
D  2 



arranged  as  iu  Fig,  45,  wliere  the  skew  courses 
are  intersected  by  courses  laid  parallel  "svith  tlie 
abutments.  The  skew  courses  are  marked  on 
the  centre  by  means  of  a  "  coursing  mould," 
which  should  be  supplied  by  the  engineer  or 
inspector  in  charge  of  the  work,  a  b  is  the  plan 
of  a  line  on  the  centre  from  a  to  b.  All  the 
courses  on  the  centre  will  be  so  many  spirals  or 
screws  parallel  to  each  other.  Each  brick  on  the 
face  of  the  arch  will  require  a  different  bevel, 
but  by  far  the  easiest  and  the  best  way  to  get 
these  will  be  to  let  the  bricks  stand  well  out  in 
front  of  the  face  line,  and  cut  them  off  to  the  line 
of  work  when  the  centre  is  struck.  But  when 
the  bricks  used  are  too  hard  to  be  cut,  such  as 
Staffordshire  blue  bricks,  they  must  be  moulded 
to  the  required  bevels. 

Tig.  4o. 

Skew  Arch  at  Brondesbury. 

The  remarkableness  of  this  arch  or  skew  is  not 
alone  in  its  construction,  but  in  the  angle  that  it 
makes  with  the  roadway  that  it  spans,  the  angle 



being  so  acute  as  to  cause  tlie  abutment  line  or 
skew-back  of  one  side  to  fall  without  the  abut- 
ment line  of  the  other  side.  This  is  shown  by 
the  line  a  b  at  right  angles  to  c  c,  d  d,  Fig.  46. 

Fig.  47. 

Let  us  imagine  that  across  a  given  road  we 
have  to  construct  a  bridge  whose  angle  of  skew 


shall  be    equal   to   that   on   the    accompanying 

rip.  4S.  Fiff.  49, 

Fig.  46.     It  is  clear  that  we  cannot  construct  it 
on  the  principle  of  the  ordinary  skew  arch,  viz. 


to  take  tlie  courses  (starting  square  with  tlie  face 
of  the  arcla)  as  so  many  spirals  across  the  centre, 
finding  their  abutment  in  the  line  c  c,  and  as 
we  have  explained  at  page  60.  An  arch  so  con- 
structed could  not  stand,  for  the  lines  of  force, 
or  thrust,  acting  at  right  angles  to  the  abut- 
ments, would  find  no  resistance,  and  consequently 
collapse.  But  the  engineer  who  designed  the 
bridge  in  question,  seeing  this,  fell  back  on  the 
principle  that  should  regulate  the  construction  of 
all  arches  where  strength  is  required,  that  the 
heel  joints  shall  ho  in  the  line  of  radii,  and  on  the 
soffit  parallel  with  the  ahutment,  and  thus  in  the 
simplest,  yet  most  eflPective  manner,  solved  the 
otherwise  difficult  problem.  Fig.  47  shows  the 
sectional  elevation  on  the  line  e  f  in  plan.  Fig.  48 
the  plan,  and  Fig.  49  the  face  arch  in  elevation 
of  a  bridge  somewhat  similar  to  that  at  Brondes- 
bury,  constructed  in  the  same  way,  and  involving 
the  same  principles. 

The  plan  of  the  abutments  and  skew-backs  are 
shown  by  dotted  line  (Fig.  48). 

The  following  are  approximate  dimensions  of 
this  bridge,  which  we  have  taken  by  step  mea- 
surement :  distance  between  abutments,  45  feet ; 
depth  of  bridge,  measured  along  the  abut- 
ment, 26  feet ;  rise  of  arch  from  cord  line  to 
crown  of  soffit,  20  feet ;  projection  of  one  abut- 
ment beyond  the  other  (d  beyond  a,  for  instance, 
Fig.  46),  36  feet.  The  arch  is  made  up  of  twelve 
4j-inch  concentric  rings  of  brickwork. 



Water  Conduit. 

Fig.  50,  a  section  of  a  water  conduit  in  Massa- 
chusetts, U.S.A.,  upon  whieli  the  author  was 
engaged  as  inspector  of  works,  is  worthy  of 
notice,  as  showing  the  construction  resorted  to 
where  a  bad  bottom  occurs.     In  this  case  a  large 

Fig.  50. 

portion  of  the  work  (which  was  eighteen  miles  in 
length)  ran  through  very  swampy  ground,  a 
natural  watercourse  that  di'ained  a  large  tract  of 
the  adjacent  country,  and  at  times  so  great  was 
the  pressure  of  the  water  as  to  cause  it  to  rise  in 
a  natural  fountain  6  or  7  feet  above  the  exca- 
vations. When  this  occurred,  stones  of  sizes 
similar  to  those  of  which  the  retaining  walls  were 


built  were  shot  into  the  hole  until  the  water 
subsided  or  found  an  easier  outlet  elsewhere.  It 
was  also  necessary  to  keep  pumps  working  night 
and  day. 

The  bottom  consisted  of  6  X  6  inch  transoms, 
18  inches  apart,  to  which  were  spiked  2-inch 
planks,  and  these  in  turn  were  covered  with  1-inch 
boards,  with  joints  properly  broken,  as  in  floor- 
ing. The  invert,  when  the  side  walls  were  built, 
was  formed  with  concrete  ready  to  receive  the 
brickwork.  The  whole  of  the  work,  including 
concrete,  was  built  in  Rosendale  cement,  manu- 
factured in  Hosendale,  New  York,  from  a  stone 
found  in  that  locality,  which  when  manufactured 
is  in  colour  very  similar  to  Roman  cement,  but  less 
quick  in  setting,  and  attaining  a  greater  ultimate 
strength.  It  will  be  noticed  that  the  sides  of 
the  invert  are  struck  from  the  springing  line  a, 
and  the  bottom  from  h,  and  that  to  get  the  requi- 
site skew-back  for  the  top  and  bottom  beds,  a 
pio'pose  made  brick  is  introduced,  whose  beds  arc 
in  the  line  of  radii  from  a  and  h. 

Sewers  are  constructed  on  the  same  principle 
as  water  conduits,  with  this  difierence,  that  while 
strength  and  sound  work  suiSice  for  the  latter,  to 
these  must  be  added  smoothness  for  sewers,  avoid- 
ing all  "  shoulders,"  "  lips,"  protuberances,  or 
other  irregularities  likely  to  increase  friction,  or 
in  any  way  retard  the  velocity  of  the  sewage. 
"Where  the  flow  is  intermittent  they  are  generally 
built  egg-shaped,  to  minimise  the  frictional  area. 



Groined  YArLTiyc. 

Brick  groin-Taulting  (a  very  neat  sample  of 
which  may  be  seen  at  the  entrance  to  Winchester 
Flats,  "Winchester  Terrace.  Chelsea  Embankment) 
was  at  one  time  very  much  in  practice,  but 
moulded  stone  ribs  finishing  at  the  apex  with  a 
carved  boss  now  generally  take  the  places  of  the 
brick  groins.  Samples  of  this  kind  of  work  may 
be  seen  at  St.  Augustine's,  Kilbum ;  St.  John's, 
Auckland  Road,  Upper  Norwood,  and  the  red 
brick  church  adjoining  the  Croydon  railway 
station,  all  designed  in  that  style  known  as  the 
thirteenth  century,  or  Early  English,  by  John  L. 
Pearson,  E,.A.  Some  good  Gothic  vaulting  in 
red  brickwork  may  also  be  seen  at  the  New  Law 
Courts,  London.  In  executing  the  groin  the 
bricks  must  be  cut  so  as  to  form  a  return  on  the 
intersecting  arch  or  vault ;  but  a  proper  bond,  as 
in  square  angles,  cannot  always  be  obtained,  for, 
instead  of  the  bricks  returning  from  right  to  left 
and  from  left  to  right  every  other  course,  it  will 
be  found  necessary  to  sometimes  return  several 
courses  in  succession,  all  from  one  side,  before 
getting  what  bricklayers  would  call  "a  tie." 
This  is  caused  by  the  groin  not  getting  away  fast 
enough  from  an  imaginary  line  drawn  across  the 
arch  from  e  to  g  Fig.  51.  It  is  also  impossible 
to  keep  the  perpends  regular  near  the  groin,  but 
they  should  be  kept  as  regular  as  practicable  with 
a  good  bond  on  the  groin. 

Before  the  bricklayer  can  cut  his  bricks,  the 



centres  must  be  placed  m  position,  and  the  bricks 
can  then  be  cut  to  fit  the  intersection,  which  they 
should  very  accurately,  and  when  the  centres 
are  "  struck  "  present  clean  and  well-defined 
arrises.  Fig.  51  is  the  plan  of  two  semi- 
cylindrical  vaults,  intersecting  in  the  groins  e  f 

Fig.  51. 

and  G  H.  The  curve  formed  by  the  groin  is  an 
ellipse  shown  in  angular  elevation  on  e  f 
by  dotted  curve.  Sections  of  the  vaults  are 
shown  on  A  B  and  c  d.  Sometimes  instead  of 
being  as  here  shown,  the  intersecting  arches  are 
Gothics,  or  one  Gothic  and  the  other  semi- cylin- 
drical ;  but  if  what  we  have  written  be  understood 
no  difficulty  will  present  itself.  In  all  such  cases 
the  bricklayer  must  space  his  centre  out  into 
courses,  and  turn  the  arches  as  any  other  arch, 
with  the  exception  of  the  groin,  which  must  be 
treated  as  described. 

In   Gothic   vaulting,    as   described  above,   in 


^hich  the  spaces  between  the  stone  springers  are 
filled  in  M'ith  brickwork,  the  setting  out  of  the 
courses  is  done  by  marking  upward  from  the 
intersection,  or  springing  of  the  ribs,  an  equal 
distance  along  the  cross  rib  and  the  diagonal  or 
converging  rib,  and  connecting  these  two  points 
with  a  line.  Upon  another  line  at  right  angles 
with  this,  the  courses  may  be  pricked  in  from 
springing  to  apex,  and  their  beds  shown  by  lines 
parallel  with  the  first  line,  connecting  the  ribs. 
A  sample  of  fan-groining,  in  red  brickwork,  may 
be  seen  at  the  subway  to  the  Crystal  Palace, 



Gauged  TTork. 

"  Cutting  "  is  divided  into  "  axed  work  "  and 
"  gauged  work."  In  the  former  the  bricks  are 
finished  with  the  Scotch,  with  just  a  rub  or  two 
round  the  rubbing  stone  to  take  off  the  irregulari- 
ties of  the  beds,  allowing  -nr  of  an  inch  joint  for 
tuck-pointing.  This  work  is  intended  to  represent 
"  gauged  work,"  and  is  supposed  to  be  a  trifle 
cheaper.  "  Gauged  work "  is  a  very  superior 
kind  of  brickwork,  executed  in  soft  bricks  set  with 
a  white  putty  joint,  which  should  not  exceed  the 
thickness  of  a  new  sixpence.  The  bricks  used 
are  Fareham  rubbers  and  T.  L.  B.  rubbers  for 
red  work ;  and  malm-cutters  and  sometimes  white 
Suffolks  for  malm  or  stock  work.  Of  red  bricks 
Fareham  Rubbers  are  the  best ;  they  are  of  a 
close,  firm  texture,  will  carry  a  sharp  arris,  and 
weather  well ;  in  colour  they  are  cherry  red. 
No.  ones  T.  L.  B.'s  are  good  bricks,  though  less 
firm  than  Farehams,  but  of  an  even  texture  ; 
they  are  divided  by  colour  into  two  classes — 
cherry-red  and  orange  tint.  The  orange  is  gene- 
rally used,  as  they  contrast  well  with  the  red 
building  bricks,  but  will  not  carry  so  sharp  an 
arris  or  weather  so  well  as  the  darker  bricks. 

"  Gauged  work "  is  often  objected  to  on  the 
ground  that  it  will  not  resist  the  action  of  the 
weather.     This  we  can  refute  by  our  own  ex- 


perience,  for  we  have  taken  out  old  "gauged" 
arches  in  malms  that  have  withstood  for  forty 
years  the  acids  contained  in  London  smoke,  and 
have  shown  no  signs  of  decay  or  disintegration. 
We  can  cite  another  instance  of  the  indurating 
properties  of  "  gauged  work "  in  white  Suflfolks 
when  exposed  to  the  action  of  the  atmosphere. 
During  the  erection  of  the  Rackham  Street 
Marylebonc  Infirmary,  some  geometrical  win- 
dows in  these  bricks  had  to  be  cleaned  down 
some  three  or  four  months  after  erection.  This 
process  had  to  be  done  by  rasping  the  face  of  the 
brickwork,  and  so  hard  had  become  the  bricks  that 
it  was  with  difficulty  that  an  impression  could  be 
made  at  all,  the  rasps  sliding  ofi"  the  work  and 
leaving  a  black  mark !  Bricks  in  this  condition 
are  said  by  bricklayers  to  be  case-hardened. 

This  so-called  case-hardening  we  attribute  to 
the  process  of  setting.  In  good  setting  the  bricks 
are  always  soaked  (not  to  saturation)  in  water, 
which  in  a  building  in  course  of  erection  always 
contains  more  or  less  lime  in  solution,  which  is 
taken  up  by  the  brick  while  soaking,  and  by 
exposure  to  the  atmosphere  becomes  carbonised 
and  forms  a  hard  coating,  as  it  were,  upon  the  face 
of  the  brick.  This  case-hardening  is  also  attri- 
buted to  "  the  silicic  acid  in  the  clay  acting  upon 
the  cbalk  so  as  to  form  some  of  it  into  a  silicate 
of  lime."  Rubbers  are  purposely  made  much 
larger  than  the  ordinary  building  bricks  to  allow 
for  cutting  and  gauging  them  four  courses  to  the 
foot,  though  as  a  rule  they  will  not  hold  out  or 


bed  more  than  11|  inches  with  close  joints. 
T.  L.  B.'s  as  they  come  from  the  brickfield 
measure  lOj  X  4|  X  3|  inches. 

They  are  also  obtainable  12  inches  long,  but 
bricks  this  length  are  only  required  for  Camber 
arches,  or  Gothic  arches  whose  bed  joints  radiate 
from  the  centre,  as  in  Figs.  57  and  58,  in  which 
so  much  of  the  brick  is  cut  away  to  form  the  long 
bevels  on  the  soffit  and  crown,  that  the  ordinary 
sized  bricks  will  not  "  hold  out "  to  the  required 
lengths,  and  have  therefore  to  be  lengthened, 
where  necessary,  by  forming  the  long  ''stretchers" 
out  of  two  three-quarter  bricks  (this  will  be  best 
understood  by  examining  a  few  actual  camber 
arches)  ;  to  obviate  which,  the  12  inch  bricks 
are  made. 


In  setting  "gauged  work"  the  joint  is  taken 
up  by  absorption  by  holding  the  bed  of  the  brick 
in  contact  with  the  putty,  which  must  have  the 
proper  consistency  and  be  kept  in  a  small  putty- 
box  made  with  a  level  top,  so  that  the  setter  can 
rest  or  steady  his  arm  upon  it  while  "  dipping  " 
his  brick.  Before  putting  the  brick  in  place,  the 
putty  is  scraped  off  the  middle  of  the  "bed," 
that  it  may  set  or  joint  more  evenly.  The  joint 
should  not  be  touched  after  the  brick  is  "bed- 
ded," but  should  be  left  full  like  a  small  bead. 
Stone  lime  should  be  used  for  setting,  as  chalk 
lime  is  not  fit  for  out-door  work.  Axed-work  is 
generally  set  with   putty  and  cement.      If  the 


work  has  to  be  carved  deeply,  it  is  best  to  build  it  all 
"  headers,"  and  "  grout"  it  in  solidly  at  back  with 
Portland  cement,  that  the  bricks  may  not  break 
up  or  get  disturbed  under  the  chisel  of  the  carver. 
A  composition  of  whitening  and  patent  knotting 
is  more  frequently  used  than  lime-putty  for 
bedding  or  setting  work  intended  to  be  carved, 
and  for  ornamental  key-blocks  made  up  of  two  or 
more  bricks.  It  will  be  found  most  convenient 
to  put  such  keys  or  blocks  together  in  the  cutting- 
shed,  and  take  them  upon  the  building  to  be  set 
as  one  piece  of  work.  These  remarks  apply 
equally  well  to  the  niche  hood  in  every  particular. 
Gauged  work  intended  to  be  bedded  in  the  above 
composition  should  be  quite  free  from  moisture ; 
but  the  bricks  should  not  be  placed  round  a  fire 
for  this  purpose,  as  they  often  are,  for  by  so  doing 
they  are  made  fragile  and  are  easily  broken.  It 
is,  therefore,  very  imperative  that  a  good  water- 
tight cutting-shed  be  made  for  the  bricklayer  and 
another  shed  for  the  bricks. 

Drawing  and  Cutting  Arches. 

This  forms  a  very  important  branch  in  the 
trade  of  the  bricklayer,  and  a  thorough  knowledge 
of  it  is  indispensable  to  the  operative  who  would 
be  master  of  his  trade.  In  this  section  we  will 
endeavour  to  make  clear  not  only  the  setting  out 
of  the  various  arches,  but  how  to  take  off  the  bevels 
and  moulds,  and  apply  them  to  arch-cutting. 

An  understanding  of  this  will  not  be  so  difficult 
as  may  at  first  sight  appear.     The  tools  required 


for  this  work  are — the  rubbing-stone  (which  should 
not  exceed  in  diameter  14  inches),  hammer,  boaster, 
Scotch,  scriber,  and  tin-saw.  The  scriber  is  a 
small  tin  saw,  used  for  marking  the  beds  and 
bevels  on  the  bricks. 

The  Bulls-Eye 

Should  have  four  keys,  a,  b,  c,  d,  which  when 
possible  should  be  "  stretchers ;"  but  as  this 
cannot  always  be  done  unless  rz 

by  very  much  reducing  the 
size  of  the  courses  (techni- 
cally called  roussoirs),  they  r{:^z=L.  f-^-^^-^6 
are,  therefore,  frequently 
put  in  as  in  Fig.  52.  The 
face  mould  for  this  arch  is 
obtained  by  making  a  wooden  Fig.  52. 

pattern,  as  at  d,  on  which  the  actual  length  of 
the  brick  is  marked,  and  also  its  bevel,  which 
is  taken  off  the  drawing  by  placing  the  stock 
of  the  bevel  along  the  bed  joint,  and  moving 
the  blade  until  it  coincides  or  is  in  line  with 
the  soffit  of  that  particular  brick  whose  bevel 
is  required.  All  the  courses  have  the  same 
bevel  and  the  same  length.  It  is  usual  to  have 
two  moulds  made,  so  as  to  trace  or  traverse 
the  courses  round  the  arch,  to  ensure  that 
the  key  brick  will  come  in  rightly  (though  one 
mould  and  two  parallel  straight  edges  would  do 
equally  as  well) ;  for  if  the  mould  be  in  the 
least  inaccurate,  the  inaccuracy  will  be  trans- 
mitted to  each  brick,  and  this  multiplied  by  the 


number  of  courses  in  the  arch  (in  this  case  36), 
supposing  the  inaccuracy  to  be  iV  of  an  inch, 
would  amount  to  2j  inches,  in  all  probability 
the  thickness  of  a  course.  Having  proved 
the  moulds,  the  pattern  brick  or  soffit  is  marked 
lower  down  on  the  mould,  that  the  brick  when 
cut  will  be  the  thickness  of  a  joint  less  than  the 
brick  shown  on  the  setting  out.  The  bevel  of  the 
thick  end  or  c.rtrados,  as  it  is  named,  is  the  same 
as  that  of  the  soffit. 

The  arch  cutter  will  find  it  most  convenient  to 
have  a  square  piece  of  wood,  4|  by  9  inches,  with 
parallel  sides,  which  held  flush  with  the  soffit 
will  give  the  exact  place  and  bevel  of  the  cross 
joint,  and  held  longwise  the  length  of  the  brick 
and  its  end  bevel. 

In  cutting,  the  first  operation  is  to  square  the 
bed  and  face  of  the  brick,  after  which  the  soffit 
is  bevelled.  The  brick  is  then  placed  on  a  bedding 
board  (a  piece  of  slate  or  wood  with  a  straight 
even  surface)  in  the  same  position  that  it  will 
have  in  the  arch.  The  face  mould  is  applied  to 
the  brick  with  the  soffit  mark  against  the  soffit  of 
the  brick,  and  the  scriber  drawn  along  the  top 
edge  of  the  mould  marks  the  wedge  shape  which 
the  brick  will  have  when  finished.  The  back  of 
the  brick  is  marked  in  the  same  way,  and  is  then 
finished  with  theboaster,  Scotch,  and  rubbing  stone. 

Semi  and  Skgmknt.vl  Arches. 

What  has  been  said  of  the  bulls-eye  applies  in 
every  respect  to  the  semi  (Fig.  70)  and  the  seg- 




Tig.  53. 

ment  arch.  To  draw  the  curve  (Fig.  53),  tlie 
span  and  rise  being 
given,  bisect  the  line 
a  1)  with  c  d;  join  eb, 
and  bisect  this  line 
•withih;  a  line  drawn 
from  ^  through  b  will 
give  the  line  of  skew- 
back.  Taking  the  dis- 
tance i  b  in  the  com- 
pass, with  one  leg- 
fixed  at  /,  the  lower  curve  may  be  drawn  from 
b  to  a.  Nine  inches  measured  along  the  skew- 
back  from  b  will  give  the  point  from  which  to 
draw  the  outer  curve.  On  the  outer  curve,  with 
c  d  as  centre  line,  set  out  3  inches,  or  whatever 
a  brick  with  its  joint  will  hold  out,  and  with  the 
mould  (shown  by  dotted  lines)  trace  the  courses 
down  to  the  skewback,  increasing  or  diminishing 
the  thickness  of  the  brick  as  may  be  required  by 
raising  or  lowering  the  mould. 

The  Camber  Arch. 

Fig.  54  is  a  camber,  12  inches  deep,  in  Flemish 
bond.  The  skewback  is  obtained  by  taking  in 
the  compass  the  distance  a  b,  and  from  these 
points,  with  a  b  as  radius,  drawing  the  inverted 
Gothic  ;  a  line  from  c  through  b  will  be  the  line 
of  skewback,  or  springing.  To  draw  this  arch 
when  the  skewback  is  given — say  4i  inches — from 
the  centre  line  set  off  the  distance  between  the 
reveals  from  a  b;  12  inches  above  the  springing. 



draw  the  line  d  c,  and  from  centre  Kne  along  d  e 
measure  off  a  distance  4|  inches  beyond  the  reveal ; 
from  this  point  draw  a  line  through  b,  intersecting 
the  central  line  in  c.  On  d  e  measure  off  1|  inch 
each  side  of  the  centre  line,  or  whatever  a  brick 
with  its  joint  will  measure.  Lines  drawn  from 
these  two  points  to  e  will  represent  the  key,  and 
also  the  face  mould.     Make  two  moulds  9  inches 

(4|  inches  at  each  end)  longer  than  the  key. 
With  the  mould,  shown  by  dotted  lines,  upon 
the  key,  on  one  of  its  edges,/;  where  a  h  meets  it, 
make  a  pencil  mark.  Put  the  other  mould  on  top 
of  this  and  transfer  the  mark  to  it.  "With  the 
two  moulds,  keeping  the  pencil  mark  always  on 
the  line  a  h,  traverse  the  courses  in  down  to  the 
skewback  as  described  in  the  bulls-eye.  Take  off 
the  bevels,  starting  from  the  skewback,  and  pencil 


them  upon  the  mould,  1,  2,  3,  and  so  on,  as  shown 
in  Fig.  00,  a,  which  is  a  mould  with  the  lengths 
and  bevels  of  each  course  upon  it.  One-half  only 
of  the  arch  need  be  set  out.  The  cross  joints 
may  be  cut  in  the  courses  with  the  saw  and 
parallel  board,  as  previously  described,  always 
working  from  the  soffit.  For  greater  accuracy 
and  distinctness,  the  bevels  may  be  pencilled  on 
the  back  of  the  mould,  at  the  top  end,  keeping 
them  some  little  distance  apart,  and  numbering 
them  as  already  described.  The  courses  may  be 
traversed  in  by  working  from  the.  top  line  d  e, 
instead  of  from  the  soffit,  marking  on  the  mould, 

downward  from  the  top  mark,  the  length  of  each 
course.  Having  thoroughly  understood  the  set- 
ting out  and  cutting  of  this  arch,  no  difficulty  will 
be  experienced  with  any  of  the  ordinary  arches. 

The  soffit  generally  cambers  \  of  an  inch  to  the 

The  camber  is  not  suited  for  large  openings,  or 
where  any  considerable  weight  has  to  be  carried, 
as  it  is  in  reality  not  an  arch  at  all,  but  simply 
an  arrangement  or  scheme. 

The  Gothic  Arch. 

Bisect  the  line  a  b,  Fig.  56,  with  c  d,  and  draw 
ad;    from   these  two  points  with  the  compass 



opened  to  more  than  half  their  distance  draw  the 
arcs  s  f.  Through  their  intersections  draw  a  line 
meeting  «  6  in  y,   from  which  point   with  the 

compass  opened  to  a,  draw  the  curve  a  i  d,  and  by 
extending  the  compass,  its  parallel  curve.  From 
h  draw  the  curves  on  the  right-hand  side.  The 
bed  joints  radiate  from  //  and   g,  as  shown  by- 

Fig.  57. 

dotted  lines.  To  do  away  with  the  very  wedge- 
shaped  key,  the  joints  are  sometimes  radiated 
from  the  centre,  as  in  Fig.  57.     This  key  is  also 


objected  to  by  some  on  account  of  the  oddness  of 
its  appearance  at  the  key — a  "  stretcher"  on  one 
side  and  two  "headers"  on  the  other  (this  is  what 
bricklayers  call  keying  in  with  a  joint),  to  pre- 
vent which  a  "  birdsmouthed  "  key  is  used,  Fig. 
58.  In  the  last  arrangement  the  arch  has  an  odd 
number  of  bricks,  in  the  two  former  an  even 
number.      Whatever   objections   may   be   urged 

riff.  5s. 

against  the  appearance  of  Figs.  56  and  57,  the 
birdsmouthed  key  in  Fig.  58  is  decidedly  wrong : — 

*'  The  essential  character  of  the  Gothic  arch  is 
derived  from  the  absence  of  the  key-stone,  and 
from  the  presence  of  the  perpendicular  joint  or 
opening  in  the  centre  where  the  archivolts  rest 
against  each  other.  Until  we  find  this  feature, 
Gothic  architecture  does  not  exist," — Normand)/ : 
Archifcctiirc  of  the  Middle  Ages. 

Fig.  56  is  made  up  of  two  segments  of  a 
circle,  and  the  mould  is  obtained  in  the  same 
way  as  that  for  the  segment.  The  moulds  for 
Figs.  57  and  58  are  obtained  in  the  same  way  as 
that  for  the  camber,  the  bricks  being  all  of  a 



different  bevel  and  length.  These  like  the  cam- 
ber are  schemes,  not  arches,  as  the  bed  joints  do 
not  fall  -within  the  lines  of  radii. 

The  Ellipse  Gothic  Arch. 
Divide  the  span  a  b,  Fig.  59,  into  three  equal 
parts ;  take  two  parts  in  the  compass,  and  with 
one  leg  fixed  at  a  draw  the  arc  d  e,  and  from  d 

Fig.  59. 

the  arc  a  e.  In  the  same  way  draw  the  arcs  l  f, 
cf.  Through  e  and  d  draw  the  line  eg;  through 
c  f  the  line  /  //.  TTith  d  as  centre,  radius  d  b, 
draw  the  arc  b  i,  and  from  e,  radius  e  i,  the  arc 
ij.  The  points  from  which  the  joints  radiate  are 
shown  by  dotted  lines.  Two  different  face  moulds 
are  required  for  this  arch. 

The  Semi-Ellipse  Arch. 

Divide  the  span  a  b,  Fig.  60,  into  two  equal 
parts,  a  c,  c  b,  and  a  c,  into  six  equal  parts,  1,  2, 



3,  4,  &c.  From  c  towards  b  measure  off  two  of 
those  parts,  and  with  the  distance  4  d  in  the  com- 
pass, and  one  leg  fixed  at  4,  draw  an  arc  cutting- 
the  centre  line  in  e.  Through  e  cl  draw  the  line 
ef;  with  d  as  centre,  radius  d  b,  draw  the  arc 
b  g,  and  from  e  Avith  radius  e  g,  the  arc  g  h.  Two 
ways  are  here  shown  of  putting  in  the  courses — 
one  in  which  the  joints  radiate  from  their  centres 

or  foci  d  e,  the  other  from  c  the  centre  of  the 
opening.  In  the  second  method  the  lengths  and 
bevels  of  each  brick  would  be  different.  The  first 
is  an  arch,  the  second  a  scheme,  and  is  never 
adopted  except  in  face  work  when,  in  the  opinion 
of  some  people,  it  is  desirable  to  have  the  courses 
all  one  thickness,  even  at  the  loss  of  strength. 
In  the  second  method  the  mould,  lengths,  and 
bevels  are  taken  off  in  the  same  way  as  those  of 
the  camber. 



The  Yexetian  Arch. 

This  so-called  arch,  Fig.  61,  is  made  up  of  the 
camber  and  semi,  and  was  a  few  years  ago  very 
much   used   in   the   construction   of    three-lig-ht 


windows,  sometimes  with  and  sometimes  nithout 
supporting  muUions.  Without  mullions  it  is  a 
very  weak  construction,  and  incapable  of  carrying 
much  weight.  But  in  this  case  it  is  generally 
allowed  to  have  a  bearing  on  the  head  of  the 
solid  window  frame  by  showing  less  than  4^  inches 
on  the  soffit.  It  is  sometimes  relieved  by  a  gauged 
discharging  arch  above  it.     Having  drawn  the 



semi,  draw  the  parallel  lines  a  b,  e  d,  and  through 
their  points  of  intersection  e  f  the  line  eg.  A 
line  from  g  through  a  will  be  the  line  of  skew- 
back.  This  re]3eated  on  the  opposite  side  will 
find  /.  Next  draw  the  angle  brick  j,  the  joints  in 
the  semi  radiating  from  //,  and  the  joints  in  the 
camber  from  /.  Two  diflferent  face  moulds  are 
required,  which  with  the  lengths  and  bevels  of 
the  courses  must  be  taken  off  in  the  same  way  as 
described  in  the  camber. 

The  Scheme  Arch. 

Fig.  62  is  the  same  as  the  segment,  with  this 
di£terence,    that   instead  of    springing    from   its 

proper  skewback  c  h,  and  its  courses  radiating 
from  c,  the  curve  is  brought  down  to  a  level  line 
or  very  near  it,  and  the  joints  radiated  from  the 
centre  of  the  opening  in  the  level  line.  The 
scheme  is  the  offspring  of  an  antiquated  and  bad 
taste,  and  is  not  much  used  in  the  present  day. 
One  would  think  that  its  ugliness  and  want  of 
truth  would  entirely  forbid  its  use.  It  is  treated 
by  the  cutter  in  the  same  way  as  the  camber  arch. 


Tic.  03. 

The  Semi-Gothic  Arch. 

To  draw  the  semi- Gothic,  Fig.  63,  bisect  (divide 

into  two  equal  parts) 
1  the  line  a  h  with  the 

perpendicular  c  d,  and 
Laving  determined  the 
height  of  the  apex  d, 
from  d  draw  the  line 
d  h,   and   from   these 
two   points    the    arcs 
through     which     the 
line  €  f  passes,  inter- 
secting the  cord  a  l 
in  e.     Now  with  the  distance  e  h  in  the  compass 
draw  the  Gothic  or  outside  curve.     Repeat  this 
operation  on  the  other  side  and  the  outline  of  the 
arch  will  be  drawn.     To  fill  in  the  courses  divide 
the  sofiit  or  semi  into  equal  parts,  whatever  a  brick 
will  work  or  "  hold  out,"  and  from  the  centre  c 
through  these  parts  radiate  the  courses  as  shown. 
The  moulds  are  taken  off  as  described  in  the  buUs- 
cve,  and  traversed  from  the  key  downward  to  the 
springing,  taking  care  that  the  soffit  mark  on  the 
mould  always  comes  on   the  soffit  of  the  arch. 
Having  done  this,  mark  on  the  mould  the  length 
of  each  course,  which  will  also  give  the  bevels  of 
the  top  ends  of  the  courses.     The  mould  is  shown 
on  the  springing  course  with  the  length  and  the 
outside  bevel  marked  on  it ;  g  is  the  soffit  mark  to 
cut  to;  allowance  must  be  made  for  the  joint. 



Gothic  on  Circle  Arch. 

rig.  64  shows  the  way  to  set  out  the  moulds 

for    a    Gothic    arch    in   a    turret   or    bay    that 

is  circular  in  plan.     Draw  the  elevation  of  the 

arch  and  the  plan  of  the  wall.     A  little  considera- 

Fig.  64. 

tion  will  show  that  the  face  of  each  course  has  a 
different  curvature  or  "sweep,"  that  at  the  spring- 
ing having  the  greatest — equal  to  the  wall  itself 
— and  the  key  the  least,  the  curvature  becoming 
less  as  the  courses  approach  towards  an  upright 
position.  A  separate  section  mould  must  therefore 
be   obtained  for   each  course.     Divide   the  bed 


joint  of  tlie  course  d  whose  curvature  is  required 
into  a  number  of  equal  parts,  from  which  drop 
lines  square  with  ./■  ?/,  and  intersecting  the  outside 
curve  in  o,  1,  2,  3,  4  in  plan.  Draw  o  p  parallel 
with  X  y,  and  transfer  the  distances  1,  2,  3,  4 
from  0  p  in  plan  to  lines  or  ordinates  square  with 
the  bed  joint  of  the  course  whose  curvature  we 
are  obtaining.  A  line  drawn  through  these  points 
will  be  the  curvature  of  the  section  or  soffit  mould. 
By  the  same  method  the  curvature  of  each  course 
may  be  obtained.  If  all  the  soffit  moulds  were  drawn 
connectedly,  as  a  r.,  we  should  have  what  would 
be  called  a  development  of  the  soffit.  The  Gothic 
on  circle  is  the  same  principle  as  circle  on  circle. 

To  Find  the  Soffit  Mould. 

From  a  drop  down  the  two  left-hand  lines 
passing  through  the  circular  wall  below  x  y. 
From  their  intersection  with  the  two  curves  draw 
lines  parallel  with  .>■  y.  Take  the  thickness  of 
the  soffit  in  the  compasses,  and  with  one  leg  fixed 
anywhere  in  the  upper  line  draw  an  arc  cutting 
the  lower  line  ;  these  four  points  connected  will 
give  the  soffit  mould  a.  Moulds  for  two  course, 
a  and  h,  are  shown  ;  the  others  are  obtained  in 
the  same  way.  This  arch  in  practice  is  generally 
cut  by  rule  of  thumb,  or  what  workmen  call 
"  near  enough,"  and  rubbed  down  to  a  suitable 
shape  when  the  building  is  up,  and  its  faults 
hidden  with  stopping  of  the  colour  of  the  bricks. 
But  where  perfect  accuracy  is  required  the  moulds 
must  be  obtained  as  shown. 




Ornamental  brickwork  in  this  coimtiy  has 
reached  its  greatest  height  in  connection  with 
the  Queen  Anne  style  of  architecture,  as  elabo- 
rated in  the  present  day.  The  oriel  windows  of 
the  Tudor,  the  ornamental  gables  and  picturesque 
chimneys  of  the  Elizabethan,  are  all  merged  into 
it,  and  with  such  a  profusion  of  carving  as  to  be 
unprecedented  in  any  former  age.  Indeed,  to 
such  an  extent  is  this  being  carried  as  to  call  forth 
from  one  of  our  most  popular  architects  the  asser- 
tion that  we  are  fast  departing  from  the  yernacular 
of  our  street  architecture.  Let  us  rather  say,  if 
we  may  use  the  expression,  that  we  have  entered 
into  the  Augustan  age  of  brickwork,  in  which 
the  stuccoed  front  with  its  hidden  carcass  of 
"shuffs"  and  "place  bricks" — often  the  refuse 
of  the  brick-field — is  superseded  by  that  which  is 
what  it  appears  to  be,  bearing  on  its  face  the 
unmistakable  stamp  of  truth ! 

The  Niche. 

Figs.  65,  66,  and  67  are  the  elevation  plan  and 
section  of  a  niche  in  Flemish  bond.  This  is  con- 
sidered by  bricklayers  to  be  one  of  the  most  artistic 
pieces  of  work  in  connection  with  their  trade. 
There  are  two  kinds  of  niches,  the  semi  and  the 



elliptic.  In  tlie  former  it  is  circular  in  plan  and 
elevation,  in  the  latter  it  is  elliptic  in  plan  and 
circular  in  elevation.  If  that  in  our  illustration  be 
understood,  no  difficulty  will  be  experienced  with 

Tig.  cc. 

the  others.  The  back  or  upright  part  is  built  to  a 
template  forming  a  semicircle,  and  the  bond  set  out 
as  shown  on  plan  Fig.  G6,  the  joints  of  one  course 
being  shown  by  thick   lines,  and  those  of  the 



course  below  by  dotted  lines.  But  ft  is  the  hood, 
the  more  difficult  part,  that  we  wish  to  explain. 
To  make  the  centre,  two  pieces  of  wood,  each  a 
semi  of  the  same  circle  as  the  niche,  are  nailed 
together  with  brackets  in  the  internal  angle  (Fig. 
68),  and  the  space  between  the  brackets  filled  in 
with  core,  pieces  of  bricks  and  mortar,  and  the 
surface  finished  with  plaster  of  Paris,  by  means 
of  a  template  a  little  more  than  a  quarter  of  a 
circle  (called  the  generating  circle)  fixed  with  a 
gimlet  to  the  back  of  the  bottom  semi.     The 

0.  CcnJbre/ 

of  (jbrdtrfj 

Fig.  68. 

template  rotating  upon  the  gimlet  as  an  axis, 
with  the  other  end  of  it  carried  round  the  edge 
of  the  upright  semi,  a  quarter  of  a  sphere  will  be 
described  or  generated. 

"We  have  now  got  the  centre  or  turning  piece. 

Next  draw  the  front  arch  as  an  ordinary  semi  arch, 

and  mark  the  same  number  of  courses  on  the  top 

of  the  centre  to  represent  the  soffits.     Then  with 

E  3 



a  plianth  straiglit-edge  or  the  rotating  template, 
mark  tlie  courses  on  the  plaster  centre,  all  meet- 
ing in  a  needle-point  where  the  gimlet  entered ; 
but  as  the  bricks  cannot  be  so  finely  cut,  a  small 
semicircle  or  "  boss  "  is  introduced  of  such  a  size 
that  the  bricks  at  the  points  where  they  meet  it  will 
be  in  thickness  about  half  an  inch.  The  courses 
are  all  of  the  same  length  and  bevel,  and  the 
soffits  must  be  bevelled  in  the  same  way  as  those 

J^-..-.--    ; 

i  —  -''" 


Fig.  69. 

of  an  ordinary  semi  arch  ;  and  by  looking  at  the 
elevation  and  section  we  see  that  the  hood  is  made 
up  of  a  series  of  semies  increasing  in  size  from 
the  "  boss  "  to  the  face  arch. 

ornamental  brickwork.  83 

The  Niche  Mould. 

The  lengtli  of  the  course  must  be  measured 
from  where  it  meets  the  "  boss  "  to  the  outside  of 
the  9-inch  face  arch.  From  h,  Fig.  69,  draw  a 
line  square  with  c  d,  and  on  it  mark  a  distance 
/  h  equal  to  the  arc  a  c,  and  from /a  distance /gr 
equal  to  c  e,  making  g  k  equal  to  r/'  Ic  in  elevation 
(Fig.  65)  ;  connecting  these  two  points  with  the 
circle  h  we  obtain  the 
mould.  The  length  of  c  a 
is  obtained  by  dividing  it 
into  small  spaces  and 
transfering  them  along 
the  line  h  /;   /  g  is  the  ^'s-^^- 

length  of  the  key  brick,  and  is  shown  turned  up 
into  its  proper  position  c  e. 

Moulded  Courses. 

It  is  the  work  of  the  bricklayer  to  cut  and  form 
all  kinds  of  mouldings,  dentils,  entasis  columns, 
flutings,  and  such  like  members  in  gauged  work, 
leaving  the  more  intricate,  such  as  design  and 
foliage,  to  be  executed  by  the  carver.  Fig.  71 
shows  the  kind  of  box  that  is  used  for  cutting 
moulded  bricks  to  any  required  section — in  this 
case  an  ogee.  The  box  is  generally  made  to  hold 
two  headers  or  one  stretcher.  The  brick  or 
bricks,  having  been  squared  and  rubbed  down  to 
the  required  thickness,  are  placed  in  this  box  and 
with  the  bow-saw  roughly  cut  out,  and  then 
rubbed  down  to   the  section  of  the  box   with  a 



rasp,  and  sometimes  a  piece  of  straight  gas-pipe 
to  form  the  hollow  members,    the  bricks  being 

Fig.  71. 

very  soft.  Care  must  be  taken  that  the  bricks 
be  not  wedged  up  or  cramped  too  tightly  in  the 
box  so  as  to  "  flush  "  the  edges ;  and  here  we 
miffht  mention  that  it  is  sometimes  advisable  to 
work  the  bricks  a  little  wide,  that  in  case  of 
"  flushing  "  they  may  be  brought  up  to  an  arris 
by  a  rub  or  two  on  the  stone.  The  cross  piece  or 
pieces  on  the  top  of  the  box  are  omitted  for  the 
sake  of  clearness. 

Ornamental  Arches 

are  those  that  have  movdded  soffits ;  and  in  such 
as  the  semi  and  segment,  and  in  fact  all  that 
have  the  courses  to  one  bevel,  the  moulding 
may  be  worked  square,  and  applying  the  face 
mould  cut  in  every  respect  similar  to  an  arch 
with  a  square  soffit.  In  this  case  one  bed  (the 
bottom    one)    will    be    square   with    the    soffit. 


and  the  other  very  much  wedge-shaped.  The 
courses  must  be  cut  rights  and  lefts,  but  the  key 
and  two  springing  bricks  must  be  wedge-shaped 
from  both  beds,  otherwise  they  will  want  bedding 
up  with  large  joints  to  fit  the  centre,  and  thus 
spoil  the  appearance  of  the  arch. 

"When  a  camber,  or  any  arch  whose  courses 
have  different  bevels,  has  to  be  moulded  on  the 
soffit,  the  bricks  must  first  be  bevelled  and  after- 
wards moulded,  and,  lastly  cut  to  the  required 
shape  and  length  by  the  application  of  the  face 
mould,  as  before  described. 

The  Oriel  "Window 

belongs  peculiarly  to  ornamental  brickwork 
(stone  constructions  being  entirely  excluded  from 
this  work),  and  we  may  add  red  brickwork. 
The  first  thing  to  be  considered  in  connection 
with  the  oriel  is  its  counterbalance.  In  all 
heavy  projections  in  brickwork  York  flagging 
stones  are  employed ;  they  are  built  into  the 
main  wall  from  which  the  projection  starts,  pro- 
jecting to  a  distance  suitable  for  the  work.  The 
weight  of  the  projection  on  the  stones  is  counter- 
balanced by  the  greater  weight  of  brickwork  on 
the  other  ends  of  the  York  slabs.  But  in  the 
present  case  a  girder  or  rolled  iron  joist,  running 
in  the  direction  of  the  wall  line,  and  entering 
some  12  inches  into  the  brick  wall  forming  the 
side  jambs,  would  have  to  be  placed  sufficiently 
low  to  allow  the  floor  boards  to  pass  over  it.  The 
flags  and  the  weight  upon  them  would  be  counter- 



balanced  by  tbe  girder.  Tbe  principle  of 
counterbalance  is  known  to  bricklayers  by  the 
name  of  "  tailing  down." 

The   whole   of  the   oriel    (Fig.  72)  as    shown 

Fig.  72. 

would  be  in  brickwork,  "  gauged  "  and  set  in  putty. 
The  projecting  courses,  as  the  moulded  string  h, 
and  the  window-sill  would  be  covered  with  5-lb. 
lead,  slightly  projecting  to  form  a  drip  for  the 
water  or  rain. 


The  base  liere  shown  would  be  surmounted 
with  mullions  in  brick  or  wood  (most  likely 
wood  on  account  of  its  comparative  lightness), 
and  finished  either  with  a  semi-coned  tiled  roof 
or  a  balustrade.  TVindows  of  this  type  may  be 
seen  at  Carlyle  House,  Chelsea  Embankment ; 
and  the  Agnew  Picture  Gallery,  New  Bond 

The  bricklayer  when  setting  out  the  work 
must  strike  all  the  successive  courses  from  one 
point,  c,  regulating  the  length  of  the  radius-rod 
for  each  course.  Each  course  must  radiate  from 
Cy  as  shown  in  plan,  and  the  face  of  each  brick  be 
worked  to  the  required  sweep  or  curve.  The 
bevels  (which  will  be  different  for  each  and  every 
course)  will  be  obtained  by  placing  the  stock  of 
the  bevel  on  the  line  representing  the  bed,  and 
bringing  the  blade  to  coincide  with  that  portion 
of  the  curve  representing  the  course  we  are  about 
to  cut.  Let  the  bevel  of  the  course  marked  a  be 
required.  Place  the  stock  of  the  bevel  on  the 
third  line  below  the  moulded  string  h,  and  shift 
the  blade  \mtil  it  fit  the  curve  of  the  course  a. 
The  bevels  for  each  course  must  be  obtained  in 
the  same  way.  The  plan  in  this  figure  may  be 
considered  as  a  horizontal  section  just  above 
the  string  course  h. 

Orxa:mental   Gable   or  Pediment. 

Figs.  73  and  74  are  part  front  and  end  eleva- 
tions of  an  ornamental  gable  or  pediment.  The 
moulding  is  composed  of  the  members  known  as 



the  ovolo,  the  cavetto,  and  the  ogee.  In  orna- 
mental brick  copings  it  is  usual  to  form  the  top 
fillet  with  two  courses  of  red  tiles,  well  soaked 
and   closely  and  neatly  set  in  cement,  with  the 

1            1 

1            ! 

'      1      '     1 

1            1 

1            1 

1            1 

1            1 


Fig.  73. 

joints  proj^erly  broken,  as  here  shown.  Some- 
times lead  is  substituted  for  tiles.  Here  we  have 
shown  a  gablet^  a,  but  in  practice  the  tiles  are 
more  frequently  brought  down  to  the  bottom  of 
the  coping,  the  gablet  being  dispensed  with. 

Gothic  'WI^'DO"^v. 

Fig.  75  is  a  two-light  ornamental  Gothic 
window  with  2-inch  beaded  or  chamfered  reveals. 
The  whole  of  the  work  under  the  large  arch 
would  be  recessed  back  from  the  general  wall 
line.  The  side  piers  a  and  b  for  uniformity 
sake  might  be  built  in  half  bond,  similar  to  that 



of  the  9-inch  inuUion ;  but  the  proper  bond 
would  be  to  start  from  the  reveal  with  a  header 
and  closer,  the  same  as  that  shown  on  the  reveal 
under  the  large  arch.     The  tympanum  is  filled  in 

with  45- inch  work  in  9-inch  blocks,  each  block 
being  made  up  of  three  bricks,  and  called 
"blocking  courses." 

The  label  or  dripstone,  c  e,  enclosing  the  large 
arch,  for  the  sake  of  contrast  might  be  in  Port- 
land stone.  The  whole  of  the  work  here  shown, 
excepting  the  reveals  of  the  large  opening,  might 
be  in  "gauged"  work  or  in  "  axed  "  work ;  or  the 


arches  alone  miglit  be  "gauged"  or  axed,  with 
the  tympanum  filled  in  with  good  building  bricks, 
selected  for  colour  and  shape  and  neatly  pointed, 
making  a  Tery  effective  as  well  as  economical 
ornamental  feature. 

The  saddle-back  springer  on  the  mullion  might 
with  advantage  be  in  stone.  "Windows  of  this 
kind  may  be  built  for  cased  frames  with  sliding 
sashes,  but  they  are  more  generally  built  in  neat 
work  inside  and  out,  with  9-inch  jambs,  grooved 
to  receive  lead  lights.  Ornamental  brickwork  is 
a  subject  in  itself,  that  to  adequately  describe 
would  require  more  space  than  can  be  given  to  it 
in  a  treatise  of  this  dimension. 

Mr.  Euskin,  advocating  its  use,  says  :  "  Here 
let  me  pause  for  a  moment  to  note  what  one 
should  have  thought  was  well  enough  known 
in  England,  yet  I  could  not,  perhaps,  touch 
upon  anything  less  considered — the  real  use 
of  brick.  Our  fields  of  good  clay  were  never 
given  us  to  be  made  into  oblong  morsels  of 
one  size.  They  were  given  us  that  we  might 
play  with  them,  and  that  men  who  could  not 
handle  a  chisel  might  knead  out  some  expression 
of  human  thought.  In  the  ancient  architecture 
of  the  clay  districts  of  Italy,  every  possible  adap- 
tation of  the  material  is  found,  exemplified  from 
the  coarsest  and  most  brittle  kinds,  used  in  the 
mass  of  the  structure,  to  bricks  for  arches  and 
plinths,  cast  in  the  most  perfect  curves,  and  of 
almost  every  size,  strength  and  hardness;  and 
moulded  bricks   wrought  into  flower  work  and 


tracery  as  fine  as  raised  patterns  upon  china. 
And  just  as  many  of  the  finest  works  of  the 
Italian  sculptors  were  executed  in  porcelain, 
many  of  the  best  thoughts  of  their  architects 
were  expressed  in  bricks,  or  in  the  softer  material 
of  terra-cotta  ;  and  if  this  were  so  in  Italy  where 
there  is  not  one  city  from  whose  towers  we  may 
not  descry  the  blue  outline  of  the  Alps  or  Appen- 
nines — everlasting  quarries  of  granite  and  marble 
— how  much  more  ought  it  to  be  so  among  the 
fields  of  England." — Stones  of  Venice,  vol.  ii., 
p.  260. 

Judging  by  the  remarks  in  the  above  quotation, 
one  is  led  to  think  that  the  brickmakers  of 
mediocval  Italy  were  more  skilled  in  their  craft, 
or  at  least  happier  in  results,  than  their  fraternity 
of  modern  times ;  for,  with  few  exceptions,  we 
have  found  moulded  work  wanting  in  that  truth- 
fulness of  form  which  distinguishes  cut  or  gauged 
work.  Doubtless  this,  in  great  measure,  is  due 
to  the  large  amount  of  unskilled  and  juvenile 
labour  employed  in  our  brickworks,  to  the  careless 
manipulation  of  the  work,  and  the  hurried  de- 
mand for  the  material.  To  be  assured  that  true 
form  can  be  obtained  in  ceramic  wares,  one  has 
only  to  look  at  the  Natural  History  Museum, 





Tiling  is  a  branch  of  the  bricklayer's  trade,  and 
owing  to  the  rage  for  red-brick  buildings  is  now 
very  much  in  use.  One  advantage  of  the  tiled 
roof  is  that  it  is  cool  in  summer  and  warm  in 
winter,  but  on  acount  of  their  weight  stronger 
timbers  are  required  than  for  slates.  The  Broseley 
tiles  are  considered  the  best ;  they  are  10|  inches 
long,  6  inches  wide,  and  f  of  an  inch  thick,  and  have 
three  nibs  or  projections  at  the  head  for  hanging. 
Good  tiles  are  fairly  smooth  and  slightly  vitrified. 
Those  of  a  bright  red  or  clayey  colour,  with  no 
vitrification,  are  absorbent,  and  not  so  capable  of 
resisting  the  weather.  Six  kinds  are  used  in  good 
work,  viz.  under-eaves  or  three-quarter  tiles,  plain 
tiles,  hips  and  valleys,  ridge  tiles  and  tile-and-a 
half,  the  last  being  used  for  cutting  up  to  valleys 
and  hips,  and  forming  gables,  so  as  to  do  away  with 
the  half  tile  that  would  be  required  to  break  joint. 
Valley  and  hip  tiles  are  purposely  made  to  suit 
the  angles  of  the  roof.  As  the  tiles  come  to  the 
hand  of  the  tiler  he  should  throw  out  the  straight 
ones  to  be  used  by  themselves,  while  those  that 
have  a  hollow  bed  should  be  also  kept  by  them- 
selves, as  the  straights  will  not  lie  close  on  the 
hollows.  Good  tiling  is  characterised  by  the  tails 
of  each  course  fitting  closely  upon  the  backs  of 
the  tiles  in  the  course  below  them ;  by  the  cross 


joints  or  "perpends"  running  in  straight  and 
regular  lines  from  eaves  to  ridge,  the  vertical  joint 
between  each  Uyo  tiles  coming  immediately  in  the 
middle  of  the  tile  below  them ;  by  the  hips  and 
valleys  being  in  the  same  plane  as  the  sides  of  the 
roof  of  which  they  form  a  part.  It  is  a  common 
sight  to  see  hips  standing  up  above  the  roof,  so 
as  to  have  more  the  appearance  of  ridges  than 
hips.  As  the  tiles  are  ordered  before  the  roof  is 
on,  the  angles  should  be  set  out  and  sent  to  the 
tile-maker  to  insure  getting  them  to  the  required 
angle.  The  contained  angle  of  hip  tiles  is  made 
10^  greater  than  the  contained  angle  formed  by 
the  intersection  at  the  hip  of  the  two  sides  or 
planes  of  the  roof,  to  allow  for  the  tilt  and  the 
thickness  of  the  two  eaves-tiles.  For  the  same  rea- 
son the  valley-tile  is  made  10°  more  than  the  re- 
entering angle  of  the  roof.  In  our  experience  we 
have  frequently  found  that  the  contained  angle 
has  been  guessed  at  or  obtained  by  some  "  rule  of 
thumb,"  and  with  the  consequence  that  generally 
ensues  from  such  work,  viz.  that  the  angle  con- 
tained within  the  hip  tile  has  been  either  too 
acute  or  too  obtuse. 

Tiles  are  either  laid  dry  on  close  boards,  with 
battens  above  for  hanging  them,  or  on  open  bat- 
tens, in  which  case  they  should  be  bedded  in  lime 
and  hair  mortar.  The  most  modern  and  improved 
way  of  hanging  is  shown  in  Fig.  76.  The  boards 
are  6  inches  wide  and  are  feather-edged,  the  top 
edge  being  ^  of  an  inch  thick.  Here  we  have  a 
boarded  roof  without  battens,  and  one  that  will 



keep  out  the  weather  if  the  tiles  should  get  broken, 
for  the  rain  would  cause  the  wood  to  expand,  and 
thus  tighten  the  joints  of  the  boards,  to  the  exclu- 
sion of  all  rain.  The  first  course — the  eaves  and 
under-eaves — should  be  bedded  in  hair  mortar. 
The  "  lap  "  (the  distance  that  the  tail  of  the  third 
tile  overlaps  the   head   of  the  first)    should  be 

rig.  70. 

3  inches.  The  "gauge"  (the  distance  between  the 
tails  of  two  consecutive  courses)  can  always  be  ob- 
tained by  dividing  the  length  of  the  tile  (measured 
from  the  under  side  of  the  hanging  nibs)  less  the 
lap  by  two.  Thus,  (IQi  -  3)  -r  2  =  3f ,  the  "gauge." 

Pioors  HAVING  Different  Pitctiks. 
"SYhen  roofs  of  different  pitches  intersecting  in 
hips  and  valleys  occur,  the  tiler  has  generally  a 



deal  of  trouble,  and  consequent  waste  of  time, 
through  carpenters  frequently  insisting  upon 
intersecting  the  battens  ;  and  very  often  after 
much  time  has  been  wasted,  and  a  portion  of  the 
tiling  done,  it  is  found  necessary  to  tear  off  all 
the  battens  to  correct  the  error. 

The  following  rule  will  prevent  such  an  error. 
Draw   the   plan  of  the   two   roofs    (Fig  77),  of 

different  pitch,  and  from  the  centre  of  the  valley 
set  out  two  parallel  lines,  a  h,  c  d,  representing 
the  true  width  of  the  tails  of  the  valley  tiles, 
which  is  from  1|  to  2  inches.  On  a-//  at  right 
angles  with  the  eaves  of  the  main  roof  draw  its 
section,  on  which  set  out  the  gauge  1,  2,  3,  &c., 

96  imicK\voniv. 

and  drop  lines  square  with  xy  and  intersecting 
the  line  a  h.  From  these  points  of  intersection 
square  the  short  lines  across  the  valley,  and  from 
where  they  intersect  the  parallel  c  d  draw  lines 
square  with  x  y  and  intersecting  a  section  of  the 
smaller  roof.  The  distance  between  any  two 
points  on  y'  g  will  be  the  "gauge"  for  the  smaller 
roof.  The  line  3  on  each  section  is  drawn  to 
their  intersection,  which  is  not  in  the  centre  of 
the  valley,  but  very  much  on  one  side  of  it,  thus 
proving  the  popular  error  of  intersecting  the 
battens  in  the  middle  of  the  valle}'. 

The  "gauge"  for  hips  should  be  obtained  in 
the  same  way,  excepting  that  the  parallel  lines, 
a  b,  c  d,  must  be  the  same  distance  apart  as  the 
extreme  points  of  the  tail  of  the  hip  tile,  measured 
in  a  straight  line  from  point  to  point  square  with 
the  hip. 

To   OBTAIN   THE    NeCESSAPvY   AxgLE   OF   Ilir   OF 

Valley  Tiles. 

Draw  a  h,  Fig.  78,  the  plan  of  the  hip,  and 
erect  a  perpendicular,  a  c,  the  true  height  of  the 
top  of  the  hip.  Draw  a  line  from  c  to  b,  and 
the  angle  a  h  c  will  be  the  true  inclination  of  the 
liip.  Draw  ed  square  with  a  b,  cutting  the  eaves, 
and  from  ./'a  line  square  with  c  b  ;  with  this  as 
radius,  from  the  point  ./'  draw  the  semicircle, 
and  from  where  it  cuts  a  b  draw  the  lines  er/,  d  g; 
e  (J  d  is  the  angle  required  for  the  hip  tiles,  or  in 
other  words  it  is  a  section  or  cut  through  the  roof 
at  right  angles  with  the  hip.      The   angle   for 


valley  tiles  is  obtained  in  the  same  way,  remem- 

bering that  tbe  hip  is  a  salient  ai  gle  and  the 
valley  a  re-entering  angle. 


Pointing  is  divided  into  two  classes,  tuck- 
pointing  and  flat-joint  pointing.  In  tuck-point- 
ing the  joints  of  the  brickwork  are  filled  in  with 
mortar  or  stopping,  of  generally  the  same  colour 
as  the  bricks,  and  rubbed  down  to  a  level  surface 
with  a  piece  of  sacking  or  soft  brick  of  the  same 
colour  as  the  work,  and  a  putty  joint  made  of 
lime  and  silver-sand  placed  upon  it.  Stone  lime 
should  be  used  for  outside  work. 

The  mode  of  working  is  to  have  a  parallel  rule 
from  8  to  10  feet  long,  5  inches  wide,  and  5  an 
inch  thick,  with  one  feather  edge  and  four  cleats 
-fV  of  an  inch  thick    tacked   on  to  the  back  to 


afford  room  for  the  putty  that  is  cut  off  to  fall 
through.  The  putty  is  spread  out  on  the  rule 
from  which  the  bricklayers,  one  at  each  end, 
take  it  off  with  their  jointers,  and  with  the  rule 
against  the  "waU,  working  on  the  top  edge,  trans- 
fer it  to  the  wall.  The  ragged  edges  are  then 
cut  off  with  the  Frenchman  or  knife,  and  the 
loose  particles  brushed  off  with  a  soft  brush. 
Tuck-pointing  is  not  suitable  for  outside  work, 
as  the  putty  joints  projecting  beyond  the  general 
surface  arrest  the  weather  and  are  consequently 
soon  destroyed,  unless  protected  by  heavy  pro- 

Flat-joixt  Pointing. 

This  is  the  most  general  and  durable  kind  of 
pointing.  It  should  be  made  up  of  washed  sand 
and  stone  lime  several  days  at  least  before  using 
it,  that  it  may  by  the  process  of  retempering 
acquire  toughness,  which  will  add  very  much  to 
its  durability  and  facility  of  working.  The  joints 
should  be  finished  flush  with  the  work  (excepting 
in  "  weather-jointing,"  when  the  top  of  the  joint 
should  be  kept  back  ^  of  an  inch,  and  the  bottom 
flush  to  shed  the  rain)  and  neatly  cut  off  top  and 
bottom  with  the  Frenchman,  and  brushed  off. 
To  ensure  good  pointing,  the  work  should  be 
well  raked  out  and  wetted  not  sparingly.  If  the 
joints  are  deep  they  should  be  filled  in  by  going 
over  them  twice  with  tolerably  stiff  mortar  to 
prevent  cracking,  and  the  work  done  with  point- 
ing trowels.     Jointers   should  not  be  used  under 


.any  pretext.  In  first-class  work  the  pointing  is 
done  as  the  work  proceeds  during  erection,  and 
forming  one  body  with  the  building  will,  if  the 
mortar  be  good,  last  for  many  years. 

Malm  work  for  tuck-pointing  is  generally 
stopped  in  with  mortar,  coloured  with  yellow  ochre 
(21bs.  of  ochre  to  each  hod  of  mortar),  but  it 
will  bo  found  best  to  use  no  colour  in  the  stopping, 
as  by  its  earthy  nature  it  very  much  injures  the 
setting  and  hardening  properties  of  the  lime, 
which  in  a  great  measure  accounts  for  so  much 
pointing  perishing  soon  after  it  is  done.  Stop 
the  work  in  with  good  mortar,  as  described  in 
flat-joint  pointing,  and  rub  it  down  with  a  soft 
malm,  leaving  the  dust  on  the  work,  and  with  a 
soft  stock  brush  go  over  it  lightly  with  hot  alum 
water.     One  pound  of  alum  to  3  gallons  of  water. 

White  Suflfolk  bricks  for  tuck-pointing,  are 
treated  in  the  same  way,  rubbing  the  work  with 
a  soft  white  Sufiblk  instead  of  with  a  malm. 

Red  work  for  tuck- pointing  is  stopped  in  with 
mortar  coloured  with  Venetian  red  and  Spanish 
brown,  with  sometimes  a  little  vegetable  black 
added.  The  colour  of  the  stopping  must  be 
determined  by  the  colour  of  the  bricks,  so  as  to 
match  them.  It  is  best  to  avoid  colourinff  the 
bricks,  but  when  stopped  in  rub  them  down  with 
a  soft  brick,  and  apply  alum  water  or  white  cop- 
peras, as  already  described.  One  pound  of  cop- 
peras to  3  gallons  of  water.  The  appearance  of 
red  brickwork  is  often  spoilt  through  the  applica- 
tion of  colour. 

F  2 


To  clean  down  red  work,  mix  a  pint  of  spirits 
of  salts  with  a  pailful  of  water.  This  applied  with 
a  stock  brush  will  leave  the  work  clear  of  all 
lime  spots,  &c.  It  maybe  done  on  work  recently 
erected,  in  which  the  joints  have  been  struck 
during  erection,  and  without  injuring  them. 

Copperas  is  very  much  used  in  connection  with 
stock  work,  especially  when  the  bricks  are  in- 
ferior or  of  a  bad  colour.  One  pound  of  green 
copperas  is  melted  down  with  every  5  gallons  of 
water.  It  should  be  mixed  several  days  before 
required,  and  enough  made  to  finish  the  job,  that 
it  may  be  all  one  colour.  A  small  nob  of  lime 
mixed  with  the  copperas  very  much  heightens  its 
colour.  The  copperas  should  be  tried  on  the 
work  to  match  it  before  being  generally  used, 
and  weakened  down  by  the  addition  of  water  if 
found  necessary. 

Burning  Cl.vy  into  Ballast. 

The  use  of  burnt  ballast  is  increasing  every 
day,  both  for  purposes  of  mortar  and  concrete.  The 
chief  reason  for  this  is  its  cheapness  in  comparison 
with  the  cost  of  sand,  for  while  sand  costs  from 
OS.  to  7s.  a  cube  yard,  varying  according  to  the 
locality,  burnt  ballast  can  be  produced,  including 
all  materials  and  digging  of  clay,  with  a  run  of 
about  60  yards,  at  2s.  6d.  a  cube  yard.  While  we 
reiterate  that  for  mortar  nothing  better  than  clean 
sand  of  a  sharp  angular  grit  can  be  used,  we  do 
not  wish  to  be  understood  as  condemning  the  use 
of  burnt  ballast.   Thoroughly  burnt  and  cool,  with 



the  large  aggregations  (sponge- like  lumps  whose 
parts  touch  each  other  here  and  there,  and  are 
held  in  contact  by  vitreous  matter)  broken  up, 
and  the  whole  mixed  with  a  fair  proportion  of 
Thames  ballast  or  clean  gravel  (see  previous  re- 
marks on  this  subject  in  Article  on  Concrete),  is 
capable  of  making  a  good  concrete,  for  the  ab- 
sorbent nature  of  the  ballast  attracting  the  sili- 
cates of  the  cement  or  lime,  which  entering  the 
pores  form  so  many  threads  or  ties  binding  the 
whole  mass  together,  and  unlike  Thames  ballast, 
with  its  non-absorbent  and  smoothly  water-worn 
surfaces,  which  simply  beds  itself  in  the  matrix 
with  comparatively  little  adhesion. 

Stiff  or  strong  clay,  just  as  it  is  dug  up,  is  the 
best  for  burning,  as  it  requires  the  least  firing 
and  will  make  the  best  ballast.  The  heap  is  com- 
menced by  forming  a  cone  of  clay,  about  3  feet  in 
diameter  and  5  feet  in  height,  formed  round  a 
piece  of  pole  placed  on  end  as  a  centre.  Fires  are 
then  made  round  the  cone  by  placing  bricks  on 
edge  forming  a  channel  leading  up  to  the  centre. 
These  are  filled  with  wood  and  coal,  and  covered 
over  and  cased  with  a  layer  of  clay  about  6  inches 
thick  before  lighting.  As  the  fire  burns  through 
it  must  be  drawn  down,  which  is  done  by  means 
of  long-handled  prongs  made  specially  for  the 
work,  and  strewn  with  small  coal  called  ''  slack," 
and  covered  with  another  layer  of  clay.  The 
thickness  of  the  layers  of  clay  may  be  increased 
as  the  work  proceeds,  until  they  become  from 
18  to  24  inches,  not  forgetting  the  sprinkling  of 


"  slack "  on  each  layer  of  clay.  Care  must  be 
taken  that  the  fire  be  drawn  down,  as  it  naturally 
draws  to  the  top,  and  the  unburnt  portions  thrown 
up  into  the  fire.  "When  the  clay  is  thoroughly 
burnt  the  fire  will  go  out. 

Building  Additions  to  Old  "Work. 

When  building  additions  to  old  buildings,  it 
frequently  occurs  that  the  old  work  is  found  to 
be  considerably  out  of  perpendicular,  generally 
overhanging.  In  such  a  case  it  is  best  to  carry 
up  with  the  new  work,  just  where  it  joins  with  the 
old,  a  pier  or  pilaster,  forming  a  break  in  the  wall 
line,  which  will  enable  the  bricklayer  to  keep  the 
new  work  upright  and  hide  the  fault  of  the  old, 
which  otherwise  would  be  exposed  by  junction 
with  the  new.  The  projection  of  the  pilaster  will 
of  course  be  regulated  by  the  amount  that  the 
work  is  out  of  the  upright. 

Fire-proof  Floors. 

Fire-proof  floors  are  now  very  rarely  constructed 
in  bricks,  being  almost  entirely  superseded  by  tile 
arches  brought  to  a  level  with  concrete,  or  con- 
structed with  rolled  joists  and  concrete  alone,  or 
with  cement  and  breeze,  but  more  generally  with 
Dennett's  Patent,  which  is  a  concrete  composed 
of  broken  bricks  and  gypsum.  But  in  very  large 
warehouses,  and  where  great  weights  have  to  be 
carried,  the  fire-proof  floors  are  still  constructed 
with  brick  rings  carried  on  rolled  girders. 





Geometry  of  all  studies  is  to  the  artisan  the 
most  attractive  and  useful.  The  problems  given 
here  are  such  as  may  be  applied  by  the  bricklayer 
to  every-day  practice,  and  therefore  come  within 
the  meaning  of  the  term  applied  geometry.  But 
we  would  advise  the  young  artisan  not  to  rest 
satisfied  with  a  Icnowledge  of  the  few  problems 
given  herein,  but  to  take  up  the  subject  as  a 
separate  study,  and  familiarise  his  mind  with  its 
principles,  so  as  to  be  able  to  apply  them  generally 
and  with  understanding. 

To  draw  a  square  u-hose  siqyerjicial  area  shall  equal 
the  sum  of  two  squares  whose  sides  are  given. 

Let  A  B  (Fig.  79)  be  the  given  sides.  Draw 
the  lines  c  d,  e  f  at  right 
angles,  and  from  g  set  oflf 
G  H  equal  to  a,  and  g  k 
equal  to  b  :  a  line  drawn 
from  H  to  K  will  be  the  side 
of  the  required  square.  On 
G  K  complete  the  square 
G  M,  N.  K ;  and  on  g  h  the 
square  ii  l  e  g  ;  and  on  h  k 
the  square  ii  k  o  p.  The 
area  oi  this  square  will 
equal   the   combined   areas   of   the   two   smaller 


squares.  To  make  this  more  clear,  suppose  the 
line  A  to  be  8  inches  and  b  6  inches.  The  square 
of  A  would  be  8  X  8  equal  to  64 ;  and  the  square 
of  6  would  be  6  X  6  equal  to  36,  which  added  to 
64  makes  100.  By  drawing  a  and  b  square  with 
each  other  and  joining  their  extremes  with  a 
straight  line,  we  will  find  that  line  to  measure  ex- 
actly 10  inches,  and  the  square  of  that  wiU  be  100. 
The  principle  of  this  problem  is  that  a  square 
erected  on  the  hypothenuse  (the  longest  side)  of  a 
right-angled  triangle  is  equal  to  the  sum  of  two 
squares,  erected  on  the  base  and  perpendicular  of 
the  same  triangle.  Its  application  to  practice  is 
shown  in  the  article  on  "  Setting  out  Bmlding." 

To  draic   a  right-angled  triangle,   base  1\  inches, 
height  \  inch. 

Draw  a  semicircle  of  H  inch  diameter  (Fig.  80), 
and  from  d  erect  the  per- 
pendicular d  e  :  a  line 
drawn  from  e,  |  inch 
above  the  base  line  a  c, 
will  cut  the  semicircle 
in  b  ;  lines  drawn  from 
a  and  c  to  i  will  form 
the  required  triangle.  The  principle  of  this  is  that 
aU  triangles  within  a  semicircle  are  right-angled 
triangles.  If  the  lines  be  drawn  from  a  c  to  e 
or  to  any  other  point  in  the  semicircle,  we 
shall  get  a  right-angled  triangle.  Its  practical 
application  is  seen  in  the  article  on  "  Setting  out 


To  draw  an  arc  by  cross-sectional  lines. 

On  a  b,  the  span  (Fig  81),  erect  the  perpen- 
c.-  diciilars,  d  e,  equal  to 

twice  the  required  rise. 
Divide  a  e  into  any 
number  of  equal  parts, 
1,  2,  3,  4,  and  e  b  into 
the  same  number  of  parts,  and  draw  cross-sectional 
lines  as  shown.  A  curve  traced  through  the 
intersections  will  be  the  required  arc. 

Another  method  practised  (we  do  not  recom- 
mend its  use)  sometimes  by  carpenters  for  getting 
out  turning-pieces  for  the  bricklayer.  Span  6  feet, 
rise  1\  inch.  Divide  the  span  into  a  number  of 
equal  parts,  say  six,  and  from  the  points  erect 
perpendiculars,  measuring  upward  ^  inch  on  the 
first,  an  inch  on  the  second,  and  1|  inch  on  the 
third,  which  in  this  case  is  the  centre  line.  Treat 
the  other  half  of  the  span  in  the  same  way,  and 
with  a  flexible  straight-edge  fixed  at  the  springing 
points  a  b  (Fig.  81)  force  it  upward  until  it  stand 
over  the  distance  marks  on  the  perpendiculars, 
and  with  a  pencil  trace  the  arc  or  curve. 

The  foregoing  methods  do  away  with  the  neces- 
sity of  laying  down  a  large  platform  and  getting 
out  a  long  radius-rod ;  the  camber,  for  instance, 
which  is  the  segment  of  a  circle  described  by  a 
radius-rod  of  70  feet  2|  inches  in  length. 




To   describe  a  Jlat  arc  (camber  for  instance)   by 
mechanical  means. 
Let  a  b  (Fig.  82)  be  the  cord  of  the  arc.   Bisect 

a  b  at  c  by  the  perpendicular  c  d,  and  make  c  d 
equal  to  the  height  of  the  segment.  Draw  d  e 
parallel  to  a  b,  and  make  d  e  a,  little  larger  than 
a  d.  This  template  should  be  got  out  of  a  piece 
of  timber,  and  by  moving  the  whole  of  the  tem- 
plate, so  that  the  two  edges  d  a  and  d  e  may  slide 
on  two  pins,  a  and  d,  the  angular  point  d  of  the 
template  will  describe  the  segment  required,  and  if 
the  pin  be  taken  out  of  a  and  put  in  the  point  b, 
the  other  portion  d  b  of  the  segment  a  d  b  wiU 
be  described  in  the  same  manner.  This  method 
should  be  practised  in  preference  to  the  methods 
previously  described. 

To  find  the  joints  of  a  flat  arch  icithout  using  the 
centre  of  the  circle  of  which  the  arc  is  a  part. 
Having  determined  the  number  of  voussoirs  or 

Fig.  b3. 

courses,"  1, 2, 3, 4,  &c.  (Fig.  83),  from  these  points 



erect  perpendiculars  by  intersecting  arcs ;  these 
perpendiculars  represent  the  joints.  AVe  need 
hardly  to  say  that  the  practical  application  of 
this  problem  is  to  enable  the  workman  to  draw 
the  courses  or  voussoirs  in  an  arch  similar  to 
that  given  in  the  previous  problem. 

To  draw  the  joints  of  a  semi  ellipse  arch  icith  mathe- 
matical accuracy. 
The  point  d  (Fig.  84)  is  the  middle  of  the  arch, 


/   ./■■ 



1                                    y    * 

1                          ^j''--'"' 

c     . 





Fig.  S4. 

and  the  point  c  the  middle  of  the  springing  line. 
"With  the  distance  c  a  or  c  b,  from  the  point  d 
describe  an  arc  cutting  a  b  at  e,  and  also  at/;  cf 
are  the  foci.  Let  a  joint  be  required  at  g.  From 
e  and  /  draw  lines  passing  through  g,  and  bisect 
the  angle  they  make  with  each  other,  and  from  the 
point  g  erect  a  perpendicular,  which  will  represent 
the  required  joint.  The  other  joints  are  obtained 
in  a  similar  manner. 



To  find  the  invisible  arch  contained  in  a  camber. 

Bisect  the  springing  line  a  h  (Fig.  85)  with  the 
perpendicular  c  d,  and 
produce  the  skewback 
h  b  until  it  cut  the  per- 
pendicular in  c.  Fromr, 
with  distance  c  b  draw 
the  arc  a  d  b,  and  with 
distance  c  g  its  concen- 
tric arc g fh.  a g hb  is 
the  invisible  arch.  The 
soffit  of  the  camber 
below  the  arc  a  d  b  i& 
upheld  by  the  cohesion 
of  its  parts  with  the 
invisible  arch.  Here  we 
would  add  that  bricklayers  Lave  no  fixed  rule  to 
determine  the  angle  of  skewback  for  the  camber, 
some  giving  4^  inches  skewback  for  all  open- 
ings, others  65  inches,  and  in  many  cases  giving 
a  skew  of  from  f  to  1  inch  for  every  foot  that  the 
opening  is  wide ;  as  3  inches  for  3  feet,  4  inches 
for  4  feet,  and  so  on.  ^Ve  would  advise  that 
the  skew  or  angle  of  thrust  should  never  exceed 
6  inches,  for  as  the  skew  becomes  more  acute 
the  carrying  strength  of  the  camber  becomes  less, 
in  consequence  of  the  invisible  arch  contained 
therein  being  thrown  higher  up,  as  shown  by  the 
middle  arc  struck  from  k  with  distance  /.-  b. 

Fig.  85. 



Ani/  two  straight  lines  given  to  determine  a  curve  by 
which  they  shall  he  connected. 

Let  ah,  cd  (Fig.  86),  be  the  given  lines,  and  c  b 


Fig.  86. 

the  points  to  be  connected.  Produce  the  lines 
until  they  meet  in  e  ;  bisect  the  angle  ceh  with 
the  line  ef\  from  c  and  b  draw  lines  at  right 
angles  to  ah  and  c  d  meeting  ef  in  g.  From  g, 
with  distance  g  c  or  g  b  describe  the  connecting 
curve.  The  given  lines  may  be  taken  as  two 
brick  walls  that  have  to  be  connected  or  formed 
with  a  round  corner. 

Fig.  87  is  an  example  in  which  the  given  lines 

Fig.  87. 

are  parallel.       From  point  b  draw  /a;  at  rig^^ 
angles  with  a  h  ;  and  from  c,  c  e,  at  right  a' 





witli  c  d.  On /mark  a  point  h  any  distance  from 
h  less  than  b  c.  Draw  A-  /  througli  A-  parallel  to 
h  c  and  cutting  c  c  m  L  From  /  as  centre  with 
the  distance  /  c,  which  is  equal  to  h  h,  describe  the 
arc  cm.  Join  Im  and  produce  it  in  the  same 
straight  line  towards  m  to  meet/.r  in  n.  From 
n  as  centre,  with  the  distance  u  b  or  n  rn,  describe 
the  arc  b  m.  The  given  straight  lines  ab,  c  d  are 
connected  by  the  curve  b  m  c. 

If  the  given  straight  lines  are  not  parallel,  but 
would  meet  if  one  or  both  were  produced,  as  ^  A 
(Fig.  88),  produced  meets  ab  m.  a,  forming  the 

Fig.  8S. 

small  angle  gab,  draw,  as  before,  />  and  ^ o  at 
right  angles  i<i  ab  and  g  h  respectively.  Take 
any  point,  A-,  in  bf;  make^yy;  equal  to  bk,  and  join 
kj).  Bisect  hp  in  q,  and  draw  qr  perpendicular 
to  kp,  meeting/ J"  in  ;•.  Join  r p,  and  irovap  as 
."entre,  at  the  distance  g  p,  describe  the  arc  g  s, 
Xi  '^ting  rp  in  s.  Then  from  the  centre  r,  at  the 
«^^     ce  r  6  or  r  «,  describe  the  arc  completing  the 


curve  bs  gyhj  wliicli  the  given  straight  lines  a  b, 
g  h  are  connected. 

To  find  the  form  or  ciirvahire  of  a  raking  moulding 
that  shall  unite  correctly  tcith  a  level  one. 

Let    abed    (Fig.    89)    be  part   of   the    level 



3             c- 

Fig.  89. 


moulding  (which  we  will  here  suppose  to  be  an 
ovolo  or  quarter  round),  a  and  c  the  points  where 
the  raking  moulding  takes  its  rise  on  the  angle, 
fc  g  the  angle  the  raking  moulding  makes  with 
the  level  one.  Draw  c/at  the  given  angle,  and 
from  a  draw  a  e  parallel  to  it ;  continue  b  a  io  h, 
and  from  c  make  c  h  perpendicular  to  Ah.  Divide 
c  h  into  any  number  of  equal  parts,  as  1,2,  3, 4, 
and  draw  lines  parallel  to  h  a,  as  1^,  2^  2>^,  4^ ; 
and  then  in  any  part  of  the  raking  moulding,  as 
f ,  draw  i  k,  perpendicular  to  e  a,  and  divide  it  into 
the  same  number  of  equal  parts  as  h  c  is  divided 
into;  and  draw  1%  2^  3°,  4^  parallel  to  e  a. 
Then  transfer  the  distances  l'"",  2^,  3^  4*^,  and  a 
curve  drawn  through  these  points  will  be  the 
form  of  the  curve  required  for  the  raking 


The  method  here  shown  is  for  an  ovolo,  but  it 
would  be  just  the  same  for  any  other  formed 
moulding,  as  a  cavetto,  ogee,  &c.  This  problem 
can  be  applied  in  the  construction  of  pediments 
in  "  gauged  "  work. 

To   describe   an   ellipse  by  means  of  a  carpenter's 
square  and  a  piece  of  notched  lath. 

Having  drawn  two  lines  to  represent  the 
diameters  of  the  ellipse  required,  fasten  the 
square  so  that  the  internal  angle,  or  meeting  of 
the  blade  and  stock  shall  be  at  the  centre  of  the 
ellipse.  Then  take  a  piece  of  wood,  or  a  lath, 
and  cut  it  to  the  length  of  half  the  longest 
diameter,  and  from  one  end  cut  out  a  piece  equal 
to  half  the  shortest  diameter,  and  there  will  then 
be  a  piece  remaining  at  one  end  equal  to  the 
difference  of  the  half  of  the  two  diameters. 
Place  this  projecting  piece  of  the  lath  in  such  a 
manner  that  it  may  rest  against  the  square  on 
the  edge  which  corresponds  to  the  two  diameters ; 
and  then  turning  it  round  horizontally,  the  two 
ends  of  the  projection  will  slide  along  the  two 
internal  edges  of  the  square,  and  if  a  pencil  be 
fixed  at  the  other  end  of  the  lath  it  will  describe 
oae  quarter  of  an  ellipse.  The  square  must  then 
be  moved  for  the  successive  quarters  of  the  ellipse, 
and  the  whole  figure  wiU  thus  be  easily  formed. 
This  method  is  on  the  principle  of  the  trammel. 
There  are  several  other  ways  of  drawing  an 
ellipse,  but  for  these  the  reader  must  be  referred 
to  a  work  on  geometry. 



To  draw  a  Gothic  of  any  given  height  and  span ; 
or,  in  other  words,  an  Ellipse  Gothic. 

Let  A  B  (Fig.  90)  be  the  span  and  cd  the  height. 
Draw  the  line  a  b  and  bisect  or  centre  it  at  c ; 

Fig.  90. 

draw  c  D,  and  make  c  i  equal  to  c  d.  Divide  c  d 
into  three  equal  parts,  and  draw  a  g,  b  h  parallel 
with  c  D,  and  equal  to  two-thirds  (f).  of  c  d.  Make 
c  F  equal  to  one-third  of  c  d,  and  draw  a  f,  f  b. 
Divide  a  f  into  any  number  of  equal  parts,  1,  2, 
3,  4,  and  from  i  draw  il,  i2,  i3,  {4.  Divide  a  g 
into  the  same  number  of  parts  as  a  f,  and  draw 
Id,  2d,  3d,  4d,  and  the  intersection  of  lines  will 
give  the  points  in  the  curve,  which  must  be  drawn 
by  hand.  The  other  half  must  be  found  in  the 
same  way. 



To  draw  the  arch   bricks  of  a  Gothic  arch,  that  is 
for  the  curve  in  the  jjrevious  problem. 

Having  formed  the  angles  c  d  g  and  c  d  h  as 
before,  from  d  (Fig.  91)  draw  d  l  perpendicular 

Fig.  91. 

to  D  H.  Make  b  f  and  e  d  each  equal  to  b  ii  ; 
join  E  F,  and  from  the  middle  of  e  f  draw  i  i,  per- 
pendicular with  E  F.  Draw  l  f,  l  and  f  are  the 
points  from  which  the  joints  of  the  arch  will  radiate. 

To  find  the  radius  of  any  arc  or  arch,  the  rise  am 
span  being  given. 

Let  a  b  represent  the  span,  c  d  the  rise ;  a  b 
equal  4  feet,  c  d  2  feet,  a  c  (half  the  span)  mul- 
tiplied by  itself  will  be  2  X  2,  or  4  feet ;  divided 
hjcd  will  be  ^,  or  2  feet,  c  d  added  to  this  will 
be  4  feet,  which  divided  by  2  will  give  2  feet  as 
the  length  of  radius  that  will  describe  the  required 
arc  whose  span  and  rise  are  given.  In  this  case 
we  have  chosen  a  semicircle  for  the  sake  of 
simplicity  and  self-demonstration,  but  the  rule 
may  be  applied  to  any  arc  of  any  circle.      In 


mathematical  formula  our  calculation  would  stand 
thus : 

(d  (?  \ 

—  +   c  d  ]■—  2  =r  the  length  of  radius  re- 
c  a  I 

quired.  Or  in  plain  words  a  c  square,  divided  by 
c  d,  plus  c  d  divided  by  2  equal  the  length  of 
radius.  In  the  above  explanation  we  have  gone 
out  of  the  beaten  track  for  the  purpose  of  making 
the  rule  clear  to  those  of  our  readers  who  may 
not  be  familiar  with  trigonometrical  and  alge- 
braic expressions. 

It  will,  however,  be  recognised  by  some  as  the 
square  of  half  the  cord  divided  by  the  versed 
sine,  plus  the  versed  sine  divided  by  2  equal  the 

For  mensuration  of  brickwork  the  Author 
refers  the  reader  to  Mr.  Hammond's  "Practical 
Bricklaying,"  forming  vol.  189  in  this  series. 

I J^  D  E  X. 

A  DDiTioxs  TO  Old  Wokk,  102. 
■^  Angle  of  hip  or  valley  IQcs, 

to  obtain,  96. 
Angle  of  skew,  50. 
of  strain,  29. 
Apertures,  26. 
Arc,  to  draw  bv  cross  sectional 

lines,  10.5. 
Arches,  46. 

cutting  of,  64. 
principles  of,  47. 
whose  courses  have  different 
bevels,  S5. 
Axed  work,  63. 

"Dase,  Boxc  of,  27. 
^    treatment  of,  27. 
Battering  jamb,  S8. 
Bats,  30,  34. 
Bedding  board,  66. 
Bends.  12. 

Berkshire  builders,  17. 
Birdsmouthed  key,  7 1 . 

objection  to,  71. 
Blocking  courses,  89. 
Blue  lias,  9. 
Boaster,  6.5. 
Bond  of  brickwork,  20. 

underrated,  20. 

of  footings  and  walls,  22. 

Gwilt  on,  21. 

Smeaton  on,  20. 
Bovd's  flue-plates,  45. 
BrickS;  16. 

characteristics  of  good,  19. 

differences  in  sizes  of,  39. 

case  hardening  of,  62. 

wetting  of,  28. 

Brick  groins,  58. 
Brickwork,  2*. 

characteristics  of  good,  40. 

good,  samples  of,  16. 
Broken  bond,  27. 

cause  of,  27. 

in  Flemish,  33. 
Brondesbury  bridge,  5.5. 
Broseley  tiles,  92. 
Building  new  work  into  old,  40. 
Bull's-eye,  65. 

Burning  clay  into  ballast,  100. 
Burnt  ballast,  9. 
Buttering  joints,  evil  of,  34. 

Pamber  arch,  64,  68. 
^    invisible  arch  in,  108. 

mould,  69. 

to  describe  by  mechanical 
means,  69. 

to    take    off   lengths    and 
bevels  of  courses,  68. 
Carved  work,  64. 

gauged-work,    composition 
for  setting,  60. 
Catenary  curve,  48. 
Cement- testing  machine.  10. 
Centre  for  niche  head,  81. 
Ceramic  wares,  91. 
Chalk  lime,  14. 
Chimney  bond,  34. 
Chinoncy  stacks,  34. 

wtJls  of  4^  inches,  34. 
Closer  or  Closure,  22,  31. 
Colour  in  stopping,  objection  to, 

Concrete,  2. 

for  filling  in  terxa-cotta,  8. 



Concrete,  Mr.  Keid  on,  8. 

"packing,"  7- 

proportion  of  ingredients,  8. 

quantity  of  water  in  mix- 
ing, 8. 

specitieation  of  mixing,  G. 

thickness  of,  5. 
Construction  of  arclies,  55. 
Copperas,  99. 
Coring  holes,  43. 
Counterbalance,  85. 
Coursing  joints,  50. 

mould,  52. 
Cross  joints,  21. 
Cutting-shed,  G4. 

TiEN.NETr'S    PATENT,     102. 

-*^     Development    of  soffit   of 

skew  arch,  51. 
Dipping,  63. 
Dips  in  drains,  12. 
Dip-trap,  13. 
Doors,  positions  of,  26. 
Doulton's  terra-cotta  flue  p:pes, 

Drains,  laving  of,  11. 

fall  of,  11. 

cause  of  stoppage,  12. 

ventilation  of,  12. 
Drain-pipes,  sizes  of,  13. 
1  )rawing  and  cutting  arches,  6 1. 
Dutch  bond,  37. 

advantages  claimed  for,  3S 


^    Ellipse,  to  describe,  112. 
Ellipse  Gothic  arch,  72. 

to   describe   by   cross   sec- 
tional lines,  113. 
Eaamellcd  bricks,  18. 
English  garden  wall  bond,  35. 
English  bond  in  chimney  stac  ks, 

Excavations,  2. 
Extrados,  66. 

"P.VCE   MOULD,   65,  66. 
-"-    Fan-groining,  sample  of,  60. 
Fareham  biicks,  17,  CI. 
Fire  bricks,  18. 

Fireclay,  19. 

Fireplace  for  register  stove,  44. 

Fireproof  floors,  102. 

Flat  joint  pointing,  98. 

Flashing  to  chimney-stacks,  35. 

Flat  arch,  to  find  joints  of,  106. 

Flemish,  22,  31. 

Flemish  garden  wall  bond,  35. 

Flues,  41. 

building  of,  43. 
down  draught,  12. 
disadvantage  of  too  large 
sectional  area,  42. 

Flues,  sizes  of,  44. 

Flushing,  28. 

Footings,  6,  22. 

Forcing-rods,  12. 

Furmation  of  centre  for  niche 
head,  81. 

Foundations,  1. 

Freestone  lintels,  cause  of  frac- 
turing, 48. 

GAKLET,  88. 
Gauge  of  tiles,  95,  96. 

Gauge-rod,  25. 
Gauged  work,  17,  61. 
Gault  bricks,  17. 
Geometry,  103. 
Gothic  arches,  63,  70,  71- 

to  draw  arch  bricks  of,  114. 

on  circle  arch,  77. 

vaulting,  58,  59,  GO. 

window,  89. 
Grizzles,  16. 
Groined  vaulting,  o8. 
Groimd  blue  lias,  2. 
Ground-damp,  2. 
Grouting,  28,  40. 

ni;.\Di>-G  liOXD,  28. 
Ileiring-bone  bond,  36. 
Hip  tiles,  92,  93.  96. 



Tamu,  26. 

"     Jointers,  98. 



KINO    CLOSURK,  2o. 
Kneeler,  88. 

T  AERTIXG   rp,    41. 

■*-'    Level  or  datum,  2. 

Lime,  14. 

Lines  offeree  or  thrust,  bb. 

Line  of  frontage,  3. 

Line  of  radii,  55,  57. 

Lines,  to  connect  by  means  of 

a  curve,  109. 
Lintels,  48. 
London  clay,  6. 
Lons  skew    arches,   treatment 

of,  51. 
Lump  lias,  14. 

MADE-rP    GROUND,    6. 
Malms,  17,  Gl. 
action  of  London  smoke  on, 
•Man-hole,  12. 
Mortar,  14,  28. 
Moulded  courses,  S3. 

■work,  91. 
Mullions,  74,  89. 

"^ICHK,    79. 

^^     hood,  81. 
mould,  S3. 

length  and  bevel  of  courses 
to,  82. 

Aid  ExoLisH  bond,  21. 
^     Open  soil-pipe,  12. 
Operculum  or  channel-pipe,  12. 
Oriel  window,  85.' 
Ornamental  arches,  84. 
Ornamental  brickwork,  79,  90. 
Ornamental  gable  or  pediment, 

PaA-ing.  36,  37. 
Perpends,  39. 
Philological  School,  l.'j. 
Picked  stocks,  16. 
Place  bricks,  16. 
Plain  arches,  49. 
Plan  of  skew  arch,  50. 

Plinth,  27. 
Pointing.  39,  97. 
Polychrome  bricks,  15. 
Portland  c*ment,  2,  6. 
Portland  cement  concrete,  7. 
Pressed  bricks.  20. 
Principle  of  ordinarv  skew  arch, 

Projecting  courses,  86. 
Purpose-made  brick,  57. 

QUEEN  AvXK's  style  OF  ABCUI- 
TECTURE,    79. 

revival  of,  14. 
Quoin,  4,  32. 

"DADirS-ROD,    LKXGTU     OP,     FOB 
^*-       CAMBER,    105. 

to  obtain  by  formula,  114. 
Raking  moulding.  111. 
Bed  brickwork,  14. 

to  clean  down.  100. 
Red  building  bricks.  17. 
Relie\-iDg  arches,  48. 
Eeveal,  26. 

bond  of,  27. 
Beversing  the  bond,  33. 
Right-angled  junctions,  12. 
Roman  tile,  30. 
Roofs  of  different  pitch,  94. 
Rosendalc  cement,  57. 
Ruabon  clay,  analysis,  20. 

bricks  and  tf-rra-cotta,  20. 
Rubber?,  17,  61. 
Ruskin,  inHuence    of   on    red- 
brick designs,  15. 

advocacy     of     oroameDtal 
brickwork,  90. 

SAND,   9,  14. 
Scheme,  73. 
Scheme  arch,  75. 
"Scotch,"  65. • 
Scriber,  65. 
Section -box,  84. 
mould,  78. 
Section  of  niche,  79. 
Semi-ellipse  arch,  73,  107. 
Semi  and  segmental  arches,  66. 
Semi-Gk)thic  arch,  76. 



Setting,  63,  64. 

Setting  out  and  cutting,  62. 

Setting  out  building,  2. 

Setting  out  the  bond,  26. 

Sewer  gas,  12. 

Sewers,  57. 

Sharp  bends  in  flues,  evil  oT,  42. 

Shippers,  17. 

Site,  1. 

Skew  arch,  49,  o2. 

Skewback  of  camber,  103. 

Smoky  flues,  41. 

Snapped  headers,  31,  34. 

Soakers,  35. 

Soffit-mould  of  Gothic  on  circle, 

Stacks  in  4^-inch  walla,  34. 
Staffordshire  blue  bricks,  18,  52. 
Stock  bricks,  16. 
Stookwork,  01. 
Stone  lime,  14,  63. 
Stone  strings,  28. 
Stoppins:  in  pointing,  97.  99. 
Stourbridge  fire  bricks,  19. 
String  courses,  30. 
Stuccoed  buildings,  15. 
Subsoil,  5. 
Surface  concrete,  2. 

Tailing  dowx,  86. 
-'-     Taking  oflf  bevel?,  65. 
Templates  and  strings,  30. 
Testing  cement,  10. 
Tevnham  bricks,  1 7. 
Thames  ballast,  10,  101. 
Thick  and  thin  joints,  28. 

Three-quarter  stretcher,  24,  27. 
Tiled  roof,  advantage  of,  92. 
Tiling,  92. 

characteristics  of  good,  92. 
Tile  fillet,  88. 
Tiles,  characteristics  of  good, 92. 

improved  method  of  hang- 
ing, 93. 
Timber  foundation,  57. 
T.  L.  B.  Rubbers,  CI. 
To  find  the  radius  of  any  arc  or 

arch,  114. 
Tools  for  arch  cutting,  64. 
Toothings,  39. 
Transverse  joints,  23. 
Transversing  the  courses,  65. 
Triangle,  104. 
Tuck-pointing,  97,  99. 
Tumbling  in  buttresses,  &c.,  38. 
TjTnpana  of  arches,  36,  89. 

"\'''alley  tiles,  96. 
'      Valleys.  94. 
Various  bonds,  34. 
Venetian  arch,  74. 
Voussoirs,  47,  05. 

TTTall  in  Flemish   face   and 
''      English  back,  32. 
"Washed  stocks,  16. 
Water  conduit,  56. 
Weather-jointing,  98. 
AMiito  SufTolks,  18,  62. 
Windows,  27. 
Wing  gatherings,  41,  44. 
Withes,  34,  35,  45. 

THE    END. 

PKIXTK3   BY   J.    ?.  YIETU»   AND   CO.,   LIHITXD,  CrTY   ROAD,   LDXDOJI. 

Uniform  icith  this  volume,  price  \s.  6d. 

CAL BRICKLAYING.  In  Six  Sections  :— 
General  Principles  of  Bricklaying — Arch  Draw- 
ing, Cutting,  and  Setting — DifiFerent  Kinds  of 
Pointing  —  Paving,  Tiling,  Materials — Slating 
and  Plastering — Practical  Geometry,  Mensura- 
tion, kc.  By  Adam  Hammoxd.  Illustrated  with 
Sixty- eight  \Voodcut3.  Pifth  Edition,  carefully 
Eerised,  \rith  Additions. 

"  This  is  the  work  of  a  practical  bricklayer,  and  is  intended 
for  the  junior  members  of  the  important,  if  laborious,  pro- 
fession to  which  the  author  belongs-  It  is  fall  of  details 
concerning  all  the  parts  of  the  shell  of  a  building,  firom 
foundation  to  tiles.  To  any  workman  anxious  after  improve- 
ment this  volume  will  prove  a  valuable  investment." — Iron. 

"Contains  a  considerable  amount  of  practical  information. 
with  sound  instructions  on  general  matters,  and  useful 
recipes  connected  with  both  brickwork  and  plastering." — 
BrUUh  ArchiUtt. 

"  ilr.  Hammond's  practical  treatise  will  be  found  of  great 
value  to  students." — Bmlding  Stws. 

"Any  young  bricklayer  who  reads  Mr.  Hammond's  book 
careful^  will  become  a  proficient  craftsman."  —  Englith 

7,  SiATiONEss'  Hall  Corai,  Loxoos,  E.C.